Article

Effects of Energy Drink Ingestion on Alcohol Intoxication

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research (Impact Factor: 3.21). 05/2006; 30(4):598-605. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00070.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Well-known reports suggest that the use of energy drinks might reduce the intensity of the depressant effects of alcohol. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this hypothesis.
The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of the simultaneous ingestion of an alcohol (vodka(37.5%v/v)) and an energy drink (Red Bull-3.57 mL/kg), compared with those presented after the ingestion of an alcohol or an energy drink alone. Twenty-six young healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups that received 0.6 or 1.0 g/kg alcohol, respectively. They all completed 3 experimental sessions in random order, 7 days apart: alcohol alone, energy drink alone, or alcohol plus energy drink. We evaluated the volunteers' breath alcohol concentration, subjective sensations of intoxication, objective effects on their motor coordination, and visual reaction time.
When compared with the ingestion of alcohol alone, the ingestion of alcohol plus energy drink significantly reduced subjects' perception of headache, weakness, dry mouth, and impairment of motor coordination. However, the ingestion of the energy drink did not significantly reduce the deficits caused by alcohol on objective motor coordination and visual reaction time. The ingestion of the energy drink did not alter the breath alcohol concentration in either group.
Even though the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication were less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink, these effects were not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time, as well as on the breath alcohol concentration.

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    • "Of concern, recent research has shown that drinking prior to attending nighttime entertainment districts ('pre-drinking' or 'pre-loading') may be associated with greater alcohol intake and greater likelihood of involvement in alcohol-related violence [5–7]. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol has also been shown to increase likelihood of engaging in some risky behaviours by reducing perception of intoxication [8] [9] (although see [10] for contradictory findings), with a strong body of literature also showing greater impairment and acute harms following co-ingestion of alcohol and other illicit drugs (hereafter referred to as 'simultaneous' use [11] [12] [13]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and aims: Understanding how types of alcohol consumers differ is important for public policy targeted at reducing adverse events. The aims of the present study were to identify typologies of alcohol consumers in Australian nighttime entertainment districts based on risk factors for harm and to examine variation between the identified groups in drinking setting and harms. Design and methods: Street-intercept surveys were conducted with 5556 alcohol consumers in and around licensed venues in five Australian cities between November 2011 and June 2012. Latent class analysis identified groups based on age and sex, and blood alcohol concentration, pre-drinking, energy drink use and illicit drug use during that night. Results: Four classes were identified: general patron group (33%), young pre-drinker group (27%), intoxicated male pre-drinker group (31%) and intoxicated illicit drug male group (9%). The proportion of the general patron group interviewed decreased over the night, while the other groups increased (particularly in regional cities). As compared with the general patron group, the remaining three groups reported increased odds of being involved in aggression and any alcohol-related injuries in the past 3 months, with highest rates of harm amongst the intoxicated illicit drug male group. Discussion and conclusions: Alcohol consumers in nighttime entertainment districts are not a homogeneous group. One-third have a low likelihood of risky consumption practices; however, representation of this consumer class diminishes throughout the night. Elevated harms amongst groups characterised by certain risk factors (e.g. pre-drinking and illicit drug use) emphasise the importance of addressing these behaviours in public policy. [Peacock A, Norman T, Bruno B, Pennay, Droste N, Jenkinson R, Quinn B, Lubman DI, Miller P. Typology of alcohol consumers in five Australian nighttime entertainment districts Drug Alcohol Rev 2015;00:000-000].
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Drug and Alcohol Review
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    • "Néhány laboratóriumi vizsgálat ugyanakkor kimutatta, hogy az energiaital meg tudja változtatni az alkohol néhány szubjektív és objektív ártó hatását (például reszponzív képességet), de nem az összesét (például reszponzív gátlást). Így az AmED-fogyasztás egyrészt gátolja, másrészt fokozza bizonyos viselkedések megjelenését, tehát fogyasztása talán kockázatosabb, mint önmagában az alkoholé [24] [26]. Ugyanakkor más eredmények szerint sem a véralkoholszint, sem a szubjektív érzékelések nem mutattak szignifi káns különbséget az energiaitalt és a placebo energiaitalt alkohollal keverők között [27] [28]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Orvosi Hetilap
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    • "The potential harms of mixing energy drinks (EDs) with alcohol has generated considerable public scrutiny (O'Brien et al., 2011, Pennay et al., 2011). EDs are caffeinated beverages marketed as enhancing alertness and endurance (Heckman et al., 2010), consequently the pharmacological effects of mixing alcohol and EDs (AmED) raise concerns that EDs may mask the depressant effects of alcohol, reduce perceptions of intoxication, enhance the likelihood of greater alcohol intake, and increase engagement in alcohol-related risk-taking behaviours (Ferreira et al., 2006, Weldy, 2010). With a considerable proportion of young adults reporting AmED use (49% of Australians aged 18-24 years report lifetime use; Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education, 2012), exploration of consumer motives is necessary to inform development of strategic harm minimisation efforts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous research on alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has shown that use is typically driven by hedonistic, social, functional, and intoxication-related motives, with differential associations with alcohol-related harm across these constructs. There has been no research looking at whether there are subgroups of consumers based on patterns of motivations. Consequently, the aims were to determine the typology of motivations for AmED use among a community sample and to identify correlates of subgroup membership. In addition, we aimed to determine whether this structure of motivations applied to a university student sample.Methods Data were used from an Australian community sample (n = 731) and an Australian university student sample (n = 594) who were identified as AmED consumers when completing an online survey about their alcohol and ED use. Participants reported their level of agreement with 14 motivations for AmED use; latent classes of AmED consumers were identified based on patterns of motivation endorsement using latent class analysis.ResultsA 4-class model was selected using data from the community sample: (i) taste consumers (31%): endorsed pleasurable taste; (ii) energy-seeking consumers (24%): endorsed functional and taste motives; (iii) hedonistic consumers (33%): endorse pleasure and sensation-seeking motives, as well as functional and taste motives; and (iv) intoxication-related consumers (12%): endorsed motives related to feeling in control of intoxication, as well as hedonistic, functional, and taste motives. The consumer subgroups typically did not differ on demographics, other drug use, alcohol and ED use, and AmED risk taking. The patterns of motivations for the 4-class model were similar for the university student sample.Conclusions This study indicated the existence of 4 subgroups of AmED consumers based on their patterns of motivations for AmED use consistently structured across the community and university student sample. These findings lend support to the growing conceptualization of AmED consumers as a heterogeneous group in regard to motivations for use, with a hierarchical and cumulative class order in regard to the number of types of motivation for AmED use. Prospective research may endeavor to link session-specific motives and outcomes, as it is apparent that primary consumption motives may be fluid between sessions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
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