Article

Individual Weight Change Is Associated With Household Food Security Status

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 05/2006; 136(5):1395-400.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study examined the relation between household food security status and current measured weight and change in self-reported weight over 12 mo using data from the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Current measured BMI categories were as follows: underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), overweight (> or =25 kg/m(2)), and obese (> or =30 kg/m(2)). Change in self-reported weight used 2 cut-off points, i.e., a gain/loss of at least 2.27 kg (5 lb) and at least 4.54 kg (10 lb). Household food security categories were as follows: fully secure, marginally secure, insecure without hunger, and insecure with hunger. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity, household income, education level, and current health status. Compared with women in households that were fully food secure, women in households that were marginally food secure [odds ratio (OR) 1.58] and food insecure without hunger (OR 1.76) were significantly more likely to be obese. Compared with women in households that were fully food secure, those in households that were marginally food secure were significantly more likely to gain at least 4.54 kg (OR 1.68). Compared with men in households that were fully food secure, men in households that were marginally food secure were more likely to be obese and to gain at least 4.54 kg, but these effects were smaller in magnitude than those for women and insignificant in some specifications. This study corroborates previous cross-sectional associations between intermediate levels of food insecurity and obesity for women, and it finds an association between intermediate levels of food insecurity and 12-mo weight gain for women.

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Available from: Parke Wilde, Apr 03, 2015
    • "a family history of illnesses (Tan, Yen, and Feisul 2012; Cederberg et al. 2015) and less privileged socioeconomic status, such as low education (Aekplakorn et al. 2007; Gallus et al. 2013) and low income (Townsend et al. 2001; Wilde and Peterman 2006), are more likely to have excess body weight than their peers. There also exists an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and detrimental lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking (Flegal 2007; Gallus et al. 2013; Kasteridis and Yen 2014) and unhealthy dietary habits (Geliebter and Aversa 2003). "
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    • "As a result, women in food insecure households are at risk of nutrient deficiencies in Vitamin A, folate, iron, and magnesium (Tarasuk & Beaton, 1999). We suspect that these behavioral patterns undergird the unexplained sex differences in the association between food insecurity and weight (Adams et al., 2003; Dinour et al., 2007; Lyons et al., 2008; Olson, 1999; Townsend et al., 2001; Wilde & Peterman, 2006) and why food insecurity is typically not correlated with children's weight (Gundersen et al., 2009; Martin & Ferris, 2007), but for an exception see Gundersen and Kreider (2009). Unfortunately we do not have direct measures on people's dietary behavior or food insecurity management practices to fully explore this sequence, but we do have the requisite data to test our primary hypothesis: H1: There is a statistically significant association between food insecurity and being overweight or obese for mothers, but not child-free women or all men. "
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