Rituximab, an Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody: History and Mechanism of Action

Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 5.68). 06/2006; 6(5 Pt 1):859-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01288.x
Source: PubMed


Rituximab, chimeric anti-human CD20, is approved for treatment of B-cell lymphoma in adults. It is being used experimentally in other various immune-related diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis. In transplant recipients, it is used for treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, to anecdotally reduce pre-formed anti-HLA and anti-ABO antibodies and for the prevention and treatment of acute rejection. This article primarily reviews the science behind rituximab: its history, pharmacokinetics and potential mechanism of action. A need for controlled clinical trials is clearly indicated before the widespread use of this drug in transplant.

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    • "Although mAbs development in China has made significant progress over the past 2 decades [18], all the mABs currently approved by CFDA are technologically outsourced from foreign firms, like Avastin (Roche) [19]. These mAbs mainly target CD20 [20] [21] [22], antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) í µí»¼ [23] [24], VEGFR [25] [26] [27], HER 2 [28] [29], and EGFR [30] [31] for the treatment of cancer or immunological disorders [32]. Recently, 131I-chTNF and humanized mAb h-R3 have been developed and approved as the treatment for solid tumor after Panorex [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become increasingly important as human therapeutic agents. Yet, current research concentrates on technology itself and pays attention to developed countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of mAbs development in China through systematic analysis of drug registry, patent applications, clinical trials, academic publication, and ongoing R&D projects. The trends in therapeutic areas and industrialization process are also highlighted. Development and research trends of mAbs are analyzed to provide a future perspective of mAbs as therapeutic agents in China.
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    • "Apart from its direct impact on the specific elimination of CD20+ B-cells, rituximab appears to exhibit its immunomodulatory functions via nonspecific mechanisms, either through induction of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, as a nonspecific immunoglobulin administered intravenously, or through stimulation of the apoptotic pathway [14, 15]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    • "RITUXIMAB Rituximab is a chimeric murine/human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. CD20 is expressed on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes , and rituximab binding leads to depletion of circulating B cells [88]. RA clinical trials have not suggested a significantly increased risk of infection [81, 89]. "
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