Antiretroviral Medications Associated With Elevated Blood Pressure Among Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
To examine the effect of antiretroviral agents and clinical factors on the development of elevated blood pressure (BP). Observational cohort study of patients initiating their first HAART regimen. We evaluated mean BP prior to HAART and while receiving HAART in relation to antiretroviral classes and individual agents, and demographic and clinical characteristics including change in body mass index (BMI) while on HAART. We used logistic regression analysis to examine factors associated with elevated BP [> or = 10 mmHg increase in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) or new diagnosis of hypertension]. Among 444 patients who had 4592 BP readings, 95 patients developed elevated SBP (n = 83), elevated DBP (n = 33), or a new diagnosis of hypertension (n = 11) after initiating HAART. In multivariate analysis, patients on lopinavir/ritonavir had the highest risk of developing elevated BP [odds ratio (OR), 2.5; P = 0.03] compared with efavirenz-based regimens. When change in BMI was added to the model, increased BMI was significantly associated with elevated BP (OR, 1.3; P = 0.02), and the association between lopinavir/ritonavir and elevated BP was no longer present. Compared with lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens, patients receiving atazanavir (OR, 0.2; P = 0.03), efavirenz (OR, 0.4; P = 0.02), nelfinavir (OR, 0.3; P = 0.02), or indinavir (OR, 0.3; P = 0.01) had significantly lower odds of developing elevated BP. Treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir is significantly associated with elevated BP, an effect that appears to be mediated through an increase in BMI. Patients receiving atazanavir were least likely to develop elevated BP. The impact of antiretroviral medications on cardiovascular disease risk factors will increasingly influence treatment decisions.