The Utility of the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Medaka (Oryzias latipes) in Evaluation of Chemicals for Carcinogenicity

Environmental Medicine and Diseases Program and Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.85). 08/2006; 92(1):143-56. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfj181
Source: PubMed


There has been considerable interest in the use of small fish models for detecting potential environmental carcinogens. In this study, both guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed in the aquaria water to three known rodent carcinogens for up to 16 months. Nitromethane, which caused mammary gland tumors by inhalation exposure in female rats, harderian gland and lung tumors in male and female mice, and liver tumors in female mice by inhalation, failed to increase tumors in either guppies or medaka. Propanediol, which when given in the feed was a multisite carcinogen in both sexes of rats and mice, caused increased liver tumors in male guppies and male medaka. There was reduced survival in female guppies and no increased tumors in female medaka. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane, which when administered by oral gavage was a multisite carcinogen in both sexes of rats and mice, caused an increased incidence of tumors in the liver of both male and female guppies and medaka and in the gallbladder of male and female medaka. The results of this study demonstrate that for these three chemicals, under these specific exposure conditions, the fish appear less sensitive and have a narrower spectrum of tissues affected than rodents. These results suggest that fish models are of limited utility in screening unknown chemicals for potential carcinogenicity.

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    • "vertebrate animal models should be small and cheap for the chemical carcinogen investigations. Guppies are more sensitive to carcinogens and faster to perform than other animal models in carcinogenicity evaluations (Kissling et al., 2006). It has also been reported that histopathology provides useful data in characterizing toxic effects in fish (Wester and Canton, 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC(50) value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC(50) value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.
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    • "The generation time is relatively short, and fish can produce eggs regularly, hence providing a variety of developmental and reproductive endpoints for whole life cycle and multi-generation assessments. To this end, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) have been commonly used as freshwater fish models in ecotoxicological studies (Dodd et al., 2000; Castro et al., 2004; Wolf et al., 2004; Volz et al., 2005; Carter and Wilson, 2006; Kissling et al., 2006). Surprisingly, a fish model for assessing environmental stress in the marine environment has not been developed, "
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    ABSTRACT: A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5microm) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs and proteins in different tissues and subcellular compartments of a single fish. Stereological analysis (as measured by volume density, V(v)) was used to quantify ISH and IHC signals on tissue sections. Using the telomerase reverse transcriptase (omTERT) gene, omTERT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins as examples, we demonstrated that it is possible to localize, quantify and correlate their tissue expression profiles in a whole fish system. Using chronic hypoxia (1.8+/-0.2 mgO(2)L(-1) for 3 months) as an environmental stressor, we were able to identify significant alterations in levels of omTERT mRNA, omTERT protein, PCNA (cell proliferation marker) and TUNEL (apoptosis) in livers of hypoxic O. melastigma (p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that O. melastigma can serve as a model marine fish for assessing multiple in vivo molecular responses to stresses in the marine environment.
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    • "Utilization of small fishes (e.g., medaka, guppy, and zebra fish), the Ito medium-term initiation-promotion assay, the rat liver two-stage model, and the neonatal mouse model are among the alternatives that were championed by some, tested as potential alternatives, and found to yield useful information, but to be less convincing and carry less global regulatory weight than the conventional 2-year bioassay. For example, small fish models when evaluated by NTP failed to consistently predict known rodent carcinogens (Kissling et al., 2006). The NTP, together with non-governmental national and international stakeholders , championed the use of transgenic mice as alternatives to the 2-year bioassay. "

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