Epidemiology of Candida albicans Infections and Role of Non-Candidaalbicans Yeasts
Infections of the skin and the mucous membranes due to Candida species may occur either in immuncompromised or in non-immuncompromised patients. This is in contrast to systemic candidiasis (e.g. candidemia) which is only seen in severely immunocompromised patients. Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are increasingly recognized in critical ill adult and pediatric individuals, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Candida albicans is the single most common fungal species causing nosocomial infections. However, non-Candida albicans spp., including fluconazole-less-susceptible Candida glabrata, have become more common pathogens. In some patient populations such as hematological (neutropenic) patients Non-C. albicans species are detected much more frequently as compared to non-neutropenic patients in the intensive care. Non-C. albicans species are more likely to occur in patients, who receive or have received antifungal therapy with azoles (e.g. fluconazole). In this review the current epidemiological trends in mucosal and invasive candidiasis are discussed with regard to the role of non-Candida albicans species as the causative agent in immunocompromised patients.