Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Research has revealed structural and functional differences in the brains of adult instrumental musicians compared to those of matched nonmusician controls, with intensity/duration of instrumental training and practice being important predictors of these differences. Nevertheless, the differential contributions of nature and nurture to these differences are not yet clear. The musician-nonmusician comparison is an ideal model for examining whether and, if so, where such functional and structural brain plasticity occurs, because musicians acquire and continuously practice a variety of complex motor, auditory, and multimodal skills (e.g., translating visually perceived musical symbols into motor commands while simultaneously monitoring instrumental output and receiving multisensory feedback). Research has also demonstrated that music training in children results in long-term enhancement of visual-spatial, verbal, and mathematical performance. However, the underlying neural bases of such enhancements and whether the intensity and duration of instrumental training or other factors, such as extracurricular activities, attention, motivation, or instructional methods can contribute to or predict these enhancements are yet unknown. Here we report the initial results from our studies examining the brain and cognitive effects of instrumental music training on young children in a longitudinal study and a cross-sectional comparison in older children. Further, we present a comparison of the results in these children's studies with observations from our cross-sectional studies with adults.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

Request the article directly
from the authors on ResearchGate.

... Aspectos importantes da instrução musical prendem-se com a leitura de música e a execução instrumental. Pelo facto das tarefas de leitura de música e execução instrumental solicitarem uma variedade de capacidades, a aprendizagem musical poderá conduzir a efeitos de transferência noutras áreas, tal como a prática musical aperfeiçoar o raciocínio espacial, porque a própria notação musical é espacial (Schlaug;Norton;Overy;Winner, 2005). ...
... Aspectos importantes da instrução musical prendem-se com a leitura de música e a execução instrumental. Pelo facto das tarefas de leitura de música e execução instrumental solicitarem uma variedade de capacidades, a aprendizagem musical poderá conduzir a efeitos de transferência noutras áreas, tal como a prática musical aperfeiçoar o raciocínio espacial, porque a própria notação musical é espacial (Schlaug;Norton;Overy;Winner, 2005). ...
... Aspectos importantes da instrução musical prendem-se com a leitura de música e a execução instrumental. Pelo facto das tarefas de leitura de música e execução instrumental solicitarem uma variedade de capacidades, a aprendizagem musical poderá conduzir a efeitos de transferência noutras áreas, tal como a prática musical aperfeiçoar o raciocínio espacial, porque a própria notação musical é espacial (Schlaug;Norton;Overy;Winner, 2005). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of the present work was to contribute to the literature on the benefits of music learning. Music learning develops personal, social and cognitive skills, which may in turn contribute to raise academic achievement. We asked a group of 60 students of the Escola Superior de Música e das Artes do Espectáculo do Porto what reasons led them to choose a musical career. The results indicated that their main motivation factor was to reach high levels of artistic achievement, and consequently, high levels of personal development. In order to progress in their careers, these students need great persistence, high levels of creativity and confidence, ability to experiment and to work in a team. However, besides the development of these abilities, significant correlations between music learning and cognitive development, namely the development of mathematical skills, are described on the literature. In this way, we will present studies exploring the most significant relationships between music and mathematics, more specifically between music and spatial-temporal reasoning (important in mathematical concepts). The inference is based on a group of studies which explore the effects of learning to play the keyboard on spatial-temporal reasoning, suggesting that mastering a musical instrument helps one to develop an understanding of mathematics. The existence of a correlation between music learning and mathematical achievement has important educational implications, especially as regards the inclusion or maintenance of the teaching of music in the national school curriculum.
... In line with this, studies demonstrated that MT leads to improvements in spatial abilities in pre-and elementary school children boosting their learning of specific math concepts, such as counting, proportions, and fractions (Graziano et al., 1999;Silva et al., 2017;Arias-Rodriguez et al., 2019). If MT increases spatial-visual abstract reasoning, this practice might also improve comprehension about geometry, proportional reasoning, pattern recognition, ratio fractions, and subdivisions (Vaughn, 2000;Schlaug et al., 2005). ...
... Changes in number line task after intervention are assumed as a core improvement in numerical cognition per se and associated with brain changes (Kucian et al., 2011). A plausible explanation for this result would be that the MT activities did facilitate symbolic representations (Graziano et al., 1999;Vaughn, 2000;Gromko, 2004;Schlaug et al., 2005;Nutley et al., 2014) when children were given tasks such as drawing the size or the tone of the sound. ...
... Successful performance in the vertical number line task is associated with comprehension of the connection between numerical magnitudes, ordinality, and precise number representation (Kucian et al., 2011;Käser et al., 2013) and we infer that MT stimulates this connection in children with DD (Michels et al., 2018). These outcomes indicate that MT provided a fruitful basis for children with DD to access the symbolic numbers' magnitude representation enabling learning in regular math classes, which conceivably corroborates, to some extent, the studies which used instrumental MT for number production and comprehension (Graziano et al., 1999;Vaughn, 2000;Gromko, 2004;Schlaug et al., 2005;Nutley et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Musical training (MT) is perceived as a multi-sensory program that simultaneously integrates visual, aural, oral, and kinaesthetic senses. Furthermore, MT stimulates cognitive functions in a ludic way instead of tapping straight into the traditional context of school learning. In this sense, MT might help children that thrive to handle mathematics. Nevertheless, the efficacy of MT over mathematics remains understudied, especially concerning longstanding effects. For this reason, this longitudinal study explored the effects of MT on numerical cognition and abstract visual reasoning using a double-blind and quasi-experimental design. We assessed two groups of children from primary schools, namely one with developmental dyscalculia [DD; n = 22] and another comprised typical development children [TD; n = 22], which concomitantly underwent MT at four different moments: Baseline (pre-MT assessment), mid-test (after seven weeks of MT), post-test (after 14 weeks of MT), and follow-up (10 weeks after the end of MT). Significant interactions were found between time and the groups for the numerical cognition systems, in which the DD group showed higher scores in number comprehension, number production at mid-test, and calculation at post-test compared to baseline. A key finding was that number production, number comprehension, calculation, and number line effects were time-resistant for the DD group since changes remained on follow-up. Moreover, no significant changes were found for abstract visual reasoning. In conclusion, the findings of our preliminary study showed that MT appears to be a useful tool for compensatory remediation of DD.
... Specifically, musical training (repeated instruction in music) has been found to have benefits for cognition in diverse populations, including inducing functional and structural cognitive changes (Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010). Amongst children, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown associations between music lessons and both improvements in auditory skill and in wider executive function and visual-spatial, verbal and mathematical performance (Degé et al., 2011;Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010;Schlaug et al., 2005). Similarly, amongst adults, professional musicians have been found to have enhanced cognitive function (including function specifically related to auditory perception and more general cognitive function) (Aleman et al., 2000;Schön et al., 2004), and greater gray matter both in brain regions closely linked to skills learned from musical training and those outside of these regions (including the primary sensorimotor cortex, adjacent superior premotor and anterior superior parietal cortex bilaterally, cerebellum and interior frontal gyrus) (Gaser & Schlaug, 2003). ...
... Short (20-day) online music training programs (focusing on listening activities to improve basic musical skills) have been found to improve executive function in children (Moreno et al., 2011). One-year programs of instrumental music training have been linked to increases in fine motor skill and auditory discrimination skills (Schlaug et al., 2005). Fifteen-month programs of instrumental music training have been correlated with structural brain changes along with improvements in musically relevant motor and auditory skills (Hyde et al., 2009). ...
Article
Background Music training has been found to be beneficial for young and healthy participants but the associations between musical training and the cognitive functioning of elderly participants have not been reported consistently. We examined whether lifetime musical training is associated with neuropsychological performance in a memory clinic population of older patients. Methods A total of 478 patients (54.2% female, mean age 73.70 ± 6.22, mean Mini Mental State Examination score 25 ± 3) were included in the cross-sectional analyses. All patients were referred to the memory clinic due to cognitive impairments. During the course of diagnosis, all patients underwent neuropsychological tests using the CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery. Patients provided information on whether they ever learned to play an instrument for at least five years in their life. Results Neuropsychological test results differed based on musical training ( p = .042). Overall, there were no differences in any domains of cognitive functioning, other than that patients with musical training performed worse on word list memory ( p = .008). However, this relationship varied based on the extent of cognitive impairments. Patients who were cognitively unimpaired (Mini Mental State Examination score 27–30) and had musical training showed better word list learning, whereas patients with cognitive impairments (Mini Mental State Examination score < 27) and musical training performed worse in word list learning ( p = .042) and word list recall ( p = .045). Discussion Overall, there was little evidence of associations between specific neuropsychological test results and musical training. Only in cognitively unimpaired patients was there evidence that musical training had beneficial associations. In patients with cognitive impairment, there were suggestions of negative associations with verbal memory. Future research should longitudinally investigate the beneficial effects of musical training in people with and without cognitive impairments.
... In recent years, several longitudinal studies on the development of musical skills have emerged. Two seminal brain imaging studies were conducted at Harvard University and were likely the first ones to center on children's musical development (Hyde et al., 2009;Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005). In these studies, the researchers compared the anatomy of the brains of 5-year-olds who were about to start taking lessons with the anatomy of the brains of same-aged controls. ...
... In these studies, the researchers compared the anatomy of the brains of 5-year-olds who were about to start taking lessons with the anatomy of the brains of same-aged controls. No differences were found at the beginning of the study (Schlaug et al., 2005). Fifteen months later, significant changes emerged in auditory and motor regions of the brains of child musicians (Hyde et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
In recent years, there has been an upsurge of research on music and the developing brain. As brain imaging technology becomes more sophisticated, neuroscientists have been able to gain many insights into the developing brain as it perceives and processes musical information. Yet, there is still a fair amount of “misunderstanding, misapprehension, and misapplication” (Croft J, Mind Brain Edu 5(1):5–11, p. 6, 2011) of neuroscientific research in the arts and humanities, as well as in education. In this chapter, we offer a critical review of neuromusical research conducted with children aged 0–8. The chapter is divided into four parts: (1) a brief description EEG and MRI, two brain and the main imaging techniques used with young children; (2) a review of imaging studies published in the past decade (2008–2018) concerning music and young children; (3) the main criticisms associated with the works, coming primarily from scholars in the humanities, arts, and education fields; (4) Implications for research and practice in early childhood.
... In addition, to ensure that the developmental stage of the participants' working memory and self-awareness were as similar as possible, children under 10 years of age were targeted. The sample size was determined with reference to previous studies (Schlaug et al., 2005;Tamm et al., 2010;Scott, 1992) which examined the positive impact of interventions on children's cognitive functioning. Parents contacted the first author by phone or e-mail to schedule 2 days for participation in this study. ...
... Our results suggest that music intervention may be a promising tool to train attention control in children by eliciting underlying induced oscillatory activity associated with attentional ability and neuroplasticity Thaut and Gardiner, 2014). Given that previous studies have reported similar neurological observations following long-term musical engagement (Schlaug et al., 2005(Schlaug et al., , 2009Hyde et al., 2009) neuroimaging studies are needed to examine the effects of music on brain activity and to deepen our understanding of how music improves children's cognitive function. Our findings not only provide evidence for the effectiveness of music intervention, they also provide clues toward understanding its neural mechanisms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although music has been utilized as a therapeutic tool for children with cognitive impairments, how it improves children’s cognitive function remains poorly understood. As a first step toward understanding music’s effectiveness and as a means of assessing cognitive function improvement, we focused on attention, which plays an important role in cognitive development, and examined the effect of a music intervention on children’s attention. Thirty-five children, aged 6 to 9 years, participated in this study, with data from 29 of the children being included in the analysis. A single 30-minute interactive music intervention was compared with a single 30-minute interactive video game intervention accompanied by computer-generated background music using a within-subjects repeated-measures design. Each intervention was implemented individually. Participants completed a standardized attention assessment, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, before and after both interventions to assess changes in their attentional skills. The results indicated significant improvement in attention control/switching following the music intervention after controlling for the children’s intellectual abilities, while no such changes were observed following the video game intervention. This study provides the first evidence that music interventions may be more effective than video game interventions to improve attention control in children, and furthers our understanding of the importance of music interventions for children with attention control problems.
... Rezultati ukazuju na to da su mala djeca koja su imala glazbene aktivnosti demonstrirala lakoću pokreta, bolju motoričku koordinaciju (Gruhn, 2002;Kalmar, 1982). S druge stane, učenje sviranja instrumenta omogućuje usavršavanje fine motorike (Schlaug et al., 2005), a učenici se uče samodisciplini, visoko su angaţirani u radu, uče se nositi s uspjehom i porazom (Covay & Carbonaro, 2010). Schumacher (2009) ističe da sviranje instrumenata utječe i na bolji školski uspjeh, dok Vidulin (2018) napominje kako sviranje pomaţe boljem razumijevanju glazbe, te se tom aktivnošću razvijaju glazbene vještine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Glazba je dio djetetove svakodnevice. U obitelji i u predškolskim ustanovama njezina je funkcija različita u odnosu na školu. Nastavom glazbe u školi utječe se na cjelovit razvoj učenika, što se može sagledati iz pedagoške i umjetničke perspektive. Usmjerena je prema stjecanju znanja i razvoju umijeća učenika u umjetničkom području, potiče estetski odgoj, ali i očuvanje povijesno-kulturne baštine. Domena kojom se navedeno realizira u najvećoj mjeri je slušanje i upoznavanje glazbe. S namjerom približavanja umjetničke glazbe djeci i mladima, njezina intenzivnijeg doživljavanja i razumijevanja, u radu se ukazuje na potrebu interdisciplinarnog i korelativnog odnosa glazbe s drugim predmetima, ali i glazbenih aktivnosti međusobno. Budući da je namjera autorice ukazati i na važnost osmišljavanja novih metodičkih strategija za rad u nastavi glazbe, ukratko se opisuju koncepti Stage-English-Music, model Slušanje glazbe–skladanje i Spoznajno-emocionalni pristup slušanju glazbe. Navedene strategije za osuvremenjivanje slušanja glazbe u školi temelje se na interdisciplinarnom i intradisciplinarnom povezivanju sadržaja, ovisno o tome uključuju li u rad izvanglazbene aktivnosti (npr. engleski jezik i dramski odgoj) ili se rad provodi unutar glazbenih aktivnosti poput pjevanja, sviranja, plesa s muzikološkim, ali i humanistički orijentiranim ishodima. Praksa i istraživanja ukazuju na to da osim stjecanja glazbenih znanja i razvoja glazbenih umijeća, višemodalni pristupi utječu i na holistički razvoj učenika.
... Further, structural differences have been highlighted between the brains of adult musicians and non-musicians [55,24]. Nevertheless, the development and the nature of these structural differences are not clear, but generally they affect complex motor, auditory, and multi-modal skills [48]. Indeed, musicians' neural activity changes depending on the played instrument because playing music with different instruments usually involves different sensory-motor activities, different components of the nervous system, and hierarchically organized gross and fine movements [58]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many studies in neuropsychology have highlighted that expert musicians, who started learning music in childhood, present structural differences in their brains with respect to non-musicians. This indicates that early music learning affects the development of the brain. Also, musicians’ neuronal activity is different depending on the played instrument and on the expertise. This difference can be analysed by processing electroencephalographic (EEG) signals through Artificial Intelligence models. This paper explores the feasibility to build an automatic model that distinguishes violinists from pianists based only on their brain signals. To this aim, EEG signals of violinists and pianists are recorded while they play classical music pieces and an Artificial Neural Network is trained through a cloud computing platform to build a binary classifier of segments of these signals. Our model has the best classification performance on 20 seconds EEG segments, but this performance depends on the involved musicians’ expertise. Also, the brain signals of a cellist are demonstrated to be more similar to violinists’ signals than to pianists’ signals. In summary, this paper demonstrates that distinctive information is present in the two types of musicians’ brain signals, and that this information can be detected even by an automatic model working with a basic EEG equipment.
... Dalam konteks pendidikan prasekolah, muzik dan nyanyian dilihat sebagai pembelajaran yang dapat meningkatkan motor halus kanak-kanak (Schlaug et al., 2005). Motor halus kanak-kanak meningkat melalui latihan instrumen (yang merupakan pengalaman motor kanak-kanak yang kebiasaannya bermula pada peringkat awal). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Muzik dan nyanyian merupakan salah satu pendekatan yang digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran (P&P) prasekolah. Kepentingan muzik dan nyanyian dilihat mampu mempertingkatkan pelbagai aspek perkembangan dan kemahiran kanak-kanak. Melalui muzik dan nyanyian juga, tingkahlaku yang positif di kalangan kanak-kanak dapat dipupuk. Bukan sahaja pendekatan ini sesuai digunakan dalam sesi pengajaran dan pembelajaran, muzik dan nyanyian juga boleh digunapakai dalam pelbagai aspek pengurusan kelas prasekolah. Kertas konsep ini membincangkan kepentingan muzik dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran (P&P) prasekolah dan penggunaan muzik dan nyanyian dalam bilik darjah oleh guru.
... While no literature, to my knowledge, has directly investigated this relationship, previous works on brain plasticity and early music training provide some hints to understand this finding. Some non-musical effects of music learning, including empathy, are thought to be more robust in the early years of life when the brain is still plastic (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008;Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005). Particularly, language capacities and social-cognitive abilities are known to dramatically increase at about the age of 5, which coincides with an acceleration of children's cognitive empathy development (McDonald & Messinger, 2011). ...
Article
A small music ensemble represents a unique form of human social activity, involving a highly complex set of interpersonal communicative skills. To achieve a joint musical goal, ensemble performers actively strive to reach out to the “other,” by sensitively attending to, and aligning their emotions with, those of their co-performers. This suggests that engagement in small music ensembles may be a fruitful domain to cultivate the habit of empathizing. The current study explored the relationship between college music students’ small ensemble experiences and their empathy skills. Undergraduate music performance majors in their senior year ( N = 165) voluntarily completed an online survey that included questions about their background and participation in and attitudes toward small ensembles. They also completed a self-assessment questionnaire that measured their dispositional empathy levels. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that students’ levels of participation in various small ensemble activities significantly predicted their empathy skills, even after controlling for the effect of personal factors. Personality also appeared to play a significant role in predicting music students’ empathy skills.
... A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that musical training and experience have positive effects not just on speech and auditory processing (Magne et al., 2006;Hyde et al., 2009;Kraus and Chandrasekaran, 2010), but on cognitive and reading tasks as well. Musical training improves verbal memory after brief (20 days of training; Moreno et al., 2011) as well as prolonged training periods (13-15 months; Schlaug et al., 2005;Forgeard et al., 2008;Jakobson et al., 2008;Roden et al., 2012). Musical training also increases the neural response to syntax errors in spoken sentences (Jentschke and Koelsch, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Music education is associated with increased speech perception abilities and anecdotal evidence suggests musical training is also beneficial for performance in a variety of academic areas. In spite of this positive association, very little empirical evidence exists to support this claim except for a few studies linking musical training to improvements in verbal tasks. We evaluated the relationships between specific aspects of musical training/ability and scores on a series of standardized reading assessments in a sample of twins. There was a significant and positive relationship between self-reported sight-reading ability for sheet music and performance on passage comprehension – a standardized reading measure that relies on decoding and working memory. This effect was specific to sight reading ability, as other musical variables, such as number of years of practice or music theory, were not related to performance on this reading measure. Surprisingly, the verbal working memory ability we tested did not mediate this relationship. To determine whether there is a genetic component to these skills, we compared these relationships in pairs of monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins. Interestingly, intraclass correlations (ICCs) for sight reading and passage comprehension were both higher in monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins, though this effect was larger for passage comprehension than for sight reading. These results together suggest a familial and potentially partially shared inherited mechanism for success in both musical sight-reading ability and passage comprehension.
... Practicing a complex instrument regularly and actively over extended periods of time may provoke positive transfer effects on basic and higher order cognition as well as on sensorimotor skill in children (Bergman Nutley, Darki, & Klingberg, 2014;Costa-Giomi, 2004;Martins, Neves, Rodrigues, Vasconcelos, & Castro, 2018;Moreno et al., 2011;Roden, Kreutz, & Bongard, 2012;Schellenberg, 2004Schellenberg, , 2006Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005;Tierney, Krizman, & Kraus, 2015). Some studies even suggest long-term effects of musical practice during childhood (Balbag, Pedersen, & Gatz, 2014;Hanna-Pladdy & MacKay, 2011;Moreno, Lee, Janus, & Bialystok, Available evidence of beneficial musical practice effects on cognitive child development predominantly concerns children of parents with a high socioeconomic and educational background (Corrigall & Schellenberg, 2015) and typically results from private lessons. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This randomized controlled trial shows for the first time that focused musical instrumental practice as compared to traditional sensitization to music provokes robust cognitive and sensorimotor transfer effects. Over the last two years of primary school (10-12-year-old children), sixty-nine children received biweekly musical instruction by professional musicians within the regular school curriculum. The intervention group learned to play string instruments, whereas the control group, peers in parallel classes, was sensitized to music via listening, theory, and some practice. Broad benefits manifested in the intervention group as compared to the control group for working memory, attention, processing speed, cognitive flexibility, matrix reasoning, sensorimotor hand function and bimanual coordination Apparently, learning to play a complex instrument in a dynamic group setting impacts development much stronger than classical sensitization to music. Our results therefore highlight the added value of intensive musical instrumental training in a group setting, encouraging general implementation in public primary schools, better preparing children for secondary school and for daily living activities.
... Esto se debe a la activación de estructuras cerebrales corticales y subcorticales del cerebro (Justel y Diaz Abrahan, 2012), y también al aumento en la conectividad entre diferentes áreas del encéfalo (Klein, Franziskus, Jurgen, Elmer, y Jancke, 2016). Estos cambios en la dinámica cerebral se reflejan, en última instancia, en el rendimiento y el desempeño cognitivo de las personas, tanto en aquellas funciones relacionadas directamente con la música, como lo es, por ejemplo el reconocimiento del contorno melódico o de secuencias interválicas (Fujioka, Trainor, Ross, Kakigi, y Pantev, 2004), como así también en funciones alejadas de lo musical, como por ejemplo el lenguaje (Schlaug, Norton, Overy, y Winner, 2005), el razonamiento matemático (Vaughn, 2000) o la atención (Wang, Ossher, y Reuter-Lorenz, 2015), entre otras. Sobre esta segunda línea, denominada trasferencia lejana de la música, algunos estudios se han centrado en la memoria, entendida como la función que permite el almacenamiento de información aprendida que será evocada posteriormente con objetivos y demandas particulares (Squire, 1987). ...
Article
Full-text available
En los últimos años, los estudios sobre el efecto cognitivo de la música, se han focalizado en la búsqueda de actividades y estimulaciones que permitan modular las funciones cognitivas, entre ellas la memoria. El objetivo del presente artículo fue indagar el efecto del aprendizaje musical y el uso de intervenciones musicales focales sobre la memoria de tipo verbal, para lo cual se contó con la participación voluntaria de adultos jóvenes músicos y no músicos, los cuales aprendieron una lista de palabras, seguido de la participación en una actividad musical de reproducción o improvisación musical, contando con un grupo control de descanso. Finalmente, se evaluó la memoria a través de dos tareas de evocación (recuerdo libre y reconocimiento) de manera inmediata y diferida (7 días después). Los resultados obtenidos, a través del análisis de covarianza, indicaron que las propuestas musicales modularon positivamente la memoria, encontrando diferencias entre la reproducción y la improvisación musical. Por otra parte, se halló que las personas consideradas músicos exhibieron un mejor rendimiento en la tarea mnémica. Estos hallazgos permiten identificar las potencialidades de la música, específicamente el aprendizaje musical y la exposición a propuestas focales, como moduladores de la cognición humana.
... An example of this model is when a musician in training uses the Suzuki method of learning a violin, "by ear." Children receiving the Suzuki music training have shown greater growth in manual dexterity and music perception skills (Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study examines the lived experiences of five music instrumentalists from Mountain View College. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. Five themes emerged regarding participants’ experiences that include:(1) challenging experiences to one’s skill,(2) concentration on a task,(3) high levels of personal and performance satisfaction,(4) deep learning and experiencing the “flow,” and (5) uncovering inner emotions. Themes were analyzed from the music instrumentalists’ experiences through the theoretical lenses of the Flow theory. The participant’s experiences’ served as a jumpstart to the discussions about the actual and perceived values of the musicians’ life. It is concluded that Flow or “in the zone” moment, the optimal psychological state, musical activities that challenge their skill level, immersion and concentrated focus on the task, in deep learning, and high levels of personal music performance and satisfaction were all experienced by the participant. It is then recommended that the research participants and musically inclined students be continually provided with all opportunities, music facilities, and a supportive environment to help them experience in-depth learning that would make their talents grow.
... However, these changes observed after training were not predicted by pre-existing biological traits, including the AC volume. Furthermore, previous studies with children have found that short periods of musical training during childhood can improve children's discrimination of simple tones and melodies (Hyde et al. 2009;Habibi et al. 2016) and neural processing of musical sounds and pitches (Shahin et al. 2004;Schlaug et al. 2005;Fujioka et al. 2006;Besson et al. 2007;Putkinen et al. 2014). However, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate, in children, the relationship between GM volume and pitch discrimination ability before musical training begins, that is, the predisposing morphometric characteristics of good pitch discrimination. ...
Article
Individual differences in pitch discrimination have been associated with the volume of both the bilateral auditory cortex and the right inferior frontal gyrus. However, most of these studies used samples composed of individuals with different amounts of musical training. Here, we investigated the relationship between pitch discrimination and individual differences in the gray matter volume of these brain structures in 32 adult musicians, 32 adult non-musicians, and 32 children without musical training. The results showed that (i) the individuals without musical training (whether children or adults) who were better at pitch discrimination had greater volume of auditory regions, whereas (ii) musicians with better pitch discrimination had greater volume of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). These results suggest that the relationship between pitch discrimination and the volume of auditory regions is innately established early in life, and that musical training modulates the volume of the inferior frontal gyrus, (probably) improving audiomotor connectivity. This is the first study to detect a relationship between pitch discrimination ability and gray matter volume before beginning any musical training in children and adults.
... These cognitive abilities focus on control and regulation of behaviors and thoughts. Neurological bases of EFs have been identified whereby the frontal lobe is hypothesized to be particularly salient in EFs (Miyake et al., 2000;Stuss & Alexander, 2000); relatedly, music training in childhood and/or early adolescence have been found to be related to lasting changes to neurological regions, including the corpus callosum, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus (e.g., Steele, Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, 2013;Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005). EFs are wide-ranging and interrelated, yet the core competencies typically include: inhibition (i.e., self-regulation), updating (i.e., information monitoring and relations with working memory), and switching/shifting (i.e., flexibility of changing between tasks; Diamond, 2013). ...
... Making music speak: The effects of the 'Tuning In' music program upon preschool children's oral language skills Vygotsky's sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978) Hickok & Poeppel's dual stream model of speech Dorsal stream Ventral stream (Hickok, 2014;Hickok, Buchsbaum, Humphries & Muftuler, 2003;Hickok & Poeppel, 2004, 2015 Neuroscience research: Children learning music u Pre-existing differences? (Schlaug, Norton, Overy & Winner, 2005) u Brain networks -music & language processing (Koelsch, Fritz, Schulze, Alsop & Schlaug, 2005) u Processing of speech syllables, auditory attention & working memory (Strait, O'Connell, Parbery-Clarke & Kraus, 2014) u Beat synchronisation & reading readiness (Woodruff Carr, White-Schwoch, Tierney, Strait & Kraus, 2014) u Rhythm & beat activities -self-regulation (Williams, 2018) © Allison Cameron 2019 ...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation outlined the quantitative and qualitative results of the Making Music Speak study. A quasi-experiment was conducted in four early childhood education and care centres situated in low-socioeconomic status areas. A five-month music intervention was implemented in two centres, using the Tuning In music program. A qualitative multiple case study, where each Tuning In centre formed a case, was also conducted. Strong quantitative and qualitative results suggested that music programs similar to Tuning In, delivered in early childhood settings, could be used to help promote children's language abilities, particularly for children at risk of language delays or disabilities. Children engaged readily with the Tuning In program, which also complemented social and behavioural goals for children attending the centres.
... To musicians, as is the case with athletes, it may be the "groove" of rhythmic actions that generates the pleasurable experiences that compel individuals to move and, in turn, help predict and interpret the proprioceptive inputs from their movements. Data obtained from cross-sectional research and longitudinal studies suggest that music training has the potential to improve mental processes such as language acquisition and reading (Carr, White-Schwoch, Tierney, Strait, & Krause, 2014;Thomson & Goswami, 2008), verbal recall and reasoning skills (Forgeard, Winner, Norton, & Schlaug, 2008;Franklin, Moore, Yip, & Jonides, 2008), vocabulary skills (Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005), and spatial skills (See reviews by Hetland, 2000;Vaughn, 2000). Neuropsychological studies also provide indirect support for relationships among music training, brain plasticity, and cognition (see reviews by Asbury & Rich, 2008;Schlaug, 2015;Wan & Schlaug, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise training is widely promoted as a method to enhance both physical health and cognitive function. Although routine exercise engenders physiological adaptations to the body and brain, its effects on mental processing are uncertain. Our review of the experimental evidence reveals that acknowledging the role of skill acquisition may help clarify the exercise– cognition relation. Instructional methods that optimize physical and mental challenge provide the conditions necessary to produce long-term changes in the way individuals process information, make decisions, select movements, and experience the consequences of actions. Main conclusions drawn by intersecting theory-based research on the linkages between chronic exercise and cognitive function and research on the associations of both sport and performance arts with cognitive function are as follows: (1) Exercise may be but one of many types of movement activities that can benefit cognition; (2) the process of skill acquisition provides a parsimonious explanation for outcomes across exercise, sport, and performing art studies; (3) the allocation of mental resources required during skill acquisition, independently from or interactively with the level of physical energy expenditure, is essential for reaping the largest cognitive benefits; and (4) cognitive benefits obtained via skill-acquisition interventions are enduring. This review also highlights issues that call for future research to provide convergent evidence for the relation between skill training and cognition; the inclusion of outcome measures other than executive functions; and a naturalistic translational approach to complement controlled experiments in chronic exercise and cognition and skill learning research.
... V našej štúdii sme preukázali, že hudobný tréning zmenšuje stupeň asymetrie hemisfér pre verbálne funkcie u mužov z pôvodne mužského vzoru (vysoký stupeň asymetrie) na ženský (menší stupeň asymetrie), čo by sa podľa nášho predpokladu malo prejaviť lepším výkonom vo verbálnych schopnostiach. Tento predpoklad sa ukazuje ako správny, pretože existuje niekoľko štúdií, ktoré (bez ohľadu na asymetrie hemisfér) zistili u hudobníkov zlepšenie verbálnych schopností (Hassler, 1990;Schlaug et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Pojem „funkčná asymetria hemisfér“ vyjadruje, že ľavá a pravá mozgová hemisféra sa odlišujú v spôsobe spracovania informácií a vzťahuje na rozdielnu aktiváciu ľavej alebo pravej hemisféry pri spracovaní rôznych podnetov. V príspevku sa zameriavame sa na metodologické otázky skúmania problematiky funkčnej asymetrie a uvádzame vlastný príspevok k metódam výskumu v tejto oblasti. Podrobne opíšeme naše výskumy interferencie zrakovej a sluchovej pozornosti vo vzťahu k funkčnej asymetrii. Opíšeme vplyv pohlavných hormónov na funkčnú asymetriu hemisfér a poukážeme na rozdielnu funkčnú asymetriu pre verbálne podnety u mužov a žien. Poukážeme na to, že funkčná asymetria hemisfér a s ňou spojené fungovanie psychiky sa vekom mení, pričom zmeny nastávajú nielen v detstve, ale i v období dospelosti. Poukážeme tiež na to, že funkčná asymetria hemisfér sa mení vplyvom hudobnej skúsenosti (čo podľa našich vedomostí doteraz nebolo zohľadňované v psychologickej teórii) a je preukázateľne odlišná u osôb s poruchami učenia. Na záver predstavíme model cirkulárne kauzálneho pôsobenia neuronálnych mechanizmov na kognitívne procesy a správanie v sociálnom kontexte.
... Plastic changes in multisensory integration and strengthening connections between brain regions may also have an effect beyond the most relevant musical related regions, such as the mirror neuron system [37], reward system [38], and subcortical hippocampus [8]. In the light of previous analyses across multiple systems, one may postulate that primary systems are more associated with musical training induced plasticity. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human brain works in a form of network architecture in which dynamic modules and subgraphs were considered to enable efficient information communication supporting diverse brain functions from fixed anatomy. Previous study demonstrated musical training induced flexible node assignment changes of visual and auditory systems. However, how the dynamic subgraphs change with musical training still remains largely unknown. Here, 29 novices healthy young adults who received 24-week piano training, and another 27 novices without any intervention were scanned at three time points—before and after musical training, and 12 weeks after training. We used nonnegative matrix factorization to identify a set of subgraphs and their corresponding time-dependent coefficients from a concatenated functional network of all subjects in sliding time windows. The energy and entropy of the time-dependent coefficients were computed to quantify the subgraph’s dynamic changes in expression. The musical training group showed significantly increased energy of time-dependent coefficients of 3 subgraphs after training. Furthermore, one of the subgraphs, comprised of primary functional systems and cingulo-opercular task control and salience systems, showed significantly changed entropy in the training group after training. Our results suggest that interaction of functional systems undergoes significant changes in their fine-scale dynamic after a period of musical training.
... Listening to rhythmic sequences such as music increases connectivity in extensive reciprocal cortico-subcortical projections (Bhattacharya & Petsche, 2005;Ohnishi et al., 2001) and induces cortico-cortical coherence in auditory and motor areas (Fujioka et al., 2012;Nozaradan, 2014). Studies have also demonstrated that engaging in active music-making increases connectivity in the sensorimotor cortex (Lee & Noppeney, 2011;Pascual-Leone, 2001) and induces cortical plasticity in several brain regions, including those areas involved in motor control and optimizing the acquisition of sensory information, such as the superior temporal sulcus-premotor-cerebellar circuitry (Luft et al., 2004;Schlaug et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
From neuroimaging and behavioral research investigating the unique relation between music and preserved cognitive skills to the clinical use of music to mediate the developmental and therapeutic processes, music has played a prominent role in clinical and research literature on autism spectrum disorder. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of clinical research in the area of music-based intervention for autism. We start outlining recent neuroimaging and behavioral research investigating the unique relation between music and preserved cognitive skills in autism. The next sections discuss key concepts underlying Neurologic Music Therapy and the impact of the neuroscience model for clinical and research practices. The discussion of the current state of clinical research is centered on results from controlled clinical studies investigating the effects of music-based interventions to address core features of autism, such as communication, social, and emotional skills. To conclude, we discuss new directions to expand the clinical scope of music-based interventions, including under-researched functions such as motor and attention control. ** This publication is available online at https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-13027-5_20 and https://nmtacademy.files.wordpress.com/2019/05/thaut-braunjanzen2019_chapter_neurologicmusictherapy.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1cUOcS5lMRPlFvSHDM_djbKnf2Rw9jzEYr8weVqH6lrKmjdJUVKmOUSt8
... As shown in Mongelli et al. (2017) in musicians, the M region is larger (orange dotted line) and the W region is slightly displaced (blue arrow). not) have been associated with many cognitive benefits in both development and aging (Barrett et al., 2013;Criscuolo et al., 2019;Herholz and Zatorre, 2012;Hyde et al., 2009;J€ ancke, 2009;Johansson, 2011;Moreno et al., 2011;Schlaug et al., 2005;Sluming et al., 2007Sluming et al., , 2002; but see also Gobet, 2020, 2017 for meta-anlyses with small to null effects of musical training on cognitive development). White-matter plasticity induced by music practice or music listening, possibly supported by increased synchronization during music listening (Alluri et al., 2017;King et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019), could be a potential mechanism for cognitive transfer to general domains and neuro-protective effects in aging (Elmer and J€ ancke, 2018;Kühnis et al., 2014;Strong and Mast, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Musical score reading and word reading have much in common, from their historical origins to their cognitive foundations and neural correlates. In the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT), the specialization of the so-called Visual Word Form Area for word reading has been linked to its privileged structural connectivity to distant language regions. Here we investigated how anatomical connectivity relates to the segregation of regions specialized for musical notation or words in the VOT. In a cohort of professional musicians and non-musicians, we used probabilistic tractography combined with task-related functional MRI to identify the connections of individually defined word- and music-selective left VOT regions. Despite their close proximity, these regions differed significantly in their structural connectivity, irrespective of musical expertise. The music-selective region was significantly more connected to posterior lateral temporal regions than the word-selective region, which, conversely, was significantly more connected to anterior ventral temporal cortex. Furthermore, musical expertise had a double impact on the connectivity of the music region. First, music tracts were significantly larger in musicians than in non-musicians, associated with marginally higher connectivity to perisylvian music-related areas. Second, the spatial similarity between music and word tracts was significantly increased in musicians, consistently with the increased overlap of language and music functional activations in musicians, as compared to non-musicians. These results support the view that, for music as for words, very specific anatomical connections influence the specialization of distinct VOT areas, and that reciprocally those connections are selectively enhanced by the expertise for word or music reading.
... For example, music education researchers sometimes distinguish between school music students and those students not enrolled in school music classes based upon class enrollment data from school transcripts (Butzlaff, 2000;Elpus, 2013Elpus, , 2014Elpus & Abril, 2011;Fitzpatrick, 2006;Kinney, 2008;Stewart, 1991;Wallick, 1998). Other researchers have classified adolescents based on their music training: formal music training or no formal music training (Butzlaff, 2000;Corrigall & Trainor, 2011;Costa-Giomi, 1999, 2004Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010;Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005;Wong, Skoe, Russo, Dees, & Kraus, 2007). Such dichotomous classifications, while not without theoretical justification, may shroud meaningful variations of music participation within a study population (Rickard & Chin, 2017). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to design and test the content and construct validity of a self-report measure of adolescent music participation. A questionnaire was designed to assess adolescent music participation in three domains (i.e., formal, nonformal, and informal) with each domain addressing creative, performative and responsive musical activities. The questionnaire's construct validity was tested using a multiple indicators-multiple causes confirmatory factor analysis (MIMIC CFA). The sample involved two rounds of data collection consisting of high school students in grades 9-12 (round 1, N = 219; round 2, N = 575). Results from the MIMIC CFA indicated the model with the best fit to the data was dimensionalized by five modes of music participation, namely: (1) formal performing, (2) nonformal performing, (3) informal performing, (4) informal creating and (5) informal responding. This initial investigation provides preliminary evidence for an effective theoretical framework for measuring music participation (Domains of Music Learning) and content and construct validity of a self-report measure for adolescent music participation.
... In addition, it has been reported that early music experiences can have a beneficial impact on a wide range of developmental features embracing cognitive, emotional, physical, and social domains. Example studies include those by Bengtsson et al. (2005), Chen et al. (2012), Creech et al. (2016), Dingle et al. (2012), Eerola and Eerola (2013), Forgeard et al. (2008), Fujioka et al. (2006), Gaser and Schlaug (2003), Gordon et al. (2015), Habib et al. (2016), Halwani et al. (2011), Hetland (2000), Ho et al. (2003), Hyde et al. (2009), Knight et al. (2016), Masataka and Perlovsky (2012), Moreno and Besson (2006), Moreno et al. (2009), Nutley et al. (2014, Osborne et al. (2016), Pantev et al. (2001), Paulson et al. (2013), Rickard et al. (2010), Roden et al. (2012), Saunders et al. (2014), Schlaug et al. (2005), Seinfeld et al. (2013), Tierney et al. (2013), Trappe (2012), , Welch et al. (2015), Wetter et al. (2009), andWilliams et al. (2015). For overviews of such impacts, see Hallam (2015), Schlaug (2015), Silvia et al. (2016) and-for a more discursive narrative-see Henriksson-Macauley (2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the findings of a study that aimed to identify the music beliefs and values of educators in early childhood education and care settings in Australia. The aims of the study were 2-fold: to adapt and pilot a survey of music beliefs and values which might be implemented subsequently nationally in childcare settings; and, secondly, to identify the music beliefs and values held by early childhood and care educators concerning music in children's learning. The research questions that guided this component of the study were: What is the profile of early childhood and care educators? What beliefs and values for music engagement are held by early childhood and care educators? What shapes early childhood and care educators' music beliefs and values? Findings indicated that educators' beliefs and values on all items are above the mid-point indicating overall positive attitudes toward music despite the majority having no formal qualifications in music or a history of instrumental performance and/or singing. Given the overall positive attitudes toward music we suggest there is enormous potential within this population for further professional learning and development targeted at music and its potential wider benefits in young children's learning and lives.
... Music also increases recall in memory and visual imagery. Overall, learning to play an instrument also promotes some motor and coordination skills, creating deep and permanent changes in the brain (Schlaug et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Some recent studies have highlighted a link between a favorable childhood environment and the strengthening of neuronal resilience against the changes that occur in natural aging neurodegenerative disease. Many works have assessed the factors – both internal and external – that can contribute to delay the phenotype of an ongoing neurodegenerative brain pathology. At the crossroads of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, these relationships are unified by the concept of cognitive reserve (CR). This review focuses on the protective effects of maintaining this CR through the cognitive aging process, and emphasizes the most essential time in life for the development and strengthening of this CR. The in-depth study of this research shows that early stimulation with regard to social and sensory interactions, contributes to the proper development of cognitive, affective and psychosocial capacities. Childhood thus appears to be the most active phase in the development of CR, and as such we hypothesize that this constitutes the first essential period of primary prevention of pathological aging and loss of cognitive capacities. If this hypothesis is correct, early stimulation of the environment would therefore be considered as a true primary prevention and a public health issue. The earlier identification of neurodevelopmental disorders, which can affect personal and professional development across the lifespan, could therefore have longer-term impacts and provide better protection against aging.
... These results contribute new knowledge that allows us to better understand how the developing brain is influenced by the achievement of this complex ability. Longitudinal studies on groups paired for general demographics before training suggest that musical training has a "nurture" effect on development and brain plasticity (Schlaug et al., 2005;Kraus et al., 2014;Putkinen et al., 2015;Habibi et al., 2017). Our cross-sectional design does not allow us to address whether there were differences in attention and WM prior to musical training. ...
Article
Full-text available
Attention and working memory (WM) are core components of executive functions, and they can be enhanced by training. One activity that has shown to improve executive functions is musical training, but the brain networks underlying these improvements are not well known. We aimed to identify, using functional MRI (fMRI), these networks in children who regularly learn and play a musical instrument. Girls and boys aged 10-13 with and without musical training completed an attention and WM task while their brain activity was measured with fMRI. Participants were presented with a pair of bimodal stimuli (auditory and visual) and were asked to pay attention only to the auditory, only to the visual, or to both at the same time. The stimuli were afterward tested with a memory task in order to confirm attention allocation. Both groups had higher accuracy on items that they were instructed to attend, but musicians had an overall better performance on both memory tasks across attention conditions. In line with this, musicians showed higher activation than controls in cognitive control regions such as the fronto-parietal control network during all encoding phases. In addition, facilitated encoding of auditory stimuli in musicians was positively correlated with years of training and higher activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus, structures that support the phonological loop. Taken together, our results elucidate the neural dynamics that underlie improved bimodal attention and WM of musically trained children and contribute new knowledge to this model of brain plasticity.
... La réorganisation corticale de la représentation des doigts est d'autant plus prononcée que le musicien a commencé à pratiquer de son instrument jeune. Des études concernant des musiciens adultes, qui pratiquent le piano depuis l'enfance, ont mis en évidence un faisceau pyramidal mieux structuré par rapport à une population n'ayant pas reçu un tel entraînement (Schmitthorst et al., 2002 ;Schlaug et al., 2005). Ce faisceau permet de véhiculer, par l'intermédiaire des neurones moteurs, les informations du cortex cérébral vers la moelle. ...
Thesis
Le développement des traitements non pharmacologiques est, à l’heure actuelle, un axe privilégié dans la prise en charge de la maladie d’Alzheimer (MA). Afin d’étayer les données de la littérature concernant l’influence de la musique sur la mémoire autobiographique, nous avons construit un paradigme d’évaluation, les « musiques-indices », par analogie à la méthode des « mots-indices ». Cette méthode nous a permis de mettre en évidence des résultats originaux concernant la qualité des souvenirs retrouvés par les sujets atteints de MA grâce aux « musiques-indices ». Puis, nous avons poursuivi par 2 autres études sur les récits de souvenirs en nous centrant sur des analyses psycho-linguistiques. La première concerne une étude de groupe pour lequel nous avons analysé les récits de souvenirs d’après leur construction (catégorie de mots et style de discours utilisés). Les résultats ne témoignent pas d’une construction différente entre les 2 modalités (mots et musiques-indices). Les résultats nous permettent seulement d’objectiver les troubles du langage des patients. En revanche, privilégiant une description de cas pour la troisième étude, nous avons pu questionner une amélioration de la pragmatique du discours dans le contexte musical. Enfin, le dernier objectif était de développer une étude comparant la remédiation musicale à la remédiation cognitive plus standard dans un essai randomisé-contrôlé. Les résultats attestent de bénéfices cognitifs et comportementaux qui sont plus marqués à la suite des séances de remédiation musicale. Ces séances ont également pu montrer une amélioration de la communication sur le versant de la pragmatique venant corroborer l’hypothèse émise lors des études 2 et 3. Nos travaux ont donc permis de préciser des données scientifiques concernant l’influence de la musique sur les compétences de mémoire autobiographique, ainsi que d’ouvrir des perspectives de son influence sur les capacités de communication et en particulier la pragmatique du langage. Nos méthodes (techniques des « musiques-indices » et la remédiation musicale) ont des implications thérapeutiques directes qui peuvent être utilisées en pratique clinique.
... A plausible explanation for the better performance of musicians is that there are cerebral adaptations as a product of music training, which in turn enhance cognitive functions (Benz et al. 2016;Delogu et al. 2019;Justel and Diaz 2012;Zatorre et al. 2007;Zhao et al. 2017;Zuk et al. 2014). Neuroimaging studies showed that musical learning generated greater activation of the temporal planum and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, areas involved in verbal processing (Taylor and Dewhurst 2017;Schlaug et al. 2005). Along the same lines, Patel (2003) suggested that although these two types of representations (words vs music) are stored in different neuronal substrates, the processing could share neural networks, and in this sense music training could induce changes in the neuronal circuits related to verbal memory. ...
Article
Normal age-related declines have been reported in different cognitive functions, such as episodic memory. Some environmental factors have the potential to reduce cognitive decline and promote healthy aging. In this research, we employed musical improvisation as a focal music-based intervention to explore its effects as a modulator of verbal memory. We evaluated two types of verbal memory: a neutral one, employing the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Study 1), and an emotional one, implementing the Spanish version of Affective Norms for English Words (Study 2) in a volunteer group of older adults. After the acquisition of neutral (Study 1) or emotional (Study 2) verbal information, the participants were exposed to musical improvisation (experimental condition) or two control conditions (rhythmic reproduction as a musically active control condition or a rest condition as a passive control condition) for 3 min. Then, memory was evaluated through two memory tasks (immediate and deferred free-recall and recognition tests). In both studies, we compared memory performance among musicians (with five or more years of music training) and non-musicians. We found a significant improvement in neutral verbal memory among participants involved in musical improvisation, who remembered more words than those in the control conditions. Differences were also found according to the musical experience of the sample, with musicians outperforming non-musicians. The current research supports the late-life cognitive benefits of music-based intervention and music training.
... As such, encouraging musical expression may be crucial to support the social and emotional development of human beings, be they musicians, or non-musicians. Notions are as diverse as empathy [Altenmüller et al., 2013], attention [Hannon and Trainor, 2007], adaptation [Schlaug et al., 2005], self-esteem [Henderson, 1983], or creativity [Sawyer, 2014]. ...
Thesis
Music is a cultural and creative practice that enables humans to express a variety of feelings and intentions through sound. Machine learning opens many prospects for designing human expression in interactive music systems. Yet, as a Computer Science discipline, machine learning remains mostly studied from an engineering sciences perspective, which often exclude humans and musical interaction from the loop of the created systems.In this dissertation, I argue in favour of designing with machine learning for interactive music systems. I claim that machine learning must be first and foremost situated in human contexts to be researched and applied to the design of interactive music systems. I present four interdisciplinary studies that support this claim, using human-centred methods and model prototypes to design and apply machine learning to four situated musical tasks: motion-sound mapping, sonic exploration, synthesis exploration, and collective musical interaction.Through these studies, I show that model prototyping helps envision designs of machine learning with human users before engaging in model engineering. I also show that the final human-centred machine learning systems not only helps humans create static musical artifacts, but supports dynamic processes of expression between humans and machines. I call co-expression these processes of musical interaction between humans—who may have an expressive and creative impetus regardless of their expertise—and machines—whose learning abilities may be perceived as expressive by humans.In addition to these studies, I present five applications of the created model prototypes to the design of interactive music systems, which I publicly demonstrated in workshops, exhibitions, installations, and performances. Using a reflexive approach, I argue that the musical contributions enabled by such design practice with machine learning may ultimately complement the scientific contributions of human-centred machine learning. I claim that music research can thus be led through dispositif design, that is, through the technical realization of aesthetically-functioning artifacts that challenge cultural norms on computer science and music.
... Practicing a complex instrument regularly and actively over extended periods of time may provoke positive transfer effects on basic and higher order cognition as well as on sensorimotor skills in children (Costa-Giomi, 2004;Schellenberg, 2004Schellenberg, , 2006Palac and Sogin, 2005;Schlaug et al., 2005;Moreno et al., 2011;Roden et al., 2012;Bergman Nutley et al., 2014;Seither-Preisler et al., 2014;Tierney et al., 2015;Martins et al., 2018). Some studies even suggest long-term effects of musical practice during childhood (Schellenberg, 2006;Hanna-Pladdy and Mackay, 2011;White-Schwoch et al., 2013;Balbag et al., 2014;Moreno et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This cluster randomized controlled trial provides evidence that focused musical instrumental practice, in comparison to traditional sensitization to music, provokes multiple transfer effects in the cognitive and sensorimotor domain. Over the last 2 years of primary school (10–12 years old), 69 children received group music instruction by professional musicians twice a week as part of the regular school curriculum. The intervention group learned to play string instruments, whereas the control group (i.e., peers in parallel classes) was sensitized to music via listening, theory and some practice. Broad benefits manifested in the intervention group as compared to the control group for working memory, attention, processing speed, cognitive flexibility, matrix reasoning, sensorimotor hand function, and bimanual coordination Apparently, learning to play a complex instrument in a dynamic group setting impacts development much stronger than classical sensitization to music. Our results therefore highlight the added value of intensive musical instrumental training in a group setting within the school curriculum. These results encourage general implementation of such training in public primary schools, thus better preparing children for secondary school and for daily living activities.
... When we learn to play a musical instrument, both audition and vision are crucial in the process of acquisition of multiple skills, such as reading musical notes and translating them into audible sequences of actions that are adjusted depending on multisensory feedback (Haslinger et al., 2005;Schlaug et al., 2005). Several studies have shown strong connections between auditory, visual and motor systems in musicians. ...
Article
Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists’ brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.
... Reports regarding the association between musical training and improved academic performance have been inconsistent. Although, some authors have reported a lack of association [16], others which have considered specific improvements in mathematical and reading skills have found favorable effects [17,18], and other reports and reviews have shown positive cognitive effects of musical training in childhood [19][20][21]. Furthermore, some reports provide evidence that reading skills are superior in those children who received musical training, a trend that persists into adulthood [18,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Congenital amusia is a rare neurogenetic and neuropsychological condition which hinders the ability to recognize variations in all aspects of a musical piece. Although previous studies have determined the prevalence of congenital amusia in the general population, few have studied its presence among university students. Findings regarding the association between this condition and academic performance are equivocal, although evidence suggests that musical training improves scholastic achievement. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a sample of 383 university students, all pursuing health-related degrees, comparing their class rank with their performance on the BRAMS Online Test for amusia. Results: We found a prevalence of 0.52% for pitch-based amusia. When applying the Off-Scale test failure criterion for the definition of amusia in our sample, we found a prevalence of 4.4%. Logistic models showed an increase in risk of poor academic performance (lowest quartile) in subjects who failed the off-scale test (Odds Ratio: 7.14 95% CI 2.59-19.6) and who met any of the described definitions of amusia (Odds Ratio: 4.89 95% CI 2.24-10.7). Conclusions: Both musical training and self-report of musical ability significantly affected test results. Although musical education shows some effect over academic performance, further studies are required to determine if this is due to differential effects in subjects with and without amusia.
... Of the 39 reviewed studies, 24 were based on in-school music programs, 13 focused on after-school, community-based programs, one compared children who took part in compulsory school music education with children who participated in both school music education and private tuition (Rose et al., 2019), and only one was conducted in the context of private instruction (Nijs & Leman, 2014). 6 Given that earlier studies have focused predominantly on private music tuition (e.g., Costa-Giomi, 1999;Schlaug et al., 2005), the focus on collective programs, especially those occurring in schools and centers located in underserved communities (i.e., those with members of minority groups, who experience health and wealth disparities) offers some important insights for music education and helps to partially counter the criticism associated with music education research for focusing primarily on middle-class and affluent children. Also of note was the concerted effort to understand music learning in a large range of music programs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a comprehensive analysis of 39 studies published in academic journals in the past decade (2010–2020), this article discusses the strengths of current research and the challenges that lie ahead for researchers interested in conducting longitudinal research on music education and child development. Among the strengths of the reviewed studies are multi-year projects, diverse study samples and programs, and a wide range of areas of interest—cognitive and neural to socioemotional and musical development. Challenges for future research are described in relation to three main perspectives. The methodological, the first perspective, tackles future challenges in terms of research approaches, population sampling, randomization, replication, and the lack of cross-cultural longitudinal research. The second perspective, the conceptual-philosophical, focuses on how children, music, and music education have been defined—in deliberate or tacit ways—in longitudinal works, and their implications for both research and practice. The third perspective, the political, focuses on the extent to which research on the effects of music education may be interpreted by some as promoting a neoliberal educational agenda. I conclude the article with suggestions for future research.
... Music training indeed enhances children's fine motor skills, suggesting an impact of rhythmic abilities on motor development. For example, five-to seven-year-old children achieved better performance in fine motor skills after one year of learning to play a musical instrument (Schlaug, Norton, Overy, & Winner, 2005), and six-year-olds showed greater relative voxel size in motor areas of the brain after one year of piano instruction (Hyde et al., 2009; for a review, see Miendlarzewska & Trost, 2014). However, motor skills did not significantly influence literacy development in our model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have shown the influence of rhythm skills on the processing of written language, especially at the beginning of literacy development. The first objective of this study was to determine the persistence of this link at an advanced grade level. The second objective was to better understand the factors underlying this relationship and, more specifically, to examine the hypothesis of mediation by phonological and/or motor skills. In total, 278 third graders performed literacy tasks (word/pseudoword decoding and spelling), a rhythm production task, two phonological tasks (phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming), and motor tasks. Significant correlations were observed between literacy and each of rhythm skills, phonological skills, and motor skills. However, structural equation models showed that the influence of rhythm skills on literacy was mediated neither by phonological skills nor by motor abilities. These results suggest that rhythm skills continue to play a role in the acquisition of written language in third graders and that this contribution seems to be independent of phonological and motor skills.
Article
Full-text available
Especialidad: Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Resumen: Tanto el origen y la función de la música como su procesamiento es foco de interés en la psicología y se explica como un modelo de plasticidad estructural y funcional en el que las áreas implicadas y las conexiones se ven modificadas; estos cambios dependen de diversas variables, entre ellas el inicio del entrenamiento y la práctica continua. Los estudios de neuroimagen en conjunto con tareas que incluyen estímulos musicales han apoyado estos cambios, pudiendo diferenciar a músicos de no músicos en cuanto a volumen y activación de áreas específicas. Recientemente el estudio de otras funciones cognitivas (no musicales directamente) en músicos profesionales ha cobrado importancia y se estudia cómo es que la práctica musical puede influir en estas funciones cognitivas, para este fin las pruebas neuropsicológicas proveen valiosa información. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer el estado del arte acerca de las habilidades de percepción musical y su efecto en las funciones cognitivas cerebrales. Palabras clave: funciones cognitivas; percepción musical; plasticidad cerebral; neuropsicología; cerebro musical.  Recibido: 16 octubre 2018/ Aceptado: 26 marzo 2019.
Chapter
This paper describes a computer-based approach to foster embodied musical expression. The proposed system captures user’s hand gestures through a Leap Motion controller, and the signals thus generated are sent to a software tool that converts movements into music notes. When applied to an educational or a rehabilitation context, this solution may foster the development of communication and motor skills by using free-hand interaction. The conceptual framework was experimented in two contexts: technologically-augmented music lessons in a primary school, and music therapy sessions for the rehabilitation of physically and intellectually impaired people.
Article
Evidence is accumulating to suggest that music training is associated with structural brain differences in children and in adults. We used magnetic resonance imagining in two studies to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of music training in children. In study 1, we cross-sectionally compared a group of child musician (ages 9-11) matched to non-musicians and found that cortical thickness was greater in child musician in the posterior segment of the right-superior temporal gyrus (STG), an auditory association area that is involved in processing complex auditory stimuli, including pitch. We also found that thickness in the right posterior STG is related to music proficiency, however this relationship did not reach significance. In study 2, a longitudinal study, we investigated change in cortical thickness over a four-year period comparing a group of children involved in a systematic music training program with another group of children who did not have any music training. In this 2nd study we assessed both groups at the beginning of the study, prior to music training for the music group, and four years later. We found that children in the music group showed a strong trend of lower rate of cortical thinning in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus. Together, our results provide evidence that music training induces structural brain changes in school-age children and that these changes are predominantly pronounced in the right auditory association areas.
Article
Musical training, because it involves the interaction and integration of diverse functional systems, is an excellent model to investigate training-induced brain plasticity. The human brain functions in a network architecture in which dynamic modules and subgraphs are considered to enable efficient information communication. However, it remains largely unknown how the dynamic integration of functional systems changes with musical training, which may provide new insight into musical training-induced brain plasticity and further the use of music therapy for neuropsychiatric disease and brain injury. Here, 29 healthy young adult novices who received 24 weeks of piano training, and another 27 novices without any intervention were scanned at three time points—before and after musical training and 12 weeks after training. We used nonnegative matrix factorization to identify a set of subgraphs and their corresponding time-dependent coefficients from a concatenated functional network of all the subjects in sliding time windows. The energy and entropy of the time-dependent coefficients were computed to quantify the subgraph’s dynamic changes in expression. The training group showed a significantly increased energy of the time-dependent coefficients of 3 subgraphs after training. Furthermore, one of the subgraphs, comprised of primary functional systems and cingulo-opercular task control and salience systems, showed significantly changed entropy in the training group after training. Our results suggest that the integration of functional systems undergoes increased flexibility in fine-scale dynamics after musical training, which reveals how brain functional systems engage in musical performance. The efficacy of musical training induced brain plasticity may provide new therapeutic strategies for brain injury and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Article
Objetivo. Descrever a expertise musical dos instrumentistas; verificar a preferência manual em instrumentistas; comparar a habilidade ma­nual destes com a de não instrumentistas e demonstrar sua habilidade da mão não dominante. Método. Pesquisa transversal, quantitativa com seleção amostral aleatória. Participaram 15 instrumentistas e 15 não instrumentistas, do gênero masculino, com idade entre 30 e 59 anos. Foram aplicados: Questionário de Identificação, Inventário de Dominância Lateral de Edinburgo e Purdue Pegboard Test. A análise estatística foi realizada por medidas de tendência central e dispersão, foram utilizados os testes de Shapiro-Wilk para a normalidade dos da­dos e t de Student para comparação entre os grupos, com p<0,05. Resultados. Houve distribuição equivalente da preferência manual entre instrumentistas e não instrumentistas. Os instrumentistas apre­sentaram melhor desempenho do que os não instrumentistas para as mãos dominante (15,76±2,20) e não dominante (14,44±1,68; p<0,001) e quando comparada a mão não dominante dos instrumen­tistas (14,44±1,68) com a mão dominante dos não instrumentistas (12,40±2,24; p=0,009). Conclusão. Em instrumentistas, o compor­tamento relacionado à preferência manual não difere de não instru­mentistas; no entanto, apresentaram quantidade superior de pinos colocados por cada mão. As diferenças no desempenho são evidências de mecanismos neuroplásticos resultantes do aprendizado motor, aos quais os músicos se submetem.
Article
Music is commonly used in special education to achieve developmental and therapeutic aims, often in people with special needs. The present article conducts a systematic review of results from previous studies that explore the role of music in the development of children with Down syndrome (DS). It analyses a sample of 19 articles, in English and Spanish, from several databases (ERIC, Scopus, SciELO, Dialnet, Web of Science, CSIC and Pubmed). The results show that music has positive effects in the treatment and progress of the four main areas of development (social-emotional, motor, cognitive and communication) in children with DS. Nevertheless, the review reveals a lack of detail in the methodologies used and in the specific development areas, which call for further clarification in future research. These aspects are discussed in order to gain more conclusive results from future studies.
Article
Whenever we celebrate in a group, music and dance are usually part of it. Music making is a highly social activity and even listening to recorded music in a group still gives us a sense of feeling as a unit. Recently, studies have shown that joint music making promotes prosocial feelings and behaviour in children and preschoolers. Active music making led to more prosocial behaviour than a similar non-musical activity. Until now, however, the impact of joint active music making on prosociality has not been studied in infants. Only the effect of passive bouncing to the beat has been studied so far. Therefore, in the current study we investigated whether the joint activity of music making in a natural multimodal way can evoke prosocial behaviour in infants. In our study, 50 18-month-olds were randomly assigned to one of three groups: active music, passive music or non-musical activity (joint book reading). Afterwards, we measured helping behaviour towards the experimenter. We found that joint music making led to more helping behaviour than listening to music or joint book reading, indicating that the prosocial effect of joint music making arises even in 18-month-olds.
Article
Full-text available
Especialidad: Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Resumen: Tanto el origen y la función de la música como su procesamiento es foco de interés en la psicología y se explica como un modelo de plasticidad estructural y funcional en el que las áreas implicadas y las conexiones se ven modificadas; estos cambios dependen de diversas variables, entre ellas el inicio del entrenamiento y la práctica continua. Los estudios de neuroimagen en conjunto con tareas que incluyen estímulos musicales han apoyado estos cambios, pudiendo diferenciar a músicos de no músicos en cuanto a volumen y activación de áreas específicas. Recientemente el estudio de otras funciones cognitivas (no musicales directamente) en músicos profesionales ha cobrado importancia y se estudia cómo es que la práctica musical puede influir en estas funciones cognitivas, para este fin las pruebas neuropsicológicas proveen valiosa información. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer el estado del arte acerca de las habilidades de percepción musical y su efecto en las funciones cognitivas cerebrales. Palabras clave: funciones cognitivas; percepción musical; plasticidad cerebral; neuropsicología; cerebro musical.  Recibido: 16 octubre 2018/ Aceptado: 26 marzo 2019.
Thesis
Full-text available
Musical training is an experience-driven model of neuroplasticity that allows studying the consequences of long-term multi-modal training on the brain. Research has shown that training is associated with structural and functional brain changes that bring advantages to auditory processing and may enhance specific cognitive functions. The literature has showed transfer effects from musical training to speech processing, namely prosody processing, word learning and speech segmentation. Yet, it is still not clear which brain mechanisms are modified by musical training contributing to musicians’ enhanced segmentation and learning of speech sounds. One hypothesis is that training promotes the ability to compute regularities and extract patterns from the acoustic environment – auditory statistical learning (ASL) –, which, in turn, may facilitate the processing of speech. The studies reported in this Dissertation aimed at examining the effects of musical training on ASL abilities. We attempted to clarify if musical training facilitates the ASL of different types of auditory sequences (i.e., linguistic vs. musical), with or without musical characteristics (i.e., within vs. cross-domain effects), with distinct levels of complexity (e.g., simple vs. more complex structures), at different levels of processing (i.e., learning vs. recognition), with or without the influence of attention (i.e., attentively vs. pre-attentively) at neural and behavioral levels. In order to fully investigate the neural dynamics of ASL mechanisms with high temporal precision, the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) technique was applied. Chapter 3 explored the neural correlates of the pre-attentive processing of statistical regularities in pure tones in musicians and non-musicians. There were no differences between groups in the mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitude to pitch deviants. These findings suggest that musicians and non-musicians have the same sensitivity to detect deviances based on pitch modulations, which indicate that, at least at a pre-attentive level, musicians and non- musicians compute simple statistical regularities similarly. Chapter 4 investigated the role of musical training on the attentive ASL of different types of auditory stimuli. Three ERP experiments, each composed of learning, implicit test and explicit behavioral test phases were designed to evaluate the ASL of three types of auditory sequences: prosodic (i.e., words with melodic contour), non-prosodic (i.e., words with flat contour) and musical (i.e., tri-tone piano melodies). During learning, musicians evidenced an enhanced negativity in the 250-300 ms latency window in response to prosodic words and an increased positivity in the first 100 ms post-melodies’ onset. With exception of the responses to the prosodic stream, musicians and non-musicians neural responses to violations of the streams’ structure were similar. At the behavioral level, only musicians demonstrated successful learning across the three experiments. These findings suggest that training has an effect on the neural dynamics underlying ASL and on the capacity to learn from the regularities of distinct types of acoustic sequences, evidencing cross-domain neuroplasticity effects. Chapter 5 investigated the effects of training on ASL when the auditory stimulation is outside the focus of attention. The statistical learning of prosodic, non-prosodic and musical sequences was tested while participants were attending a visual task. While the learning unfolded, the groups did not differ in their ERP responses to both types of linguistic sequences but musicians showed larger positivities in two distinct latency windows while processing the musical stream. Musicians’ and non-musicians’ ERP responses to violations only differed when participants were processing melodies. Behaviorally, the groups showed similar learning performances. The results suggest that participants demonstrate statistical learning of speech regularities even when the auditory input is outside the focus of attention. Thus, when the auditory input is task-irrelevant, musical training is not advantageous to ASL but it affects the way the brain computes regularities among musical sequences (i.e., within-domain neuroplasticity). Generally, the ERP and behavioral results of our studies clarify the extent and the conditions under which musical training has effects on ASL. The findings suggest that training modifies the attentive processing of regularities independently of stimulus-type, which is evidence for cross-domain neuroplasticity. However, they also indicate that when ASL proceeds outside the focus of attention training effects are only observable for musical streams. This Dissertation provides relevant evidence on basic auditory learning mechanisms and on how they can be modified by musical training, contributing to shed light on the brain dynamics of music-to-speech transfer effects.
Thesis
Full-text available
From the bottom-up view, there is evidence that sport, as well as music training, improves cognitive functioning (e.g., Patel, 2013). However, top-down approaches emphasize the heredity of cognitive functions, which then leads to more effective skill training (Plomin, 1999, Strelau, 2010). Other studies mention the possibility of a selection effect suggesting that, for instance, children seeking music lessons may have higher levels of executive functions and/or intelligence (Degé et al., 2011). This study investigated the selection effect on cognitive functioning among not trained children signed up for various extra-curricular activities. I examined a relationship between the intensity of chosen musical or sports courses (without any previous training) and the status of cognitive functions (working memory and fluid intelligence). The investigation included 103 first-year primary school children (59 girls) at the beginning of a school year. Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and the Working Memory Test (TPR) were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that fluid intelligence and working memory distribute normally, regardless of children’s course selection. Generally, it can be concluded that there is no relationship between the type and intensity of selected courses and children’s cognitive functioning. Slightly older children who have started playing an instrument in the preschool period are an exception. They turned out to have higher intelligence scores than others, which leaves the nature/nurture dilemma unsolved. Nevertheless, further longitudinal investigations seem to be necessary.
Thesis
Die Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung (AD(H)S) ist eine der häufigsten psychiatrischen Diagnosen des Kindes-und Jugendalters mit einer weltweiten Prävalenz von ca. 5 %. Sie ist eine chronisch verlaufende Verhaltensstörung im Kindes-und Jugendalter und manifestiert sich mit einer Wahrscheinlichkeit von 30-50% bei veränderter Symptomatik (Aufmerksamkeits-und Konzentrationsstörungen treten in den Vordergrund, während die Hyperaktivität als sichtbares äußerliches Verhalten einem Gefühl der inneren Unruhe weicht) bis ins Erwachsenenalter. Die Diagnose erfolgt mehrheitlich auf der Basis von Verhaltensbeobachtungen, was zu diagnostischen Unterschieden zwischen Institutionen, Kulturen und Ländern führt. Eine objektive, auf Gehirndaten basierende Diagnose ist noch nicht etabliert. AD(H)S kann entweder durch das DSM oder ICD diagnostiziert werden. Die diagnostischen Kriterien und die Validität der Subtypen ADHS und ADS haben sich mit jeder neuen Ausgabe des DSM und ICD verändert und sind immer Grundlage der Diskussionsdebatte. Es ist noch wenig über den Einfluss von musikalischer Erfahrung auf die anatomische und funktionelle Entwicklung des auditorischen Cortex bei Kindern mit Entwicklungsstörungen wie AD(H)S bekannt. In dieser Doktorarbeit wurden in einer Querschnittsstudie die neuroanatomischen und neurofunktionellen Profile des auditorischen Cortex, ebenso wie die auditorische Leistungsfähigkeit von 37 Kindern mit diagnostizierter Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit/-Hyperaktivitätsstörung (Subtyp ADHS) mit einer Kontrollgruppe in Bezug auf die Intensität der musikalischen Praxis, die musikalische Begabung und die musikalische Performanz verglichen. Die Fragestellungen dieser Doktorarbeit beziehen sich auf die strukturellen und funktionellen Eigenschaften des auditorischen Cortex, auf die auditorisch-kognitiven Fähigkeiten und auf die Auswirkung des intensiven Musizierens auf die auditorisch-kognitiven Fähigkeiten bei Kindern mit dem Subtyp ADHS. Auf Grund der dargestellten Ergebnisse der AMseL II-Studie wurde festgestellt, dass es ein spezifisches auditorisches und neurologisches Profil von Kindern mit dem Subtyp ADHS gibt, das sich sowohl vom Subtyp ADS als auch von dem der Kontrollgruppe unterscheidet. Es stellt sich hier aber weiterhin die Frage, ob dieses spezielle auditorische Profil bei Kindern mit dem Subtyp ADHS auch mit speziellen auditorischen Eigenschaften verbunden ist. In der AMseL I-Studie zeigten Kinder mit AD(H)S verkleinerte Volumen des HG, kleinere HG/ PT-Verhältnisse und vergrößerte Volumen des PT, die mit einer bilateralen P1-Asynchronizität einhergingen. In dieser vorausgegangenen Studie (Seither-Preisler 2014) wurde keine Unterscheidung zwischen den Subtypen ADHS und ADS gemacht, es zeigte sich aber in Pilotstudien, dass sich das neuro-auditorische Profil von ADS und ADHS deutlich unterscheiden müsste. Daraus folgte die Annahme, dass Kinder mit dem Subtyp ADHS ein eigenes, spezifisches neuroanatomisches und neurofunktionelles auditorisches Profil zeigen müssten: bei ADHS größere PTs, verkleinerte HGs und daraus resultierend kleinere HG/ PT-Verhältnisse, sowie bilateralen P1-Asynchronizitäten, bei ADS hingegen im rechten AC völlig andere anatomische Biomarker als bei ADHS (Serrallach, Groß et al., 2016). Es wurde in der vorliegenden Arbeit angenommen, dass musizierende Kinder mit ADHS größere Volumen der grauen Substanz des ACs haben als nicht musizierende Kinder mit ADHS. Ebenso sollten musikalisch trainierte Kinder mit dem Subtyp ADHS bessere Ergebnisse in den auditorischen Tests erzielen als nicht musikalische Kinder mit ADHS. Kinder mit der Diagnose ADHS zeigten verglichen mit nicht betroffenen Gleichaltrigen der Kontrollgruppe eine charakteristische Morphologie im auditorischen Cortex mit einem kleineren linken HG, einem vergrößerten linken und rechten PT, und daraus resultierend einem beidseitig kleineren HG/ PT-Verhältnis. Weiterhin konnte bei Kindern mit dem Subtyp ADHS eine deutlich vergrößerte bilaterale P1-Asynchronizität mit einer verspäteten P1-Antwort links und einer verfrühten P1-Antwort rechts im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe gefunden werden. Die Leistung der Kinder mit dem Subtyp ADHS unterschieden sich auch in den auditorisch-kognitiven Messungen von der Kontrollgruppe. Kinder der Kontrollgruppe erzielten im rhythmischen Wert und im Gesamtwert des IMMA- Tests und im Gesamtwert und in der Reaktionszeit des Metric Tests deutlich bessere Ergebnisse als die Kinder mit ADHS. Musizierende Kinder mit ADHS konnten Frequenzen im Dinosaurier-Test besser erkennen und hatten einen besseren IMMA-Gesamtwert als die nicht musizierenden Kinder mit ADHS. Ebenso zeigten sich einige Zusammenhänge zwischen dem intensiven Musizieren und den neurologischen Besonderheiten und den auditorisch-kognitiven Fähigkeiten der Kinder mit dem Subtyp ADHS. Kinder mit ADHS mit einer kleineren Latenzdifferenz |R-L| zeigten kleinere Inkonsistenzwerte im Pitch-Test und kleinere Frequenzunterschiede im Dino-Test. Kinder mit ADHS und einem größeren rechten Verhältnis (HG/PT) zeigten bessere Werte in der Rhythmuserkennung und konnten kleinere Lautstärkeunterschiede wahrnehmen. Kinder mit ADHS mit einem größeren linken HG zeigten ein besseres musikalisches Gedächtnis und eine bessere Rhythmuserkennung im Musiziertest. Kinder mit einem größeren linken HG/PT-Verhältnis zeigten ebenfalls bessere Werte im Rhythmustest. Die Effekte waren in der linken Hemisphäre deutlich stärker ausgeprägt als in der rechten Hemisphäre. In der Diskussion wird bezugnehmend auf meine mit Frau Serrallach gemeinsam und als gleichberechtigte Erstautorin geschriebene Publikation (Serrallach, Groß et al., 2016) darauf hingewiesen, dass es möglich ist, ein spezifisches neuro-auditorisches Profil von Kindern mit dem Subtyp ADHS zu identifizieren, das sich von der Kontrollgruppe (Doktorarbeit C. Groß) und von der ADS-Gruppe (Doktorarbeit B. Serrallach) mit einer Sensitivität von ~90 % abgrenzt. In diesem Sinne erlauben es die identifizierten neurologischen Biomarker, eine spezifische Differentialdiagnose für ADHS in Abgrenzung zu ADS zu erstellen (Serrallach, Groß et al., 2016; Seither- Preisler et al., 2014). Diese Doktorarbeit zeigt, dass ein größeres linkes PT und ein verkleinertes linkes HG/PT-Verhältnis die ADHS- von der Kontrollgruppe unterscheidet. In Bezug auf den rechten AC kann die ADHS-Gruppe darüber hinaus von der ADS-Gruppe unterschieden werden. Außerdem zeigen Kinder mit ADHS und ADS eine bilaterale Asynchronizität, die meistens linksseitig verspätet ist und bei Kindern mit ADHS im Gegensatz zu Kindern mit ADS auffällige L-R-Asymmetrien bzgl. der Amplitude und Breite der P1-Antwort aufweist (Serrallach, Groß et al., 2016). Zusammenfassend ist es möglich, durch die bilaterale P1-Asynchronizität und die Größe und das Verhältnis des linken AC in einem ersten Schritt zwischen AD(H)S und der Kontrollgruppe zu unterscheiden und in einem zweiten Schritt aufgrund der rechtshemisphärischen Unterscheide eine Differentialdiagnose zwischen ADHS und ADS zu erstellen (Serrallach, Groß et al, 2016). In diesem Sinne können neuroanatomische und neurofunktionelle Parameter des auditorischen Cortex dazu beitragen, zusätzliche wertvolle Kennzeichen für ein zukünftiges auf Gehirndaten basierendes objektives Diagnoseverfahren für auditorisch bezogene Entwicklungsstörungen im Generellen und im Speziellen für die Subgruppen ADHS und ADS zu definieren. Daraus resultierend ist es notwendig, weiterführend und detailliert zu forschen, um diese auditorisch evozierten Besonderheiten bei Kindern mit ADHS und ADS genauer zu eruieren und auf Basis der gezeigten musizierbedingten Neuroplastizität bei Kindern mit ADHS eine speziell auf das individuelle neuro-auditorische Profil abgestimmte musikalisch basierte Therapie zu entwickeln.
Chapter
In sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (sAD), tau pathology gradually but relentlessly progresses from the transentorhinal region of the temporal lobe into both the allocortex and temporal high order association areas of the neocortex. From there, it ultimately reaches the primary sensory and motor fields of the neocortex. The brunt of the changes seen during neurofibrillary stages (NFT) I–VI is borne by top-down projection neurons that contribute to cortico-cortical connectivities between different neocortical fields. Very early changes develop in isolated pyramidal cells in layers III and V, and these cells are targets of top-down projections terminating in association areas of the first temporal gyrus or in peristriate regions of the occipital lobe. Neurofibrillary pathology in these regions is routinely associated with late NFT stages. Sequential changes occur in different cell compartments (dendritic, somatic, axonal) of these early-involved neurons. Tau pathology first develops in distal segments of basal dendrites, then in proximal dendrites, the soma, and, finally, in the axon of affected pyramidal neurons. This sequence of abnormal changes supports the concept that axons of cortico-cortical top-down neurons may carry and spread abnormal tau seeds in a focused manner (transsynaptically) into the distal dendritic segments of nerve cells directly following in the neuronal chain, thereby sustaining tau-seeded templating in sAD.
Article
Full-text available
Resumo Trata-se de dois estudos visando avaliar duas propostas de intervenção utilizando a linguagem musical na formação de professores de Educação Infantil. As intervenções ocorreram em instituições infantis públicas, de cidades e metodologias distintas, porém com o objetivo de qualificar o desenvolvimento da linguagem musical das crianças, simultaneamente à complementação da formação inicial do professor com os conhecimentos pertinentes. O Estudo 1 se deu pela criação e aplicação de um material psicopedagógico, organizado num programa de formação, acrescido do acompanhamento individual das professoras. Para o Estudo 2 elaborou-se um programa baseado na Teoria da Aprendizagem Musical de Edwin Gordon, que foi trabalhado com professoras de uma escola apoiada por pesquisadores de uma instituição de ensino superior. Os resultados indicaram ligeira melhora na performance das professoras do Estudo 1 e expressivas diferenças no comportamento das professoras do Estudo 2. O trabalho lança luz sobre processos de formação em serviço em contextos infantis.
Structural specialization of the specialized
  • M Bangert
BANGERT, M., D. NAIR & G. SCHLAUG. 2005. Structural specialization of the specialized. Neuroimage 26 (Suppl. 1): 102.
Does brain anatomy predict musicianship?
  • G Schlaug
  • D J Lee
  • K Overy
SCHLAUG, G., D.J. LEE, K. OVERY, et al. 2004. Does brain anatomy predict musicianship? Neuroimage 22: 42.
Are there neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability prior to instrumental training? Brain Cogn
  • A Norton
  • E Winner
  • K Cronin
NORTON, A., E. WINNER, K. CRONIN, et al. 2005. Are there neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability prior to instrumental training? Brain Cogn. In press.
Article
Full-text available
Background Performing music requires fast auditory and motor processing. Regarding professional musicians, recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that auditory stimulation produces a co-activation of motor areas, whereas silent tapping of musical phrases evokes a co-activation in auditory regions. Whether this is obtained via a specific cerebral relay station is unclear. Furthermore, the time course of plasticity has not yet been addressed. Results Changes in cortical activation patterns (DC-EEG potentials) induced by short (20 minute) and long term (5 week) piano learning were investigated during auditory and motoric tasks. Two beginner groups were trained. The 'map' group was allowed to learn the standard piano key-to-pitch map. For the 'no-map' group, random assignment of keys to tones prevented such a map. Auditory-sensorimotor EEG co-activity occurred within only 20 minutes. The effect was enhanced after 5-week training, contributing elements of both perception and action to the mental representation of the instrument. The 'map' group demonstrated significant additional activity of right anterior regions. Conclusion We conclude that musical training triggers instant plasticity in the cortex, and that right-hemispheric anterior areas provide an audio-motor interface for the mental representation of the keyboard.
Article
Full-text available
Musicians and nonmusicians detected infrequent changes to the last note of five-note melodies that either altered the contour (up/down pattern) or the intervals (pitch distance between notes). Robust frontal P3as, reflecting automatic capture of attention, as well as P3bs, reflecting analytic stimulus evaluation, were generated in both contour and interval tasks. These components did not differ across groups for contour, but were smaller and delayed in nonmusicians compared to musicians for interval. However, the topologies were similar for P3a (frontal midline focus) and P3b (parietal midline focus) across groups and tasks, The amplitude of the P3b in musicians was negatively correlated with the age of onset of music lessons. Taken together these findings suggest that (a) contour processing is more basic, (b) interval processing may be more affected than contour by experience, and (c) similar brain networks are involved in generating the P3a and P3b in musicians and nonmusicians.
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic stimuli are processed throughout the auditory projection pathway, including the neocortex, by neurons that are aggregated into 'tonotopic' maps according to their specific frequency tunings. Research on animals has shown that tonotopic representations are not statically fixed in the adult organism but can reorganize after damage to the cochlea or after training the intact subject to discriminate between auditory stimuli. Here we used functional magnetic source imaging (single dipole model) to measure cortical representations in highly skilled musicians. Dipole moments for piano tones, but not for pure tones of similar fundamental frequency (matched in loudness), were found to be enlarged by about 25% in musicians compared with control subjects who had never played an instrument. Enlargement was correlated with the age at which musicians began to practise and did not differ between musicians with absolute or relative pitch. These results, when interpreted with evidence for modified somatosensory representations of the fingering digits in skilled violinists, suggest that use-dependent functional reorganization extends across the sensory cortices to reflect the pattern of sensory input processed by the subject during development of musical skill.
Article
Full-text available
We used both structural and functional brain imaging techniques to investigate the neural basis of absolute pitch (AP), a specialized skill present in some musicians. By using positron emission tomography, we measured cerebral blood flow during the presentation of musical tones to AP possessors and to control musicians without AP. Listening to musical tones resulted in similar patterns of increased cerebral blood flow in auditory cortical areas in both groups, as expected. The AP group also demonstrated activation of the left posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex, an area thought to be related to learning conditional associations. However, a similar pattern of left dorsolateral frontal activity was also observed in non-AP subjects when they made relative pitch judgments of intervals, such as minor or major. Conversely, activity within the right inferior frontal cortex was observed in control but not in AP subjects during the interval-judgment task, suggesting that AP possessors need not access working memory mechanisms in this task. MRI measures of cortical volume indicated a larger left planum temporale in the AP group, which correlated with performance on an pitch-naming task. Our findings suggest that AP may not be associated with a unique pattern of cerebral activity but rather may depend on the recruitment of a specialized network involved in the retrieval and manipulation of verbal-tonal associations.
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic source imaging revealed that the cortical representation of the digits of the left hand of string players was larger than that in controls. The effect was smallest for the left thumb, and no such differences were observed for the representations of the right hand digits. The amount of cortical reorganization in the representation of the fingering digits was correlated with the age at which the person had begun to play. These results suggest that the representation of different parts of the body in the primary somatosensory cortex of humans depends on use and changes to conform to the current needs and experiences of the individual.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigated blood-flow-related magnetic-resonance (MR) signal changes and the time course underlying short-term motor learning of the dominant right hand in ten piano players (PPs) and 23 non-musicians (NMs), using a complex finger-tapping task. The activation patterns were analyzed for selected regions of interest (ROIs) within the two examined groups and were related to the subjects' performance. A functional learning profile, based on the regional blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes, was assessed in both groups. All subjects achieved significant increases in tapping frequency during the training session of 35 min in the scanner. PPs, however, performed significantly better than NMs and showed increasing activation in the contralateral primary motor cortex throughout motor learning in the scanner. At the same time, involvement of secondary motor areas, such as bilateral supplementary motor area, premotor, and cerebellar areas, diminished relative to the NMs throughout the training session. Extended activation of primary and secondary motor areas in the initial training stage (7-14 min) and rapid attenuation were the main functional patterns underlying short-term learning in the NM group; attenuation was particularly marked in the primary motor cortices as compared with the PPs. When tapping of the rehearsed sequence was performed with the left hand, transfer effects of motor learning were evident in both groups. Involvement of all relevant motor components was smaller than after initial training with the right hand. Ipsilateral premotor and primary motor contributions, however, showed slight increases of activation, indicating that dominant cortices influence complex sequence learning of the non-dominant hand. In summary, the involvement of primary and secondary motor cortices in motor learning is dependent on experience. Interhemispheric transfer effects are present.
Article
Full-text available
Conducting a large orchestra is an impressive feat that simultaneously requires the intake of the whole musical gestalt and the analytical decomposition of the orchestral sound into its components. How, for example, does a conductor identify a specific musician within a multiplayer section? Here we provide evidence from brain-potential recordings that experienced professional conductors develop enhanced auditory localization mechanisms in peripheral space.
Article
Full-text available
An increased leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) in absolute-pitch (AP) musicians has been previously reported, with speculation that early exposure to music influences the degree of PT asymmetry. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether a larger left PT or a smaller right PT actually accounts for the increased overall PT asymmetry in AP musicians, anatomical magnetic resonance images were taken from a right-handed group of 27 AP musicians, 27 nonmusicians, and 22 non-AP musicians. A significantly greater leftward PT asymmetry and a significantly smaller right absolute PT size for the AP musicians compared to the two control groups was found, while the left PT was only marginally larger in the AP group. The absolute size of the right PT and not the left PT was a better predictor of music group membership, possibly indicating "pruning" of the right PT rather than expansion of the left underlying the increased PT asymmetry in AP musicians. Although early exposure to music may be a prerequisite for acquiring AP, the increased PT asymmetry in AP musicians may be determined in utero, implicating possible genetic influences on PT asymmetry. This may explain why the increased PT asymmetry of AP musicians was not seen in the group of early beginning non-AP musicians.
Article
Full-text available
Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we compared the processing of sinusoidal tones in the auditory cortex of 12 non-musicians, 12 professional musicians and 13 amateur musicians. We found neurophysiological and anatomical differences between groups. In professional musicians as compared to non-musicians, the activity evoked in primary auditory cortex 19-30 ms after stimulus onset was 102% larger, and the gray matter volume of the anteromedial portion of Heschl's gyrus was 130% larger. Both quantities were highly correlated with musical aptitude, as measured by psychometric evaluation. These results indicate that both the morphology and neurophysiology of Heschl's gyrus have an essential impact on musical aptitude.
Article
Full-text available
Many object-related actions can be recognized by their sound. We found neurons in monkey premotor cortex that discharge when the animal performs a specific action and when it hears the related sound. Most of the neurons also discharge when the monkey observes the same action. These audiovisual mirror neurons code actions independently of whether these actions are performed, heard, or seen. This discovery in the monkey homolog of Broca's area might shed light on the origin of language: audiovisual mirror neurons code abstract contents—the meaning of actions—and have the auditory access typical of human language to these contents.
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that the cerebellum is involved in motor learning and cognitive function in humans. Animal experiments have found structural changes in the cerebellum in response to long-term motor skill activity. We investigated whether professional keyboard players, who learn specialized motor skills early in life and practice them intensely throughout life, have larger cerebellar volumes than matched non-musicians by analyzing high-resolution T(1)-weighted MR images from a large prospectively acquired database (n = 120). Significantly greater absolute (P = 0.018) and relative (P = 0.006) cerebellar volume but not total brain volume was found in male musicians compared to male non-musicians. Lifelong intensity of practice correlated with relative cerebellar volume in the male musician group (r = 0.595, P = 0.001). In the female group, there was no significant difference noted in volume measurements between musicians and non-musicians. The significant main effect for gender on relative cerebellar volume (F = 10.41, P < 0.01), with females having a larger relative cerebellar volume, may mask the effect of musicianship in the female group. We propose that the significantly greater cerebellar volume in male musicians and the positive correlation between relative cerebellar volume and lifelong intensity of practice represents structural adaptation to long-term motor and cognitive functional demands in the human cerebellum.
Article
Full-text available
Many object-related actions can be recognized both by their sound and by their vision. Here we describe a population of neurons in the ventral premotor cortex of the monkey that discharge both when the animal performs a specific action and when it hears or sees the same action performed by another individual. These 'audiovisual mirror neurons' therefore represent actions independently of whether these actions are performed, heard or seen. The magnitude of auditory and visual responses did not differ significantly in half the neurons. A neurometric analysis revealed that based on the response of these neurons, two actions could be discriminated with 97% accuracy.
Article
Full-text available
Several functional brain attributes reflecting neocortical activity have been found to be enhanced in musicians compared to non-musicians. Included are the N1m evoked magnetic field, P2 and right-hemispheric N1c auditory evoked potentials, and the source waveform of the magnetically recorded 40 Hz auditory steady state response (SSR). We investigated whether these functional brain attributes measured by EEG are sensitive to neuroplastic remodeling in non-musician subjects. Adult non-musicians were trained for 15 sessions to discriminate small changes in the carrier frequency of 40 Hz amplitude modulated pure tones. P2 and N1c auditory evoked potentials were separated from the SSR by signal processing and found to localize to spatially differentiable sources in the secondary auditory cortex (A2). Training enhanced the P2 bilaterally and the N1c in the right hemisphere where auditory neurons may be specialized for processing of spectral information. The SSR localized to sources in the region of Heschl's gyrus in primary auditory cortex (A1). The amplitude of the SSR (assessed by bivariate T2 in 100 ms moving windows) was not augmented by training although the phase of the response was modified for the trained stimuli. The P2 and N1c enhancements observed here and reported previously in musicians may reflect new tunings on A2 neurons whose establishment and expression are gated by input converging from other regions of the brain. The SSR localizing to A1 was more resistant to remodeling, suggesting that its amplitude enhancement in musicians may be an intrinsic marker for musical skill or an early experience effect.
Article
Full-text available
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) express the development of mature synaptic connections in the upper neocortical laminae known to occur between 4 and 15 years of age. AEPs evoked by piano, violin, and pure tones were measured twice in a group of 4- to 5-year-old children enrolled in Suzuki music lessons and in non-musician controls. P1 was larger in the Suzuki pupils for all tones whereas P2 was enhanced specifically for the instrument of practice (piano or violin). AEPs observed for the instrument of practice were comparable to those of non-musician children about 3 years older in chronological age. The findings set into relief a general process by which the neocortical synaptic matrix is shaped by an accumulation of specific auditory experiences.
Article
Using in-vivo magnetic resonance morphometry it was investigated whether the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) would differ between 30 professional musicians and 30 age-, sex- and handedness-matched controls. Our analyses revealed that the anterior half of the CC was significantly larger in musicians. This difference was due to the larger anterior CC in the subgroup of musicians who had begun musical training before the age of 7. Since anatomic studies have provided evidence for a positive correlation between midsagittal callosal size and the number of fibers crossing through the CC, these data indicate a difference in interhemispheric communication and possibly in hemispheric (a)symmetry of sensorimotor areas. Our results are also compatible with plastic changes of components of the CC during a maturation period within the first decade of human life, similar to those observed in animal studies.
Article
A new test for auditory perception, the Auditory Analysis Test, was given to 284 children in kindergarten through grade 6. The instrument, consisting of 40 items, asks the testee to repeat a spoken word, then to repeat it again without certain specified phonemic elements - such as a beginning, ending or medially-positioned consonant sound. Seven categories of item difficulty were proposed. Test results varied, both within and between class groups. Performance tended to improve with age and grade placement. Pearson Product-Moment Correlations of individual AAT scores with Stanford Achievement Test reading scores yielded significant relationships (p<.01) ranging from .53 (grade 1) to .84 (grade 3). Analysis of errors supported the validity of test item difficulty and provided direction for the design of a treatment approach to auditory perceptual dysfunction.
Article
Musicians form an ideal subject pool in which one can investigate possible cerebral adaptations to unique requirements of skilled performance as well as cerebral correlates of unique musical abilities such as absolute pitch and others. There are several reasons for this. First, the commencement of musical training usually occurs when the brain and its components may still be able to adapt. Second, musicians undergo long-term motor training and continued practice of complicated bimanual motor activity. Third, imaging studies from our group as well as other groups have shown that motor learning and the acquisition of skills can lead to changes in the representation of motor maps and possibly also to microstructural changes. Whether the unique musical abilities and structural differences that musicians' brains show are due to learning, perhaps during critical periods of brain development and maturation, or whether they reflect innate abilities and capacities that might be fostered by early exposure to music is largely unknown. We will report studies that indicate that certain regions in the brain (corpus callosum, motor cortex, cerebellum) may show some form of adaptation to extraordinary challenges and requirements of performance. These challenges may eventually lead to functional and structural cerebral changes to accommodate the requirements for musical performance. Furthermore, we will also show the neural correlates of one unique musical ability, absolute pitch. This ability may be linked to one structure in the human brain (planum temporale), which is preferentially activated in musicians who have absolute pitch during tone tasks. This structure may undergo some form of functional plasticity that is possible only during a critical period of brain development.
Article
At its simplest, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local concentration of gray matter between two groups of subjects. The procedure is relatively straightforward and involves spatially normalizing high-resolution images from all the subjects in the study into the same stereotactic space. This is followed by segmenting the gray matter from the spatially normalized images and smoothing the gray-matter segments. Voxel-wise parametric statistical tests which compare the smoothed gray-matter images from the two groups are performed. Corrections for multiple comparisons are made using the theory of Gaussian random fields. This paper describes the steps involved in VBM, with particular emphasis on segmenting gray matter from MR images with nonuniformity artifact. We provide evaluations of the assumptions that underpin the method, including the accuracy of the segmentation and the assumptions made about the statistical distribution of the data.
Article
Recent studies in humans and nonhuman primates have shown that the functional organization of the human sensorimotor cortex changes following sensory stimulation or following the acquisition of motor skills. It is unknown whether functional plasticity in response to the acquisition of new motor skills and the continued performance of complicated bimanual movements for years is associated with structural changes in the organization of the motor cortex. Professional musicians, especially keyboard and string players, are a prototypical group for investigating these changes in the human brain. Using magnetic resonance images, we measured the length of the posterior wall of the precentral gyrus bordering the central sulcus (intrasulcal length of the precentral gyrus, ILPG) in horizontal sections through both hemispheres of right-handed keyboard players and of an age- and handedness-matched control group. Lacking a direct in vivo measurement of the primary motor cortex in humans, we assumed that the ILPG is a measure of the size of the primary motor cortex. Left-right asymmetry in the ILPG was analyzed and compared between both groups. Whereas controls exhibited a pronounced left-larger-than-right asymmetry, keyboard players had more symmetrical ILPG. The most pronounced differences in ILPG between keyboard players and controls were seen in the most dorsal part of the presumed cortical hand representation of both hemispheres. This was especially true in the nondominant right hemispheres. The size of the ILPG was negatively correlated with age of commencement of musical training in keyboard players, supporting our hypothesis that the human motor cortex can exhibit functionally induced and long-lasting structural adaptations.
Article
Musicians and non-musicians were presented with short musical phrases that were either selected from the classical musical repertoire or composed for the experiment. The phrases terminated either in a congruous or a 'harmonically', 'melodically', or 'rhythmically' incongruous note. The brain waves produced by the end-notes differed greatly between musicians and non-musicians, and as a function of the subject's familiarity with the melodies and the type of incongruity. The timing of these brain waves revealed that musicians are faster than non-musicians in detecting incongruities. This study provides further neurophysiological evidence concerning the mechanisms underlying music perception and the differences between musical and linguistic processing.
Article
Neural imaging studies have shown that the brains of skilled musicians respond differently to musical stimuli than do the brains of non-musicians, particularly for musicians who commenced practice at an early age. Whether brain attributes related to musical skill are attributable to musical practice or are hereditary traits that influence the decision to train musically is a subject of controversy, owing to its pedagogic implications. Here we report that auditory cortical representations measured neuromagnetically for tones of different timbre (violin and trumpet) are enhanced compared to sine tones in violinists and trumpeters, preferentially for timbres of the instrument of training. Timbre specificity is predicted by a principle of use-dependent plasticity and imposes new requirements on nativistic accounts of brain attributes associated with musical skill.
Article
Musicians form an ideal subject pool in which one can investigate possible cerebral adaptations to unique requirements of skilled performance as well as cerebral correlates of unique musical abilities such as absolute pitch and others. There are several reasons for this. First, the commencement of musical training usually occurs when the brain and its components may still be able to adapt. Second, musicians undergo long-term motor training and continued practice of complicated bimanual motor activity. Third, imaging studies from our group as well as other groups have shown that motor learning and the acquisition of skills can lead to changes in the representation of motor maps and possibly also to microstructural changes. Whether the unique musical abilities and structural differences that musicians' brains show are due to learning, perhaps during critical periods of brain development and maturation, or whether they reflect innate abilities and capacities that might be fostered by early exposure to music is largely unknown. We will report studies that indicate that certain regions in the brain (corpus callosum, motor cortex, cerebellum) may show some form of adaptation to extraordinary challenges and requirements of performance. These challenges may eventually lead to functional and structural cerebral changes to accommodate the requirements for musical performance. Furthermore, we will also show the neural correlates of one unique musical ability, absolute pitch. This ability may be linked to one structure in the human brain (planum temporale), which is preferentially activated in musicians who have absolute pitch during tone tasks. This structure may undergo some form of functional plasticity that is possible only during a critical period of brain development.
Article
Behavioral manipulations such as housing in an enriched environment have been shown to increase brain weight and visual cortical thickness. The present study was designed to test whether skill learning or repetitive movements can alter the thickness of the motor cortex. One group of 6-mo-old Long-Evans female rats learned motor skills on an obstacle course that increased in difficulty over training and required balance and coordination. A second group ran voluntarily in exercise wheels attached to their home cage but had little opportunity for skill learning. The third group was handled daily but received no opportunity for learning or exercise. Each condition lasted 26-29 d. The skill-learning and exercise conditions had greater heart weight, and the exercise condition had greater adrenal gland weights than controls. The thickness of the motor cortex was measured in four coronal planes between -2.33 mm to -0.3 mm from bregma. Regions of interest that corresponded to published maps of forelimb and hind-limb representations were analyzed together. Rats in the skill-learning condition had significantly thicker medial cortical areas in the two anterior planes (-0.8 and -0.3 mm from bregma). These regions correspond to previously mapped hind-limb representations. The exercise group had greater thickness of the medial region at -0.8 mm from bregma. Cortical thickness in all conditions varied significantly along the medial to lateral axis. For both treatments, the effects were restricted to medial and anterior regions of interest rather than posterior or lateral regions of interest. The results indicate that robust exercise, in addition to skill learning, is capable of altering the thickness of the motor cortex, but that the effects are restricted rather than distributed within the regions studied.
Article
Previously we found that musicians have significantly larger anterior corpus callosum (CC). In the current study, we intended to replicate and extend our previous results using a new and larger sample of gender-matched subjects (56 right-handed professional musicians and 56 age- and handedness-matched controls). We found a significant gender x musicianship interaction for anterior and posterior CC size; male musicians had a larger anterior CC than non-musicians, while females did not show a significant effect of musicianship. The lack of a significant effect in females may be due to a tendency for a more symmetric brain organization and a disproportionately high representation of absolute pitch (AP) musicians among females. Although a direct causal effect between musicianship and alterations in the midsagittal CC size cannot be established, it is likely that the early commencement and continuous practice of bimanual motor training serves as an external trigger that can influence midsagittal CC size through changes in the actual callosal fiber composition and in the degree of myelinization, which will have implications for interhemispheric connectivity.
Article
Auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks are challenging since the MR scanner noise can interfere with the auditory stimulation. To avoid this interference a sparse temporal sampling method with a long repetition time (TR = 17 s) was used to explore the functional anatomy of pitch memory. Eighteen right-handed subjects listened to a sequence of sine-wave tones (4.6 s total duration) and were asked to make a decision (depending on a visual prompt) whether the last or second to last tone was the same or different as the first tone. An alternating button press condition served as a control. Sets of 24 axial slices were acquired with a variable delay time (between 0 and 6 s) between the end of the auditory stimulation and the MR acquisition. Individual imaging time points were combined into three clusters (0-2, 3-4, and 5-6 s after the end of the auditory stimulation) for the analysis. The analysis showed a dynamic activation pattern over time which involved the superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, posterior dorsolateral frontal regions, superior parietal regions, and dorsolateral cerebellar regions bilaterally as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus. By regressing the performance score in the pitch memory task with task-related MR signal changes, the supramarginal gyrus (left>right) and the dorsolateral cerebellum (lobules V and VI, left>right) were significantly correlated with good task performance. The SMG and the dorsolateral cerebellum may play a critical role in short-term storage of pitch information and the continuous pitch discrimination necessary for performing this pitch memory task.
Article
We compared brain activation patterns between musicians and non-musicians (matched in performance score) while they performed a pitch memory task (using a sparse temporal sampling fMRI method). Both groups showed bilateral activation of the superior temporal, supramarginal, posterior middle and inferior frontal gyrus, and superior parietal lobe. Musicians showed more right temporal and supramarginal gyrus activation while non-musicians had more right primary and left secondary auditory cortex activation. Since both groups' performance were matched, these results probably indicate processing differences between groups that are possibly related to musical training. Non-musicians rely more on brain regions important for pitch discrimination while musicians prefer to use brain regions specialized in short-term memory and recall to perform well in this pitch memory task.
Article
Broca's area is a major neuroanatomical substrate for spoken language and various musically relevant abilities, including visuospatial and audiospatial localization. Sight reading is a musician-specific visuospatial analysis task, and spatial ability is known to be amenable to training effects. Musicians have been reported to perform significantly better than nonmusicians on spatial ability tests, which is supported by our findings with the Benton judgement of line orientation (JOL) test (P < 0.001). We hypothesised that use-dependent adaptation would lead to increased gray matter density in Broca's area in musicians. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and stereological analyses were applied to high-resolution 3D MR images in male orchestral musicians (n = 26) and sex, handedness, and IQ-matched nonmusicians (n = 26). The wide age range (26 to 66 years) of volunteers permitted a secondary analysis of age-related effects. VBM with small volume correction (SVC) revealed a significant (P = 0.002) region of increased gray matter in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus in musicians. We observed significant age-related volume reductions in cerebral hemispheres, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex subfields bilaterally and gray matter density in the left inferior frontal gyrus in controls but not musicians; a positive correlation between JOL test score and age in musicians but not controls; a positive correlation between years of playing and the volume of gray matter in a significant region identified by VBM in under-50-year-old musicians. We suggest that orchestral musical performance promotes use-dependent retention, and possibly expansion, of gray matter involving Broca's area and that this provides further support for shared neural substrates underpinning expressive output in music and language.
Article
We investigated neural activations underlying a verbal fluency task and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of Broca's speech region (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45). To do so, we reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [Brain 125 (2002) 1024] and from a cytoarchitectonic study [J. Comp. Neurol. 412 (1999) 319] and developed a method to combine both data sets. In the fMRI experiment, verbal fluency was investigated in 11 healthy volunteers, who covertly produced words from predefined categories. A factorial design was used with factors verbal class (semantic vs. overlearned fluency) and switching between categories (no vs. yes). fMRI data analysis employed SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Cytoarchitectonic maps of areas 44 and 45 were derived from histologic sections of 10 postmortem brains. Both the in vivo fMRI and postmortem MR data were warped to a common reference brain using a new elastic warping tool. Cytoarchitectonic probability maps with stereotaxic information about intersubject variability were calculated for both areas and superimposed on the functional data, which showed the involvement of left hemisphere areas with verbal fluency relative to the baseline. Semantic relative to overlearned fluency showed greater involvement of left area 45 than of 44. Thus, although both areas participate in verbal fluency, they do so differentially. Left area 45 is more involved in semantic aspects of language processing, while area 44 is probably involved in high-level aspects of programming speech production per se. The combination of functional data analysis with a new elastic warping tool and cytoarchitectonic maps opens new perspectives for analyzing the cortical networks involved in language.
Article
In the adult brain, melody and rhythm processing have been found to show different hemispheric dominance, with the right hemisphere apparently more sensitive to melody and the left hemisphere to rhythm. We used a novel, child-friendly scanning protocol to examine the neural basis of melody and rhythm processing in young children (mean age 6 years 4 months, n=33). FMRI data were acquired using a sparse temporal sampling technique, taking advantage of the natural delay in the cerebrovascular response to neuronal activity. We found that this group of young children showed some differential specialization for melody and rhythm processing, but to a lesser extent than previously reported in adults. These results suggest that hemispheric specialization for musical processing may develop with age.
Article
The present study investigates the functional neuroanatomy of music perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Three different subject groups were investigated to examine developmental aspects and effects of musical training: 10-year-old children with varying degrees of musical training, adults without formal musical training (nonmusicians), and adult musicians. Subjects made judgements on sequences that ended on chords that were music-syntactically either regular or irregular. In adults, irregular chords activated the inferior frontal gyrus, orbital frontolateral cortex, the anterior insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, anterior and posterior areas of the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These structures presumably form different networks mediating cognitive aspects of music processing (such as processing of musical syntax and musical meaning, as well as auditory working memory), and possibly emotional aspects of music processing. In the right hemisphere, the activation pattern of children was similar to that of adults. In the left hemisphere, adults showed larger activations than children in prefrontal areas, in the supramarginal gyrus, and in temporal areas. In both adults and children, musical training was correlated with stronger activations in the frontal operculum and the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus.
Article
From an early age, musicians learn complex motor and auditory skills (e.g., the translation of visually perceived musical symbols into motor commands with simultaneous auditory monitoring of output), which they practice extensively from childhood throughout their entire careers. Using a voxel-by-voxel morphometric technique, we found gray matter volume differences in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions when comparing professional musicians (keyboard players) with a matched group of amateur musicians and non-musicians. Although some of these multiregional differences could be attributable to innate predisposition, we believe they may represent structural adaptations in response to long-term skill acquisition and the repetitive rehearsal of those skills. This hypothesis is supported by the strong association we found between structural differences, musician status, and practice intensity, as well as the wealth of supporting animal data showing structural changes in response to long-term motor training. However, only future experiments can determine the relative contribution of predisposition and practice.
Article
Auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks are challenging since the MR scanner noise can interfere with the auditory stimulation. To avoid this interference a sparse temporal sampling method with a long repetition time (TR # 17 s) was used to explore the functional anatomy of pitch memory. Eighteen right-handed subjects listened to a sequence of sine-wave tones (4.6 s total duration) and were asked to make a decision (depending on a visual prompt) whether the last or second to last tone was the same or different as the first tone. An alternating button press condition served as a control. Sets of 24 axial slices were acquired with a variable delay time (between 0 and 6 s) between the end of the auditory stimulation and the MR acquisition. Individual imaging time points were combined into three clusters (0 --2, 3-- 4, and 5-- 6 s after the end of the auditory stimulation) for the analysis. The analysis showed a dynamic activation pattern over time which involved the superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, posterior dorsolateral frontal regions, superior parietal regions, and dorsolateral cerebellar regions bilaterally as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus. By regressing the performance score in the pitch memory task with task-related MR signal changes, the supramarginal gyrus (left#right) and the dorsolateral cerebellum (lobules V and VI, left#right) were significantly correlated with good task performance. The SMG and the dorsolateral cerebellum may play a critical role in short-term storage of pitch information and the continuous pitch discrimination necessary for performing this pitch memory task.