Ogden, C. L. et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 295, 1549-1555

National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Md 20782, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 04/2006; 295(13):1549-55. DOI: 10.1001/jama.295.13.1549
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents and obesity in adults in the United States has increased over several decades.
To provide current estimates of the prevalence and trends of overweight in children and adolescents and obesity in adults.
Analysis of height and weight measurements from 3958 children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years and 4431 adults aged 20 years or older obtained in 2003-2004 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population. Data from the NHANES obtained in 1999-2000 and in 2001-2002 were compared with data from 2003-2004.
Estimates of the prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents and obesity in adults. Overweight among children and adolescents was defined as at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific body mass index (BMI) for age growth charts. Obesity among adults was defined as a BMI of 30 or higher; extreme obesity was defined as a BMI of 40 or higher.
In 2003-2004, 17.1% of US children and adolescents were overweight and 32.2% of adults were obese. Tests for trend were significant for male and female children and adolescents, indicating an increase in the prevalence of overweight in female children and adolescents from 13.8% in 1999-2000 to 16.0% in 2003-2004 and an increase in the prevalence of overweight in male children and adolescents from 14.0% to 18.2%. Among men, the prevalence of obesity increased significantly between 1999-2000 (27.5%) and 2003-2004 (31.1%). Among women, no significant increase in obesity was observed between 1999-2000 (33.4%) and 2003-2004 (33.2%). The prevalence of extreme obesity (body mass index > or =40) in 2003-2004 was 2.8% in men and 6.9% in women. In 2003-2004, significant differences in obesity prevalence remained by race/ethnicity and by age. Approximately 30% of non-Hispanic white adults were obese as were 45.0% of non-Hispanic black adults and 36.8% of Mexican Americans. Among adults aged 20 to 39 years, 28.5% were obese while 36.8% of adults aged 40 to 59 years and 31.0% of those aged 60 years or older were obese in 2003-2004.
The prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents and obesity among men increased significantly during the 6-year period from 1999 to 2004; among women, no overall increases in the prevalence of obesity were observed. These estimates were based on a 6-year period and suggest that the increases in body weight are continuing in men and in children and adolescents while they may be leveling off in women.

Download full-text


Available from: Margaret Carroll
    • "Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group.[1234] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group. The effect of meal skipping, both behaviorally and physiologically, may have an impact on the outcome of weight-loss efforts.Aims and Objectives:Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of breakfast skipping and obesity in subjects.Materials and Methods:A retrospective analysis of the patients visited to a metabolic clinic of the city was done.Results:One hundred and eighty-six eligible subjects were included for the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection which included information regarding dietary factors and exercise schedule/physical activity. A 24-hour dietary recall method was used to assess the amount of food consumed. Anthropometric measurements were taken.Conclusion:The higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in the present study could be because of imbalance in the diet and faulty food habits prevalent in the region.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014
  • Source
    • "Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg of body weight/m2 of height) has negative effects on health and increases the risk of developing a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular syndromes, some cancers, and diabetes mellitus (Must et al., 1999; Field et al., 2001; Calle et al., 2003; Friedenberg et al., 2008). Over the past three decades, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in the USA and in Europe (Ogden et al., 2006; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk et al., 2014). Although according to the most recent data published in the 2005–2006 update of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) obesity rates have stabilized, others (Wang and Beydoun, 2007) expect that the obesity “epidemic” will only continue to worsen, with as many as 75% of Americans and of Europeans potentially being overweight in the year 2020. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The "thermoregulatory hypothesis" of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Psychology
  • Source
    • "Overweight is defined as the 85th percentile or greater, but less than the 95th percentile of BMI – for age and gender. Because of the likelihood of stigmatization associated with the term “obesity,” several leading authorities have suggested replacing the term obesity with overweight, defined as BMI above the 95th percentile, and “risk for overweight” as BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile for age and gender [see Ref. (8, 9)]. Finally, an international forum of consensus development, the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) (10), has defined childhood overweight as a BMI of approximately the 91st percentile or above and obesity as a BMI of the 99th percentile or greater for age and gender (11, 12). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Frontiers in Public Health
Show more