Tavazzi L, Maggioni AP, Lucci D, et al; Italian survey on Acute Heart Failure Investigators. Nationwide survey on acute heart failure in cardiology ward services in Italy

Department of Cardiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi, 2-27100 Pavia, Italy.
European Heart Journal (Impact Factor: 15.2). 05/2006; 27(10):1207-15. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi845
Source: PubMed


Chronic heart failure (HF) is recognized as an important public health problem but little attention has been focused on acute-stage HF.
Nationwide, prospective, observational study setting 206 cardiology centres with intensive cardiac care units. During 3 months, 2807 patients diagnosed as having de novo acute HF (44%) or worsening chronic HF (56%) were enrolled. Acute pulmonary oedema was the presenting clinical feature in 49.6% of patients, cardiogenic shock in 7.7%, and worsened NYHA functional class in 42.7% of cases. Anaemia (Hb<12 g/dL) was present in 46% of patients, renal dysfunction (creatinine > or =1.5 mg%) in 47%, and hyponatraemia (< or =136 mEq/L) in 45%. An ejection fraction (EF)>40% was found in 34% of cases. Intravenous diuretics, nitrates, and inotropes were given to 95, 51, and 25% of patients, respectively. The median duration of hospital stay was 9 days. In-hospital mortality rate was 7.3%. Older age, use of inotropic drugs, elevated troponin, hyponatraemia, anaemia, and elevated blood urea nitrogen were independent predictors of all-cause death; prior revascularization procedures and elevated blood pressure were indicators of a better outcome. The rehospitalization rate within 6 months was 38.1%, all-cause mortality from discharge to 6 months was 12.8%.
Acute HF is an ominous condition, needing more research activity and resources.

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    • "Despite the combined use of the best therapies, HF usually advances progressively and in some cases it becomes unresponsive to conventional treatments to the extent that surgical revascularisation [3] [4], ventriculoplasty [5] and mitral surgery become worthless or poorly useful [6] [7]. Patients with acute HF requiring inotropic therapy have approximately a 6-month mortality of 25% based on clinical trials, and European and Italian registries on acute HF [8] [9] [10]. These data underscore the need for further treatment options for advanced HF capable of improving symptoms, hospitalizations and to improve survival. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation (HTx) is considered the “gold standard” therapy of refractory heart failure (HF), but it is accessible only to few patients because of the paucity of suitable heart donors. On the other hand, left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have proven to be effective in improving survival and quality of life in patients with refractory HF. The challenge encountered by multidisciplinary teams in dealing with advanced HF lies in identifying patients who could benefit more from HTx as compared to LVAD implantation and the appropriate timing. The decision-making is based on clinical parameters, imaging-based data and risk scores. Current outcome of HF patients supported by LVAD (2-year survival around 70%) is rapidly improving and leads the way to a new therapeutic strategy. Patients who have a low likelihood to gain access to the heart graft pool could benefit more from LVAD implantation (defined as bridge to transplantation indication) than from remaining on HTx waiting list with the likely risk of clinical deterioration or removal from the list because patients are no longer suitable for transplantation. LVAD has also demonstrated to be effective in patients who are not considered eligible candidates for HTx with a destination therapy indication. HTx should be reserved to those patients for whom the maximum clinical benefit can be expected, such as young patients with no comorbidities. Here we discuss the current listing criteria for HTx and indications to implant of LVAD for patients with refractory acute and chronic HF based on the guidelines and the practical experience of our center.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · European Journal of Internal Medicine
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    • "In other studies readmission was mostly related to age, comorbidities and the type of chronic illnesses [5] [6] [8] [9], the role of age being explained by the fact that older people have more chronic diseases and a lower mean functional status [5]. Vascular diseases and particularly heart failure at discharge were associated to readmission, in agreement with previous observations on the predictive role of diseases of the circulatory system [12] and particularly of heart failure [25]. Also liver diseases were associated with readmission, in agreement with a previous study based upon 30-day readmission [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to identify which factors were associated with a risk of hospital readmission within 3 months after discharge of a sample of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine and geriatric wards. Methods: Of the 1178 patients aged 65 years or more and discharged from one of the 66 wards of the 'Registry Politerapie SIMI (REPOSI)' during 2010, 766 were followed up by phone interview 3 months after discharge and were included in this analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of several variables with rehospitalization within 3 months from discharge. Results: Nineteen percent of patients were readmitted at least once within 3 months after discharge. By univariate analysis in-hospital clinical adverse events (AEs), a previous hospital admission, number of diagnoses and drugs, comorbidity and severity index (according to Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-CIRS), vascular and liver diseases with a level of impairment at discharge of 3 or more at CIRS were significantly associated with risk of readmission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only AEs during hospitalization, previous hospital admission, and vascular and liver diseases were significantly associated with the likelihood of readmission. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the need for increased medical attention towards elderly patients discharged from hospital with characteristics such as AEs during the hospitalization, previous admission, vascular and liver diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · European Journal of Internal Medicine
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    • "Recent guidelines recognize that patients presenting with AHF may not have a previous history of heart failure, and thus are new-onset (de-novo) cases [1] [2]. The proportion of patients with de-novo AHF has been variable, between 12% and 63% [3] [4] [5] [6]. Clinical presentation and management of AHF does not differ between acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF) and de-novo AHF. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To analyze the five-year mortality after hospitalization for acute heart failure (AHF) and compare predictors of prognosis in patients with and without a previous history of heart failure. Methods: Patients with AHF (n=620) from the prospective multicenter FINN-AKVA study were classified as acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF) or de-novo AHF if no previous history of heart failure was present. Both all-cause mortality during five years of follow-up and prognostic factors were determined. Results: The overall mortality was 60.3% (n=374) at five years. ADCHF was associated with significantly poorer outcome compared to de-novo AHF; five-year mortality rate 75.6% vs. 44.4% (p<0.001). Initially, mortality was high (33.5% in ADCHF and 21.7% in de-novo AHF after 12 months), but in de-novo AHF the annual mortality declined markedly already after the first year. Compared to de-novo AHF, patients with ADCHF had an increased risk of death for several years after the index hospitalization. A previous history of heart failure was an independent predictor of five-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.2; p<0.001). Older age and impaired renal function were associated with adverse long-term prognosis in both ADCHF and de-novo AHF, while higher systolic blood pressure on admission predicted better outcome. Conclusion: The long-term prognosis after hospitalization for AHF is poor, with a significantly different survival observed in patients with de-novo AHF compared to ADCHF. A previous history of heart failure is an independent predictor of five-year mortality. Distinction between ADCHF and de-novo AHF may improve our understanding of patients with AHF.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · International journal of cardiology
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