Article

Sesame Ingestion Affects Sex Hormones, Antioxidant Status, and Blood Lipids in Postmenopausal Women1

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Abstract

Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

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... Phytoestrogens are plant metabolites that exert estrogenic activities [300,301]. Because sesame lignans belong to phytoestrogens, they may alleviate postmenopausal syndrome [302]. This hypothesis was supported by results obtained in rodents with surgically induced menopause fed with sesamol [303]. ...
... Summarizing these results, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that lignans of sesame inhibit the growth of cancer cells by different mechanisms including induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of the expression of specific genes, and degradation of regulators overexpressed in cancer cells [36,37,302,312]. ...
... A randomized, placebocontrolled study in overweight men and women provided sesame seed equivalents containing 50 mg sesamin per day has not shown any reduction of blood lipids or blood pressure and the markers of systemic inflammation and lipid peroxidation were not affected, though urinary excretion confirmed that lignans were absorbed and metabolized [331]. On the other hand, administration of sesame to post-menopausal women decreased their serum levels of cholesterol and the level of a precursor of androgens and increased the ratio of tocopherols to cholesterol [302]. Differences in the lignan content in sesame seeds used in these studies may account for the difference in their outcome. ...
Article
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Major lignans of sesame sesamin and sesamolin are benzodioxol--substituted furofurans. Sesamol, sesaminol, its epimers, and episesamin are transformation products found in processed products. Synthetic routes to all lignans are known but only sesamol is synthesized industrially. Biosynthesis of furofuran lignans begins with the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol, followed by the formation of dioxoles, oxidation, and glycosylation. Most genes of the lignan pathway in sesame have been identified but the inheritance of lignan content is poorly understood. Health-promoting properties make lignans attractive components of functional food. Lignans enhance the efficiency of insecticides and possess antifeedant activity, but their biological function in plants remains hypothetical. In this work, extensive literature including historical texts is reviewed, controversial issues are critically examined, and errors perpetuated in literature are corrected. The following aspects are covered: chemical properties and transformations of lignans; analysis, purification, and total synthesis; occurrence in Seseamum indicum and related plants; biosynthesis and genetics; biological activities; health-promoting properties; and biological functions. Finally, the improvement of lignan content in sesame seeds by breeding and biotechnology and the potential of hairy roots for manufacturing lignans in vitro are outlined.
... These results are consistent with prior research that found an increase in the 2:16α-OH-E1 ratio after flaxseed supplementation [104,105]. Other studies, however, did not find any difference in the ratio after phytoestrogen supplementation in postmenopausal women [81,95], and one even reports a lower ratio [106]. ...
... Whereas some clinical studies found that isoflavone consumption increased SHBG levels in postmenopausal women [18,71,96,110] [91,97], but most of the studies found no association between SHBG levels and phytoestrogen intake [19,78,79,81,83,85,86,88,95,99,100,102,108,109,[111][112][113]. Lastly, results from epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that some phytoestrogens may have a positive influence on SHBG. ...
... Bioavailable testosterone remained unchanged in both trials. Furthermore, Wu W.H. et al. also reported lower levels of DHEA-sulphate, an androgen precursor, in postmenopausal women after a 5-week intervention with sesame lignans [81]. ...
Article
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Dietary phytoestrogens are bioactive compounds with estrogenic activity. With the growing popularity of plant-based diets, the intake of phytoestrogen-rich legumes (especially soy) and legume-derived foods has increased. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests these compounds may have an effect on hormones and health, although the results of human trials are unclear. The effects of dietary phytoestrogens depend on the exposure (phytoestrogen type, matrix, concentration, and bioavailability), ethnicity, hormone levels (related to age, sex, and physiological condition), and health status of the consumer. In this review, we have summarized the results of human studies on dietary phytoestrogens with the aim of assessing the possible hormone-dependent outcomes and health effects of their consumption throughout a lifespan, focusing on pregnancy, childhood, adulthood, and the premenopausal and postmenopausal stages. In pregnant women, an improvement of insulin metabolism has been reported in only one study. Sex hormone alterations have been found in the late stages of childhood, and goitrogenic effects in children with hypothyroidism. In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the reported impacts on hormones are inconsistent, although beneficial goitrogenic effects and improved glycemic control and cardiovascular risk markers have been described in postmenopausal individuals. In adult men, different authors report goitrogenic effects and a reduction of insulin in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. Further carefully designed studies are warranted to better elucidate the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on the endocrine system at different life stages.
... [17][18][19] Sesamin is the most abundant lignan in sesame and its fractions and is suggested to have anti-obesity, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, and lipid-lowering properties. [20][21][22][23] Nevertheless, studies have indicated the significant effects of sesame consumption on the oxidative stress parameters [24][25][26] , but there are not decisive results because several trials have not represented the same effect. [27,28] Based on our latest search, published data on the association between sesame intake and oxidative stress condition has not been comprehensively reviewed. ...
... After removing duplicate articles and screening remaining 1554 publications based on their title and abstract, 22 full texts were reviewed for further information. [15,[24][25][26][27][28][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52] Of these, 7 articles were excluded because of the following reasons: duplicated data [49,51] , irrelevant data [50] , sesame was mixed with other products (one study evaluated the combination of sesame with vitamin E and the other one used the mixture of sesame and one kind of fruit extract as an intervention, therefore, evaluating the net effect of sesame consumption was not possible) [47,48] , participants were aged under 18 years [46] , and in vitro design. [52] Therefore, 15 articles [15,[24][25][26][27][28][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] were included in our systematic review which had reported the effect of sesame seed or its fractions on at least one oxidative stress marker and included in the metaanalysis. ...
... [15,[24][25][26][27][28][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52] Of these, 7 articles were excluded because of the following reasons: duplicated data [49,51] , irrelevant data [50] , sesame was mixed with other products (one study evaluated the combination of sesame with vitamin E and the other one used the mixture of sesame and one kind of fruit extract as an intervention, therefore, evaluating the net effect of sesame consumption was not possible) [47,48] , participants were aged under 18 years [46] , and in vitro design. [52] Therefore, 15 articles [15,[24][25][26][27][28][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] were included in our systematic review which had reported the effect of sesame seed or its fractions on at least one oxidative stress marker and included in the metaanalysis. The description of the study selection is illustrated in Figure 1. ...
Article
It is proposed that sesame products affect oxidative stress, although the findings were inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the effect of sesame seed and its fractions on oxidative stress parameters in human adults using systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2018 to identify relevant controlled clinical trials. Random effects model was used for calculating the overall effects. Fifteen clinical trials were eligible. Meta-analyses revealed that sesame consumption significantly increases enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and glutathione) antioxidants (P < .05). However, no significant effect was observed on malondialdehyde (MDA) (Hedges’ g = −0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.70, 0.09; P = .078), total antioxidant capacity (WMD = 0.16, 95% CI: −0.19, 0.51; P = .365) and α-tocopherol (WMD = −0.33, 95% CI: −1.11, 0.45; P = .409) levels. It was shown that MDA levels significantly decreases only when sesame seeds were used for supplementation (Hedges’ g = −0.74, 95% CI: −1.11, −0.36, P < .001). Sesame consumption is associated with improved oxidative status. High quality randomized controlled clinical trials from diverse regions are still needed.
... Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) has long been used as a traditional healthy food especially in Asian countries (Beroza & Kinman, 1955;Namiki, 2007). It is not only rich in oil (50%) and protein (about consumption and body adiposity indices (Helli, Mowla, Mohammadshahi, & Jalali, 2016;Sankar et al., 2006b;Sankar, Rao, Sambandam, & Pugalendi, 2006a), the others have proposed that sesame supplementation increases body weight (Wu et al., 2009;Wu, Kang, Wang, Jou, & Wang, 2006). ...
... A number of studies readily provided the SD for mean baseline, after intervention, and change from baseline values for the intervention and the control groups, and therefore we could estimate the correlation coefficient for each marker. The correlation coefficients were calculated to be 0.99, 0.99, 0.94, 0.97, 0.94, 0.88 and 0.94 for body weight (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi, Zakerzadeh, Zakerkish, Zarei, & Saki, 2017;Namayandeh, Kaseb, & Lesan, 2013;Shishehbor, Hojati, Jahanshahi, & Haghighizadeh, 2015), BMI (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Shishehbor et al., 2015), WC (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Namayandeh et al., 2013;Shishehbor et al., 2015), HC (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017), body fat percent (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2006), WHR (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017), and BAI (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017), respectively. The correlation coefficients were used to calculate the SD for mean change in studies that had not reported the mean change and its corresponding SD. ...
... Among the remained articles, 18 were excluded for the following reasons: 14 studies had no data on anthropometric measurements (Alipoor, Haghighian, Sadat, & Asghari, 2012;Cooney, Custer, Okinaka, & Franke, 2001;Coulman, Liu, Michaelides, Hum, & Thompson, 2009;Eftekhar Sadat et al., 2013;Golzarand et al., 2013;Hirata et al., 1996;Karatzi et al., 2013;Khadem Haghighian et al., 2015;Khajehdehi, 2000;Lemcke-Norojarvi et al., 2001;Mirmiran, Bahadoran, Golzarand, Rajab, & Azizi, 2013;Miyawaki et al., 2009;Sankar et al., 2011;Wichitsranoi et al., 2011); 2 studies were duplicate reports (Khadem Haghighian et al., 2015;Mohammadshahi, Zakerzadeh, Zakerkish, Zarei, & Saki, 2016); one study used a combination of sesame with vitamin E; therefore, the assessment of the net effect of sesame consumption was not possible (Takemoto et al., 2015) and one study had no appropriate control group (Suwimol et al., 2012). Therefore 10 studies were eligible to be included in the systematic review (Chen et al., 2005;Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Namayandeh et al., 2013;Sankar et al., 2006aSankar et al., , 2006bSankar, Sambandam, Rao, & Pugalendi, 2005;Shishehbor et al., 2015;Wu et al., 2006Wu et al., , 2009. The flow of study selection process is presented in Fig. 1. ...
Article
Previous studies on the effect of sesame products consumption on body weight and composition have led to inconsistent results. Relevant databases were searched up to April 2018 to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Data on body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percent, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body adiposity index (BAI) were extracted. Ten studies were included in the systematic review. Sesame products consumption did not significantly affect body weight and BMI (P > 0.05). Only sesame oil significantly decreased the body weight and BMI (P
... Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) has long been used as a traditional healthy food especially in Asian countries (Beroza & Kinman, 1955;Namiki, 2007). It is not only rich in oil (50%) and protein (about consumption and body adiposity indices (Helli, Mowla, Mohammadshahi, & Jalali, 2016;Sankar et al., 2006b;Sankar, Rao, Sambandam, & Pugalendi, 2006a), the others have proposed that sesame supplementation increases body weight (Wu et al., 2009;Wu, Kang, Wang, Jou, & Wang, 2006). ...
... A number of studies readily provided the SD for mean baseline, after intervention, and change from baseline values for the intervention and the control groups, and therefore we could estimate the correlation coefficient for each marker. The correlation coefficients were calculated to be 0.99, 0.99, 0.94, 0.97, 0.94, 0.88 and 0.94 for body weight (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi, Zakerzadeh, Zakerkish, Zarei, & Saki, 2017;Namayandeh, Kaseb, & Lesan, 2013;Shishehbor, Hojati, Jahanshahi, & Haghighizadeh, 2015), BMI (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Shishehbor et al., 2015), WC (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Namayandeh et al., 2013;Shishehbor et al., 2015), HC (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017), body fat percent (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2006), WHR (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017), and BAI (Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017), respectively. The correlation coefficients were used to calculate the SD for mean change in studies that had not reported the mean change and its corresponding SD. ...
... Among the remained articles, 18 were excluded for the following reasons: 14 studies had no data on anthropometric measurements (Alipoor, Haghighian, Sadat, & Asghari, 2012;Cooney, Custer, Okinaka, & Franke, 2001;Coulman, Liu, Michaelides, Hum, & Thompson, 2009;Eftekhar Sadat et al., 2013;Golzarand et al., 2013;Hirata et al., 1996;Karatzi et al., 2013;Khadem Haghighian et al., 2015;Khajehdehi, 2000;Lemcke-Norojarvi et al., 2001;Mirmiran, Bahadoran, Golzarand, Rajab, & Azizi, 2013;Miyawaki et al., 2009;Sankar et al., 2011;Wichitsranoi et al., 2011); 2 studies were duplicate reports (Khadem Haghighian et al., 2015;Mohammadshahi, Zakerzadeh, Zakerkish, Zarei, & Saki, 2016); one study used a combination of sesame with vitamin E; therefore, the assessment of the net effect of sesame consumption was not possible (Takemoto et al., 2015) and one study had no appropriate control group (Suwimol et al., 2012). Therefore 10 studies were eligible to be included in the systematic review (Chen et al., 2005;Helli et al., 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al., 2017;Namayandeh et al., 2013;Sankar et al., 2006aSankar et al., , 2006bSankar, Sambandam, Rao, & Pugalendi, 2005;Shishehbor et al., 2015;Wu et al., 2006Wu et al., , 2009. The flow of study selection process is presented in Fig. 1. ...
Article
Previous studies on the effect of sesame products consumption on body weight and composition have led to inconsistent results. Relevant databases were searched up to April 2018 to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Data on body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percent, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body adiposity index (BAI) were extracted. Ten studies were included in the systematic review. Sesame products consumption did not significantly affect body weight and BMI (P > 0.05). Only sesame oil significantly decreased the body weight and BMI (P < 0.05). The body fat percent and the BAI were significantly reduced after sesame consumption (P < 0.05). Sesame consumption did not affect other body composition indices (P > 0.05). The present study provided some evidence regarding the beneficial effects of sesame on body adiposity indices. Further studies are still required to confirm our results. Registration code: CRD42017054149.
... Moreover, sesame samples varied considerably in the form and manner that they were administered to participants. Specifically, sesame was provided as unground seeds, 61,90 seed powder, 48,60,66,68,74,86,88 oil incorporated into vegetable soup, 70 oil dispensed to individuals for inclusion in foods, 77 oil dispensed individually to patients for exclusive use as cooking oil, 80 bulk quantities of oil provided to households for use as the only edible oil in food preparation and cooking, 69,71,75,76,78,79 and sesame-containing food bars. 61 These differences in treatment methods are important to acknowledge, because they may alter the bioavailability of bioactives present in sesame products. ...
... In healthy subjects, no consistent effects on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and anthropometric measures were observed among participants provided sesame seed, oil, flour, or sesamin. 47,48,60,61,63,85 Similar inconsistencies in these outcomes were observed for hypercholesterolemic/hyperlipidemic, overweight, and hypertensive subjects. [66][67][68][70][71][72][88][89][90] Furthermore, in hypertensive individuals, overall effects on blood pressure were inconsistent. ...
Article
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an annual plant whose seeds are purported to be one of the oldest oilseeds used by humans. Although originating in Africa and India, this plant currently is cultivated in diverse regions worldwide from semiarid tropics to temperate areas. This edible seed oil has many routine and diverse uses in food preparation and cooking, and the dehulled seed is included in the preparation of numerous food products, condiments, and confectionaries, imparting a distinctive savory, nutty, roasted flavor. Sesame has a long history of use in traditional medicines for treatment of wounds, asthma, blurred vision, abdominal pain and ulcers, toothaches and gum disease, and migraine, to name a few. More recently, sesame constituents have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may alleviate conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and pain. The current narrative summarizes human studies evaluating sesame seeds, oil, and constituents for improving diverse human disorders, and provides suggestions for future research.
... They evaluated the effects of sesame seeds intake (40 g/day) for Table 5 Main clinical controlled trials involving intake of "Za'atar" components. (Wu et al., 2006) Olive oil N = 24 Men (median age 69.9 ± 2.1 years) ...
... The intake of sesame oil (22.5 g/day) for 4 weeks in 13 women increased serum γ-tocopherol concentrations (Lemcke-Noroja¨rvi et al., 2001). Another study on healthy postmenopausal women was conducted by Wu et al. (Wu, Kang, Wang, Jou, & Wang, 2006) where they assessed that the intake of 50 g/ day of sesame seeds for 5 weeks decreased TC, LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, TBARS in LDL-C, and increased α-/γ-tocopherol ratios. These results indicate that sesame consumption benefits healthy subjects by improving both lipid profiles and antioxidant status. ...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in plant-based food has grown in recent years due to their primary prevention potential. Za’atar, an ancient and popular Lebanese herbal mixture, might disclose relevant clinical interest, due to the well-known intrinsic properties of its individual components. Za’atar mixture contain Origanum syriacum (Lebanese thyme), Thymbra spicata (Wild thyme), Rhus coriaria (Sumac), and Sesamum indicum (Sesame). Here we explored the history, composition, general employment, and bio-active aspects of Za’atar through available in vitro, animal, and clinical trials evidence to depict its possible role as an innovative nutraceutical tool. The combined action of Za’atar constituents is able to generate comprehensive beneficial effects on several common pathogenic pathways underlying chronic cardio-metabolic diseases and cancer. However, main available evidence derives from animal and in vitro studies. Thus, further human studies are needed to fully characterize Za’atar as a preventive and curative tool.
... Among these compounds, vitexicarpin is known to exhibit different pharmacological properties, including anti-proliferative, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, and analgesic activities [24]. Many studies have been conducted to show that flavonoids act similar to female hormones and are beneficial to menopausal women [17][18][19][20][21]. V. rotundifolia is known to contain many flavonoids, which may be beneficial to menopausal women. ...
... Flavonoids act similar to female hormones and are beneficial to menopausal women [17][18][19][20][21]. V. rotundifolia is known to contain many flavonoids, which may be beneficial to menopausal women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Estrogen replacement therapy is a treatment to relieve the symptoms of menopause. Many studies suggest that natural bioactive ingredients from plants resemble estrogen in structure and biological functions and can relieve symptoms of menopause. The fruit of V. rotundifolia, called “Man HyungJa” in Korean, is a traditional medicine used to treat headache, migraine, eye pain, neuralgia, and premenstrual syndrome in Korea and China. The aim of the present study was to confirm that V. rotundifolia fruit extract (VFE) exerts biological functions similar to those of estrogen in menopausal syndrome. We investigated its in vitro effects on MCF-7 cells and in vivo estrogen-like effects on weight gain and uterine contraction in ovariectomized rats. Using the polar extract, the active constituents of VFE (artemetin, vitexicarpin, hesperidin, luteolin, vitexin, and vanillic acid) with estrogen-like activity were identified in MCF-7 cells. In animal experiments, the efficacy of VFE in ameliorating body weight gain was similar to that of estrogen, as evidenced from improvements in uterine atrophy. Vitexin and vitexicarpin are suggested as the active constituents of V. rotundifolia fruits.
... Analysis of the effective doses of sesamin to induce its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects Sesamin doses up to 160 mg/kg/day in mice (Monteiro et al. 2014;Qiang et al. 2016;Ma et al. 2015;Kong et al. 2015;Fan et al. 2017;Rousta et al. 2018;Bai et al. 2019), 1,000 mg/kg/day in rats (Noguchi et al. 2001;Tsuruoka et al. 2005;Rogi et al. 2011;Chinnala, Elsani, and Mekala 2014;Monteiro et al. 2014;Thuy et al. 2017), 50 mg/kg/day in rabbits (Nakamura et al. 2020), and 200 mg/kg/day in humans (Hirata et al. 1996;Wu et al. 2006;Miyawaki et al. 2009;Helli et al. 2016;Mohammad Shahi et al. 2017;Helli et al. 2019) are safe and do not lead to any noticeable toxicity. The dose of sesamin that induces significant effects pertaining to the aforementioned immunerelated and inflammatory responses varies depending on several factors including, but not limited to, the experimental model used, incubation time, mode of administration, detection methods, and the specific immunomodulatory parameters being studied. ...
... For example, Hirata and colleagues reported that ingestion of sesamin (64 mg/day for 4 weeks) significantly improved the lipid profile (total cholesterol LDL, HDL, and ApoB levels) in hypercholesterolemic men (Hirata et al. 1996). Similar findings were reported after ingestion of sesamin (247.7 mg/ day in 50 g sesame seed powder for 8 weeks) and (200 mg/ day for 6 weeks) in healthy post-menopausal women (Wu et al. 2006) and women with RA (Helli et al. 2016), respectively. Moreover, ingestion of sesamin (60 mg/day for 4 weeks) was shown to significantly reduce hypertension in mildly hypertensive middle-aged men and women (Miyawaki et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is associated with the development and progression of various disorders including atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and cancer. Sesamin, a fat-soluble lignan derived from Sesamum indicum seeds and oil, has received increased attention due to its wide array of pharmacological properties including its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential. To date, no review has been conducted to summarize or analyze the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory roles of sesamin. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of experimental findings that were reported with regards to the ability of sesamin to modulate inflammation, cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses and Th1/Th2 paradigm. The potential influence of sesamin on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against cancer cells is also highlighted. The molecular mechanisms and the signal transduction pathways underlying such effects are underscored. The metabolism, pharmacokinetics, absorption, tissue distribution and bioavailability of sesamin in different species, including humans, are reviewed. Moreover, we propose future preclinical and clinical investigations to further validate the potential preventive and/or therapeutic efficacy of sesamin against various immune-related and inflammatory conditions. We anticipate that sesamin may be employed in future therapeutic regimens to enhance the efficacy of treatment and dampen the adverse effects of synthetic chemical drugs currently used to alleviate immune-related and inflammatory conditions.
... Interestingly, no change in HDL-C levels or in TGs levels was observed in response to sesamin ingestion in this study (Hirata et al., 1996). Similarly, a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study found sesame ingestion to benefit blood-lipid levels in 24 postmenopausal Asian women (Wu et al., 2006). Specifically, ingestion of 50 g of sesame seed powder, containing 247.7 mg sesamin, daily for 5 weeks, was shown to result in a 5% decrease in plasma TC levels, a 10% decrease in LDL-C levels, and a 6% decrease in LDL-C to HDL-C ratio. ...
... (* with the addition of palm, safflower or GLA oil, † with the addition of GLA or AA oil, ‡ with the addition of fish oil, § with the addition of GLA oil). hypocholesterolemic properties to sesamin, and explained how sesamin can be converted into enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and a possible enterometabolite, by the intestinal microflora (Wu et al., 2006). The effects of sesamin supplementation on various lipid profiles in 44 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was examined using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (Helli et al., 2016). ...
Article
Sesamin is the major lignan constituent derived from Sesamum indicum seeds and sesame oil. Various studies have reported that sesamin possesses potent lipid-lowering properties. The lipid-lowering effects of sesamin have been mainly attributed to its ability in affecting key events in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism and in lowering atherogenesis-triggering LDL, VLDL and TG levels, as well as in increasing atheroprotective HDL levels. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the reported anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesamin, presented both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular anti-hyperlipidemic properties of sesamin that underlie its well-documented anti-atherogenic effects are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. Studies focusing on the ability of sesamin to inhibit fatty acid synthesis, induce fatty acid oxidation, inhibit cholesterol synthesis and absorption and maintain macrophage cholesterol homeostasis are outlined. The effects of sesamin on circulating serum and liver lipid levels are also highlighted. Moreover, the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesamin are compared to those of other important sesame lignans like sesamolin and episesamin. Findings reveal that sesamin mainly exerts its anti-hyperlipidemic effects by targeting Δ5 desaturase, HMGCR, ABCA1 and ABCG1 through PPARα, PPARγ, LXRα, and SREBP signaling pathways. Overall, the amount of evidence supporting the anti-hyperlipidemic potential of sesamin in vitro and in vivo is compelling. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the anti-hyperlipidemic properties of sesamin is imperative for the possible employment of sesamin as an anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-atherogenic agent with minimal side effects.
... 88 Lignan-rich sesame seed powder resulted in an increase of serum g-tocopherol and of the ratio of aand gtocopherol to TC and a decrease in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL as compared to rice powder, whereas the lag time of LDL oxidation did not change after either treatment. 59 Sensitivity analyses and assessments of bias, study quality, and heterogeneity ...
... Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.Supplementary Fig. 7, http://links.lww.com/MENO/ A627).Oxidative stressSeven RCTs investigated the effect of lignans86,59 and soyderived phytoestrogens54,73,77,87,88 on oxidative stress markers (Supplementary ...
Article
Importance: Phytoestrogens are becoming popular constituents of human diets and are increasingly used by postmenopausal women. Objective: Our study aims to determine the effects of phytoestrogen supplementation on intermediate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in postmenopausal women. Evidence review: Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies, that is, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the association of phytoestrogen supplementation with CVD risk factors (serum lipids, homocysteine, fibrinogen, markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function, carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]) in postmenopausal women. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a predefined data collection form. Findings: In total, 56 RCTs were identified, including 4,039 individual postmenopausal women. There was substantial heterogeneity in quality across studies. Twenty-six (46%) RCTs showed poor quality and there was an indication of publication bias presence for some of the biomarkers. Results are reported in pooled mean difference (95% CI) of changes. Use of phytoestrogens was associated with a decrease in serum total cholesterol (-0.27 mmol/L [-0.41 to -0.13]), low-density lipoprotein (-0.25 mmol/L [-0.37 to -0.13]), triglycerides (-0.20 mmol/L [-0.28 to -0.11]), and apolipoprotein B (-0.13 g/L [-0.23 to -0.03]) and with an increase in serum apolipoprotein A-1 (0.04 g/L [0.02-0.07]. Also, phytoestrogen supplementation was associated with a decrease in serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (-18.86 ng/mL [-30.06 to -7.65]) and E-selectin (-2.32 ng/mL [-4.05 to -0.59]). There was no association observed between phytoestrogen supplementation and inflammatory markers, fibrinogen, homocysteine, or other endothelial function markers. In contrast, use of phytoestrogens was associated with an increase in CIMT (9.34 μm [95% CI, 0.39-18.29]). Effect estimates of phytoestrogen supplementation on oxidative stress could not be pooled. Conclusions and relevance: Phytoestrogen supplementation seems to modestly improve the CVD risk profile of postmenopausal women by influencing blood lipids and parameters of endothelial function. In women with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, although modest, a harmful effect on CIMT progression may be present. Because of limited quality and the heterogeneous nature of the current evidence, additional rigorous studies are needed to explore the role of phytoestrogens in menopausal cardiovascular health. : Video Summary: http://links.lww.com/MENO/A593.
... They have more tumorigenic, estrogenic or anti-estrogenic and antioxidant features compared with other plant species. Sesamin was reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogenic [7]. The phytoestrogens have attracted so much attention in the last decade in view of their reported health benefits and they include four broad classes of phytochemicals namely the lignans (grains e.g sesame), isoflavones (soybeans), stillbenes and coumestrol [8,5]. ...
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Fertility regulation with plants or plant preparations has been reported in the ancient literature of indigenous systems of medicine. The role of estrogen in female reproduction makes it to be a very important hormone whose level in the body has to be carefully regulated. Some traditional herbs consumed by females knowingly or unknowingly alter the levels of this hormone and other important aspects of the reproductive system. This might lead to beneficial effects by boosting the fertility level or produce anti-fertility effects. Sesamum indicum is one of the phytoestrogen containing edible seeds consumed by man as food and for medicinal purposes. Present study evaluated the mean lethal dose of the hydroethanolic seed extract of Sesamum indicum and the effects of the extract on some hormonal levels of female Wistar rats. Cycling female rats weighing 120-140g were used for the studies. For the hormonal level study, the extract was administered orally to three (3) experimental groups of five (5) female rats at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg once daily for 30 days while control group received distilled water at dose of 1ml/kg for 30 days. The animals were subsequently euthanized in the morning of the day after the last administration. The serum estrogen concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) in 300 mg/kg group than in 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg groups and the control rats. The mean serum progesterone level showed relatively lower values in 300 mg/kg group than the 100 and 500 mg/kg groups and the control rats. It is therefore concluded that hydroethanolic seeds extract of S. indicum possess both anti-and pro-estrogenic properties in a dose-dependent fashion in adult female Wistar rats.
... At the same time, the level of TBARS in LDL that was oxidized for 1-3 h was decreased by sesame. This was possibly modulated by higher UFAs content in sesame compared to rice and not the lignans [177]. ...
Article
Atherosclerosis is a major etiology of cardiovascular disease that causes considerable mortality. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a fundamental attributor to atherosclerosis. Therefore, there seems to be an essential place for antioxidant therapy besides the current treatment protocols for coronary heart disease. Polyphenols are a class of compounds with substantial antioxidant properties that have shown the ability to reduce LDL oxidation in preclinical studies. However, clinical evidence has not been as conclusive although offering many promising signs. This review aims to examine the trials that have evaluated how dietary intake of polyphenols in different forms might influence the oxidation of LDL. Lowering the circulating cholesterol, incorporation into LDL particles, and enhancing systemic antioxidant activity are among the main mechanisms of action for polyphenols for lowering oxLDL. On the other hand, the population under study significantly affects the impact on oxLDL, as the type of the supplement and phenolic content. To conclude, although the polyphenols might decrease inflammation and enhance endothelial function via lowering oxLDL, there are still many gaps in our knowledge that need to be filled with further high-quality studies.
... A randomized controlled crossover study compared the effects of 50 g/d sesame seed powder or 50 g/d rice powder (control) supplement over 5 wk in 24 postmenopausal women. This study observed that sesame seed powder treatment increased the plasma ratio of αand γ -tocopherol to total cholesterol, and led to significantly greater reductions in blood lipids such as LDL cholesterol, the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol (80). In CVD research, the most studied seed type has been flaxseed. ...
Article
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The health benefits of nuts reported throughout the literature are extensive and well established for reducing the risk of, and managing several chronic conditions including, but not limited to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cognition. Despite their comparable nutritional profile, seeds are often not assessed in clinical and epidemiological studies. Interestingly dietary guidelines and recommendations often refer to 'nuts and seeds' collectively, even though they are not consistently examined together in nutrition research when determining associated health benefits. The purpose of this review is to call for future nutrition research to consider combining nuts and seeds. This review provides the justification for this proposal by summarising current definitions for nuts and seeds and highlighting the similarities or dissimilarities in their nutrient compositions. Following this, we summarise current evidence on the health benefits of nuts and seeds, research gaps that should be addressed, and considerations for future research using both epidemiological and interventional study designs.
... Again, sesamin reduced fatty acid in plasma and liver, and tumor phosphatidylcholine decreases the serum prostaglandin E2 in the sesamin group [88]. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted by Wu et al., with 26 healthy postmenopausal women, they 4 International Journal of Breast Cancer found that sesamin (50 gm, five weeks) increased antioxidant status [89]. Although there is limited information on in vivo and clinical trials due to the lack of study, conducting more studies may reveal sesamin as the potential anticancer agent. ...
Article
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The use of dietary phytochemical rather than conventional therapies to treat numerous cancers is now a well-known approach in medical science. Easily available and less toxic dietary phytochemicals present in plants should be introduced in the list of phytochemical-based treatment areas. Sesamin, a natural phytochemical, may be a promising chemopreventive agent aiming to manage breast cancer. In this study, we discussed the pharmacological properties of sesamin that determine its therapeutics opportunity to be used in breast cancer treatment and other diseases. Sesamin is available in medicinal plants, especially in Sesamum indicum, and is easily metabolized by the liver. To better understand the antibreast cancer consequence of sesamin, we postulate some putative pathways related to the antibreast cancer mechanism: (1) regulation of estrogen receptor (ER-α and ER-β) activities, (2) suppressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) overexpression, (3) growth factor receptor inhibition, and (4) some tyrosine kinase pathways. Targeting these pathways, sesamin can modulate cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell growth and viability, metastasis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and oncogene inactivation in various in vitro and animal models. Although the actual tumor intrinsic signaling mechanism targeted by sesamin in cancer treatment is still unknown, this review summarized that this phytoestrogen suppressed NF-κB, STAT, MAPK, and PIK/AKT signaling pathways and activated some tumor suppressor protein in numerous breast cancer models. Cotreatment with γ-tocotrienol, conventional drugs, and several drug carriers systems increased the anticancer potentiality of sesamin. Furthermore, sesamin exhibited promising pharmacokinetics properties with less toxicity in the bodies. Overall, the shreds of evidence highlight that sesamin can be a potent candidate to design drugs against breast cancer. So, like other phytochemicals, sesamin can be consumed for better therapeutic advantages due to having the ability to target a plethora of molecular pathways until clinically trialed standard drugs are not available in pharma markets.
... Sesame seeds are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), proteins, vitamin E, and lignans, such as sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol [5]. Recent studies have highlighted the antioxidant [6,7], antihypertensive [8], hypolipidemic [9][10][11][12], and appetite-control properties [13] of sesame seeds and sesame oil. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effect of sesame consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and arterial stiffness in human population. ...
Article
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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, vitamin E, and lignans. Recent studies have highlighted the antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, and appetite-control properties of sesame seeds and sesame oil. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the effect of tahini (sesame paste) consumption on human health. Thus, the aim is to investigate the postprandial effect of tahini consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness. Twenty healthy men with mean age of 28 y and mean BMI of 25.81 kg/m2 were included. After a 12-h fast, baseline blood was collected, participants consumed 50 g of tahini, and blood collection was repeated 4 h postprandially. Assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, hemodynamic parameters, and endothelial function was performed at baseline and at the end of the trial. Blood samples were used for the quantification of intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin levels at baseline and 4 h postprandially. A statistically significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.010) and pulse rate (p = 0.002) was observed 4 h after tahini consumption. Significant increases in serum triglycerides (p < 0.001) and flow-mediated dilatation were observed (p = 0.022) 4 h postprandially. No changes were observed in other indices measured at the end of the intervention compared with baseline. This is the first study to report that tahini consumption can lower blood pressure and pulse rate and improve endothelial function, suggesting a healthy snack in place of others with a less desirable lipid profile.
... В Європі кунжут культивують у Греції та Болгарії. За обсягом світового виробництва кунжут поступається сої, арахісу, соняшнику та ріпаку, хоча за якістю олії перевершує ці культури [5][6][7]. Вирощують загалом три сорти кунжуту: з білим, золотисто-коричневим і чорним насінням. Білий кунжут найбільше використовують для експорту. ...
Article
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The article presents a qualitative assessment and chemical component of sesame flour depending on the color. Enrichment of consumer products to increase the nutritional value of products intended for major populations is extremely important today. Increasing the nutritional value of products using various technological techniques, for example, by adding raw materials of natural origin, in particular, sesame flour is a promising solution of the issueo. This flour contains a large number of nutritious and valuable nutrients. Therefore, the determination of the qualitative content and amino acid composition for further use and combination with other types of raw materials is relevant. The purpose of the research was to study the feasibility of using non-traditional baking raw material of sesame seed flour, evaluation of its amino acid composition for further use in the baking industry in the development of technology for special purpose organic products. The flour of sesame seeds of different colors harvested in 2017–2020 was used for research. The amino acid composition in low-fat sesame flour, depending on the color, allows us to note that the content of essential and substitutable acids on average over the years of research was higher in black flour, and the lowest - in dark brown. The high content of glycine was noted in black sesame – 1.398 g, 0.017 g lower than white, gold – 0.040 g, light brown – 0.058 g and dark brown – 0.082 g. Palmitoleic and oleic (omega-9) represent Monounsaturated fatty acids in sesame low-fat flour. The color of sesame flour has a signifcant effect on their content. Of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, the highest content of linoleic is founding in black – 19.5 g, only 0.2 g less in white and 0.5 g – in gold. Light and dark brown compared to black were lower by 0.8 and 1.1 g, respectively. Кey words: essential and replaceable amino acids, cealics, hypocalcemia, gluten-free products, color.
... Asarinin, also known as D-sesamin, was detected in Paulownia t., Larix d., and Q. frainetto thermotreated woods (6.9-17.1%, Figure 34). It is a non-competitive inhibitor of ∆5-desaturase without significantly influencing ∆6, ∆9, or ∆12-desaturase enzymes (Shimizu et al. 1991) and not influencing transcription of any enzyme; in otherwise healthy postmenopausal women given 50 g sesame seeds, there have been reductions in both eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) (12.0%) and arachidonic acid (8.0%) (Wu et al. 2006). It appears to be able to inhibit the ∆5desaturase enzyme which results in reduced circulating levels of EPA and arachidonic acids . ...
Chapter
Mass spectrometry is the election method used to identify the structure of volatile organic compounds in natural matrices. The use of this methodology in the determination of VOCs in virgin olive
... It should also be noticed that body weight and composition were secondary outcomes of the parent study and the sample size was not calculated based on these variables. To the best of our knowledge, none of the previous studies investigating the effects of SO on anthropometric measurements had a greater sample size in comparison to our study 45,46,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72] , and only one study investigated the effect of dietary CO on body weight and composition included a greater number of participants compared to our study 73 . ...
Article
Background: Recent investigations have proposed that sesame and canola oils might affect body fat distribution. This study aimed to examine the effects of sesame, canola, and sesame-canola (a blend of sesame and canola oils) oils on body weight and composition in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the context of a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, cross-over clinical trial. Results: Eligible participants were randomized to replace their regular dietary oil with sesame oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and sesame-canola oil (SCO) (with 40% SO and 60% CO). Treatment periods lasted 9 weeks and separated by 4-week wash-out periods. Body weight and composition were measured at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of each intervention phase. In total, 93 participants completed the study. After adjustment for confounders, within-period changes were observed following SO and CO intake for body weight (0.34±0.16 kg and 0.33±0.17 kg) and visceral fat (0.13±0.06% and 0.13±0.05%, P < 0.05), respectively. Body mass index was increased within SO intake (0.13±0.05 kg/m2 , P=0.031). All the treatment oils resulted in reduced waist circumference and index of central obesity (P<0.05). A significant difference in change values was observed for visceral fat between SCO (-0.14±0.07%) and SO (0.12 ± 0.08 %) treatment periods, in females (P=0.02). Conclusion: Sesame and canola oils might lead to a modest favorable body fat redistribution by reducing central adiposity, particularly in females; however, the changes were of little clinical importance. The trial was registered in the Iranian registry of clinical trials as IRCT2016091312571N6 (http://en.irct.ir/trial/12622). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The mechanism for the hypocholesterolemic effect of sesamin in rats was described by (Kiso, 2004) who reported that the decrease in total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides may be due to sesame seeds ingestion that regulates the transcription process of hepatic metabolizing enzymes for lipids,and increase the activity of various hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acids oxidation (Arachchige et al., 2006)thereby reducing serum and liver lipids (Lim et al., 2007). Moreover, Wu et al. (2006) observed that sesame ingestion improve blood lipids in animals. ...
... The oils also protects the skin from UV radiation thus being extensively used in cosmetic industries, and in used as antimicrobial agents, anti-carcinogenic properties and hence are important in dermatological care as well as other skin care products (Lin et al., 2018). Other findings suggest that sesame seeds when included in the diet could improve blood lipids, and sex hormones benefiting postmenopausal women (Wu et al., 2006). All these suggest sesame paste, oil and all other products confer health promoting benefits and awareness of the consumers should be promoted to trigger increased domestic production of sesame seeds upon creating its demand in Uganda. ...
Article
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Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most ancient oilseed crops cultivated for its edible oil and uses in food. Sesame seeds are very nutritious and confer health benefits. However, its potential production in Uganda has not been fully realized. The objective of this review was to summarize the trends in sesame production, export quantity, export value, challenges, and strategies for sustainable sesame seed production in Uganda. The review revealed the sesame seed production and area harvested generally increased from 1996 to 2007 but significantly decreased between 2008 and 2018. The review also revealed that while the export quantities and values were low, they gradually increased from 2009 to 2016. The decreased production between 2008 and 2016 could have been due to challenges such as pests and diseases, loss of soil fertility, prolonged drought, poor agronomic practices, poor yielding varieties, and lack of access to credit. Therefore, it is recommended to improve breeding programs and soil management practices; strengthen agricultural credits and extension services to support marketing of sesame seeds; and improve agronomic practices and farmer knowledge on improved techniques such as sowing methods, plant spacing, intercropping practices, pests and disease control measures. These could boost sesame production in Uganda given the high domestic and global demand for sesame seeds and provide an opportunity to expand sesame production throughout Uganda. Research should focus on how to increase seed yield on farmers’ fields and bridge the yield gap between researchers and farmers while adopting good agronomic practices.
... Sesame oil is considered to satisfy compound organ failure and boost endurance speed during endotoxemia in rats, while defending aligned with lipopolysaccharidemotivated oxidative and influencing constructively the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in diabetic. Sesame intake also affects confidently antioxidant status, blood lipids and sex hormones in postmenopausal women (Wu et al., 2006). Cultivated broadly from humid to moderate regions of the world, sesame seeds contain on a normal 25-35% of protein as well as 55% of oil, rich in unsaturated fat. ...
Article
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Fat and oil may improve overall food palatability, flavor and mouth feel some fried food products but elevated fat diet are dejected because of potential diet connected diseases. Sesame or "til" is the mainly ancient crop cultivated for its oil in the sub-continent. Because of its good taste and outstanding stability, sesame has long been one of the most desirable edible vegetable oil. Sesame oil may be used directly exclusive of refining is an ordinary salad oil which could need small or no winterization and is one of the marginal vegetable oils. Sesame meal has potential use in food products as a protein and methionine supplement; hence there is a need to utilize the defatted sesame meal for edible purposes. Sesame coat possesses significant antioxidant activity against various lipid per-oxidation systems. The oil was found to be cyanide free, hence suitable for human consumption. Sesame oil enhances tocopherol and also increases vitamin E action that is supposed to help in prevention of cancer and other heart ailments. Sesame also reduces cholesterol level because it contains more polyunsaturated fat substance in the oil as compared to other oils. It retains different lignans like sesamolin, sesamin and sesamol. The proximate analysis showed the following contents: moisture 4.40%; ash 4.41%; protein 21.00% and oil 54.26%.Oil content and fatty acid composition are important attributes desirable in oil crops. The percentage content of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in the seed oil ranged between 40.7–49.3, 29.3–41.4, 8.0–10.3 and 2.1–4.8%, respectively. Linolenic and arachidic acids were the minor constituents of the sesame oil. Linoleic and oleic acids were the major fatty acids of sesame with average values of 45.7 and 37.2%, respectively.
... They have multiple physiological functions such as decreasing arachidonic acid levels (Shimizu et al., 1991) and blood lipids (Hirata et al., 1996). Sesame oil contains a class of unusual compounds known as lignans, comprised of sesamin, sesamolin, a small amount of sesamol (Namiki, 1995), α-tocopherol bioavailability (Lemcke-Norojarvi et al., 2001), increasing antioxidative ability (Hemalatha, 2004), providing anti-inflammatory function (Hsu et al., 2005;Utsunomiya et al., 2000) and estrogenic activity (Coulman et al., 2005;Penalvo et al., 2005;Wu et al., 2006) also known to have a cholesterol lowering effect in humans and to prevent high blood pressure. ...
Thesis
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Optimization of regeneration and transformation protocol in Sesame was attempted in the cv. TMV 7 and G 1 through direct and indirect methods of organogenesis. Cotyledon and hypocotyl from 14 d old in vitro grown seedlings were used as explants for indirect organogenesis. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (1-5 mg/l) of individual growth hormones (BAP, KIN, NAA, 2, 4-D, TDZ, IAA). Callus formation was not observed when individual hormones at different concentrations were used. The combinations of growth regulators (BAP, KIN, NAA, 2, 4-D, TDZ, IAA) along with ABA and AgNO3 were used for callus induction using cotyledonary and hypocotyl explants. Only hypocotyl explants showed the best response for callus induction. MS medium containing NAA (0.5 mg/l) + TDZ (1 mg/l) produced yellowish green friable calli with highest callus induction efficiency of 93.3 % in cv. TMV 7 and 90 % in G1. In direct organogenesis deembryonated cotyledon was used as an explant. Deembryonated cotyledon was inoculated in MS medium with different combinations of growth hormones viz., BAP (0.5 -2.5 mg/l) + IAA (0.5 mg/l) + ABA (0.5 mg/l) + AgNO3 (0.25 mg/l) with 6 and 3 % sucrose for 2 and 6 weeks respectively. The combination of MS + BAP (2 mg/l) + IAA (0.5 mg/l) + AgNO3 (0.25 mg/l) + ABA (0.5 mg/l) + 3 % sucrose produced more adventitious shoots (3-5 number) from deembryonated cotyledon. More number of elongated shoots was observed in the MS medium containing GA3 (0.3 mg/l). Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out with LBA 4404 harboring pCAMBIA 2301 with Fusarium desaturase gene driven by both seed specific and active region of promoters using deembryonated cotyledons. The transformation protocol was standardized for pre-culture period, co-cultivation time and co-cultivation period. It was optimized that, pre-culture period of 2 days followed by Agrobacterium infection for 15 min and co-cultivation period of 3 days gave good results for Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Threshold level of kanamycin 50 mg/l concentration was used as selection agent. The transformed deembryonated cotyledonary explants were confirmed after two selections by PCR analysis using npt II primers and by histochemical GUS analysis.
... As protein fraction, sesame seeds are rich in arginine and leucine with about 140 mg·g −1 and 75 mg·g −1 , respectively [2]. Recently, many studies highlighted some health-promoting activities of sesame seeds, such as the prevention of high plasma cholesterol [3] and diseases related to sex hormones in postmenopausal women [4], and also the seeds are considered as a strong antioxidant [5]. ...
Article
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Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plants life cycle. However, the excessive use of this element causes serious problems in agriculture. This can disrupt the development of many important plants. Sesamum indicum or sesame represents one of the most economically important and ancient oil crops in the world. In fact, its seeds are used for many biological activities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of high levels of nitrogen on some primary and secondary metabolites and the antioxidant activity under different levels of N supply. Results analysis of our investigation showed that the excessive nitrogen supply had a serious effect on the quality of sesame seeds. In fact, N fertilizer promoted the accumulation of proteins until 57.16%, in detriment of oil and sugars that decreased with 49.43% and 16.27%, respectively. Also, total phenolic, flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity showed a significant decrease.
... The significant decrease in MCV and MCVH may belongs to the presence of negative correlation with the RBC, Hb and PCV (17), and the significant increase in the MCHC may belongs to the positive correlation with the Hb concentration (17). On the other hand, (18) showed that Sesame seeds increases FSH levels due to increasing the sex hormone binding globulin, (SHBG) plasma levels. (19) revealed that the increase in SHBG tends to decrease the plasma free estradiol level in women, this will reduces the negative feed back effects of estradiol on FSH release from the anterior pituitary, so that FSH level will continue at a high levels Increased FSH activity in the Sesame seeds treated groups may enhance the ovarian follicle maturation which is illustrated by the significant increase in yolk weight, As a result, a significant increase in the egg weight was recorded and it's well known that as the egg weight increase, the shell weight will increase also. ...
Article
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The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age) were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each). The 1st group was reared on standard ration (control), the 2nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg) and the 3rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg). The treatment continues for 4 weeks period. Results showed a significant increase in the RBCs, Hb and PCV in the 2nd and 3rd group compared with the control group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in MCV and MCH. Significant increase in the MCHC in the 3rd group compared with other groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment was noticed. Sesame seeds treatments for 4 weeks also caused a significant increase in the WBC count in the 2nd and 3rd group as compared with control. Hormonal Assay revealed that sesame seeds treatment with tow doses has no effects on plasma levels of LH hormone (4.94 and 4.48 miu/ml) compared with control (3.93 miu / ml), but the sesame seeds treatment (500 mg/kg) causes a significant increase in plasma levels of FSH (0.88 miu / ml) compared with the control (0.64 miu/ ml). Sesame seeds treatment, also, increased the egg weight, shell weight and yolk weight and it reached the levels of significantly in the 3rd group (66.15, 7.33 and 20.65 g) respectively as compared with control (61.48, 6.86 and 18.66 g), respectively. It is concluded that, sesame seeds treatment enhanced erythropoiesis, FSH activity and some productive parameters.
... The significant decrease in MCV and MCVH may belongs to the presence of negative correlation with the RBC, Hb and PCV (17), and the significant increase in the MCHC may belongs to the positive correlation with the Hb concentration (17). On the other hand, (18) showed that Sesame seeds increases FSH levels due to increasing the sex hormone binding globulin, (SHBG) plasma levels. (19) revealed that the increase in SHBG tends to decrease the plasma free estradiol level in women, this will reduces the negative feed back effects of estradiol on FSH release from the anterior pituitary, so that FSH level will continue at a high levels Increased FSH activity in the Sesame seeds treated groups may enhance the ovarian follicle maturation which is illustrated by the significant increase in yolk weight, As a result, a significant increase in the egg weight was recorded and it's well known that as the egg weight increase, the shell weight will increase also. ...
Research
Full-text available
The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age) were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each). The 1 st group was reared on standard ration (control), the 2 nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg) and the 3 rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg). The treatment continues for 4 weeks period. Results showed a significant increase in the RBCs, Hb and PCV in the 2 nd and 3 rd group compared with the control group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in MCV and MCH. Significant increase in the MCHC in the 3 rd group compared with other groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment was noticed. Sesame seeds treatments for 4 weeks also caused a significant increase in the WBC count in the 2 nd and 3 rd group as compared with control. Hormonal Assay revealed that sesame seeds treatment with tow doses has no effects on plasma levels of LH hormone (4.94 and 4.48 miu/ml) compared with control (3.93 miu / ml), but the sesame seeds treatment (500 mg/kg) causes a significant increase in plasma levels of FSH (0.88 miu / ml) compared with the control (0.64 miu/ ml). Sesame seeds treatment, also, increased the egg weight, shell weight and yolk weight and it reached the levels of significantly in the 3 rd group (66.15, 7.33 and 20.65 g) respectively as compared with control (61.48, 6.86 and 18.66 g), respectively. It is concluded that, sesame seeds treatment enhanced erythropoiesis, FSH activity and some productive parameters.
... Sesame lignans have antioxidant and tocopherol-sparing activities [59][60][61][62]. They are reported to reduce cholesterol level [48,50,63] and exhibit antihypertensive [64] and anti-inflammatory activities [65] as well as affect lipid metabolism by enhancing gene expression and hepatic enzyme (acyl CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, bifunctional enzyme, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA-thiolase) activities involved in fatty acid oxidation [66,67]. ...
... The chloroform soluble extractives of P. tomentosa revealed the presence of 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycimmanaldehyde, and relevant amounts of long chain hydrocarbons. Sesamin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of ∆5-desaturase with a Ki of 155 µM without significantly influencing ∆6, ∆9, or ∆12-desaturase enzymes [25] and not influencing transcription of any enzyme [26]; in otherwise healthy postmenopausal women given 50 g sesame seeds, there have been reductions in both eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) (12%) and arachidonic acid (8%) [27]. Sesamin appears to be able to inhibit the ∆5-desaturase enzyme which results in reduced circulating levels of EPA and arachidonic acids. ...
Article
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The treatment of wood wastes of Castanea sativa L., Quercus frainetto, Larix decidua, and Paulownia tomentosa S. in autoclave in the presence of micrometric crystals of H 3 PMo 12 O 40 showed an impressive increase of the amount of extractives. The extractives were mainly constituted of insoluble compounds that were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after acetylation. The GC-MS analysis of the chloroform soluble fraction of the extractives obtained from sativa showed the presence of methyl hexadecanoate and octadecanoic acid, that of the extractives of frainetto showed the presence of octadecanal and some long chain hydrocarbons. decidua extracts showed the presence of large amounts of sesamin, while the extractives of P tomentosa revealed the presence of 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycimmanaldehyde, and relevant amounts of long chain hydrocarbons. The insoluble fraction showed the presence of relevant amounts of several carbohydrates and, in the case of C. sativa, of inositol.
... In addition, sesame seeds contain a group of compounds called lignans, including sesamol, sesamolin, and sesamin, all known to have health benefits on account of their anti-tumorigenic, estrogenic and/or anti-estrogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties, along with their positive effect on sperm quality (Suja et al., 2005;Shittu et al., 2007;Shittu et al., 2008). Sesame ingestion (50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 weeks) positively affected sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal woman (Wu et al., 2006). The seed powder is useful in amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, ulcers, and bleeding haemorrhoids (Kapoor 2001;Chandel et al., 1996). ...
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Oil content and fatty acid composition are very important parameters for the human consumption of oilseed crops. Twenty-four sesame accessions including seven collected from various geographical regions of Turkey and 11 from different countries were investigated under field conditions for two consecutive years (2015 and 2016). The sesame accessions varied widely in their oil content and fatty acid compositions. The oil content varied between 44.6 and 53.1% with an average value of 48.15%. The content of oleic acids, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid,and stearic acid varied between 36.13–43.63%, 39.13–46.38%, 0.28–0.4%, 8.19–10.26%, and 4.63–6.35%, respectively. When total oil content and fatty acid composition were compared, Turkish sesame showed wide variation in oil and fatty acid compositions compared to those from other countries. However, the accessions from other countries were fewer compared to those from Turkey. It is essential to compare oil and fatty acid composition using a large number of germ plasm from different origins. In sesame oil, the average contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid were 39.02% and 43.64%, respectively, and their combined average content was 82.66%, representing the major fatty acid components in the oil from the sesame accessions used in the present study. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the identification of better parents with high linoleic and oleic acid contents for developing elite sesame varieties with traits which are beneficial to consumer health.
Article
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a worldwide cultivated oil crop that belongs to the family Pedaliaceae. Sesame seeds possess high nutritional value, enriching fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins. Various phytochemical constituents are found in sesame seeds and/or oil, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, phytosterols, tocopherols, phospholipids, and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin, showing specific health potential to the human body (antioxidant, antimutagenic, estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and hypolipidemic). Bioavailability is composed of two components: bioactivity and bioaccessibility. However, because phytochemicals are treated by the body as xenobiotics, their bioavailability is poor, and their presence in the body is temporary. Although specific methods for determining phytochemical bioavailability in sesame are being established using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, the results are still inconclusive. Several factors will impact bioavailability in the human body, including molecular structure, transport mechanisms, and food-drug interactions. To improve the bioavailability of phytochemicals in sesame and thereby enhance the bioactivities, specific methods such as the application of sesamol solid lipid nanoparticles, the application of colloidal systems, and changing the solubility of phytosterols will be discussed.
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Lignans are naturally-occurring compounds produced and accumulated in several edible and medicinal plants, which can be subdivided biosynthetically into lignans and neolignans. Once consumed, they can be transformed by gut microbiota into bioactive mammalian lignans. Such is the case of the conversion of the most studied and known dietary lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), into enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END). Updated results comprising the action of these lignans (even other (neo)lignans) suggest that they exhibited positive effects on different diseases/disorders due to their free radical scavenging activity or capacity and capability to coordinate divalent transition metal ions to form complexes, in spite of a plausible, partially-registered prooxidant action. Therefore, some (neo)lignans are described as favorable chemical entities to human health, which their safety is also suitable since no detrimental effects are reported for the intake of some dietary lignans, exhibiting a more preventive than curative effect on diseases. Hence, in order to cover such an information about dietary (neo)lignans and their potential on human health as antioxidants, this document gathers the available information from chemical and biological point-of-views, including several topics such as sources, chemistry, bioavailability, antioxidant activity and action mechanisms, beneficial effects, and in vitro and animal/clinical studies.
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The objective of this study was to identify alterations in lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism in both the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) mouse and the mutant db/db type 2 diabetic (T2D) mouse to establish a biological signature for the evaluation of natural products with purported lipid-altering activity. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to nondiabetic group or STZ-induced diabetic groups (n = 10/group). STZ-induced diabetic mice and 6-week-old male db/db mice (n = 10/group) were randomized to the following groups: (1) diabetic control, no treatment, (2) methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) treatment, (3) sesame seed oil (SSO) treatment, and (4) MSM+SSO combination treatment. Clinical parameters measured included weights, blood glucose, serum lipid panels, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection of free fatty acids in serum, liver, brain, and eyes. Blood glucose significantly decreased after 4 weeks of MSM treatment in T1D mice. Serum PUFA levels were significantly reduced in T2D mice compared with control mice. In contrast, treatment with SSO reversed this effect in T2D mice, exhibiting serum PUFA levels comparable to control mice. Serum triglycerides were significantly increased in both diabetic models compared to nondiabetic control, mimicking diabetes in people. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased in T1D receiving MSM+SSO and all T2D treatment groups. A corresponding significant decrease in non-HDL cholesterol was seen in T2D mice in all treatment groups. MSM+SSO treatment's effects on HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and PUFA metabolism could lead to improved clinical outcomes in diabetics by improving the lipid profile.
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Aims Sesamin, the main lignin constituent of sesame, plays a pivotal role in regulating physical state. Some studies have evidenced that the supplementation of sesamin may decrease cardiovascular disease risk. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize evidence of the effects of sesamin supplementation on obesity, blood pressure, and lipid profile in humans by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Data Synthesis Five databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched electronically from inception to July 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials that assessed the impact of sesamin on obesity, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and standard deviation (SD) were used to present the major outcomes. Conclusions Seven trials (n = 212 participants) were included in the overall analysis. Results showed that sesamin supplementation caused a great reduction in TC (WMD: -10.893 mg/dl, 95% CI: −19.745 to −2.041, p = 0.016), LDL-c (WMD: -8.429 mg/dl, 95% CI: −16.086 to −0.771, p = 0.031), and SBP (WMD: −3.662 mmHg, 95% CI: −6.220 to −1.105, p = 0.005), whereas it had no effect on HDL-c, TG, DBP, or weight. Subgroup analysis showed that duration, parallel design, and unhealthy status can affect TC, LDL-c, and SBP evidently. We did not discover a strong link between indicators’ changes and duration of supplementation. Sesamin can be used as an obtainable dietary supplement to improve blood pressure and blood lipids, and further as a health product to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
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Obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accumulating evidence suggests that spices can help lower oxidative stress and inflammation, which may reduce the risk of CVD. The objective of the current review was to comprehensively summarize the findings from clinical studies that examined the antioxidative and/or antiinflammatory effects of popular and widely used spices in the United States. A systematic literature search was conducted in CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed to identify studies that investigated the effect of selected spices on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. A total of 99 eligible clinical studies were identified that examined the antioxidative and/or antiinflammatory effect of consuming Capsicum (n=2), cardamom (n=4), cinnamon (n=13), cumin (n=5), dill (n=1), fenugreek (n=4), garlic (n=20), ginger (n=21), onion (n=3), oregano (n=2), parsley (n=1), sage (n=1), sesame (n=12), turmeric (n=7), and spice blend (n=7). We found numerous studies that reported an antioxidative effect of consuming cinnamon (n=4), garlic (n=10), ginger (n=5), and sesame (n=11) and an antiinflammatory effect of consuming cinnamon (n=6), garlic (n=5), ginger (n=14), and turmeric (n=5). Few of the included studies report an antioxidative effect of consuming Capsicum (n=1), cardamom (n=2), cumin (n=3), dill (n=1), fenugreek (n=1), onion (n=2), oregano (n=1), parsley (n=1), sage (n=1), and turmeric (n=1) and an antiinflammatory effect of consuming cardamom (n=2), cumin (n=1), fenugreek (n=2), oregano (n=1), and sesame (n=2). There are no clinical studies to date that demonstrate an antiinflammatory effect of consuming Capsicum, dill, onion, parsley, and sage. In addition, several clinical studies report an antioxidative (n=2) and an antiinflammatory (n=3) effect of consuming a blend of spices given as dietary supplements or delivered in a meal. Combined, these findings suggest an antioxidative and antiinflammatory effect of several commonly used spices.
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals are xenobiotic substances which interferes with the body’s conventional endocrine pathways hindering its normal function. Phytoestrogens are natural estrogen like compounds which are well known endocrine disruptors for their estrogenic or anti estrogenic activities. These compounds are a major component of our diet. They have a lot of beneficial effects which has been evidenced in innumerable studies. However, their potency to mimic estrogen can cause many undesirable effects which may have impact on the normal health throughout the life of an individual. The entry of phytoestrogens through diet or through various food supplements at some critical points in life elicit impairment of reproductive functions, especially pubertal timing in females which may pose a grave health problem. The kisspeptin signaling system through Kiss1-derived peptide receptor in hypothalamic nucleus is instrumental in the integration of hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis for reproductive maturation. Phytoestrogens act via this system to disrupt the timing of puberty. As puberty is a crucial phase in the reproductive development, and there have been insufficient and ambiguous results regarding the effect of phytoestrogens on puberty of females, we have chosen this topic to provide a brief idea about the effects of phytoestrogen exposure on altered pubertal timing in them. Differences in the data may be contributed to the variety of diet in which the concentration of phytoestrogen differs. We recommend further research on this aspect bearing in mind the time, dose of exposure, food type, cohort size, body mass index, familial history and the epigenetic conditions.
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Sesame seed has been well recognized as a nutritional protein source owing to its richness in sulfur-containing amino acids, particularly methionine. Proteins represent approximately 15–25% dry weight of sesame seed, or 30–50% mass of the defatted sesame cake. Two abundant storage proteins, 11S globulin and 2S albumin, constitute 60–70% and 15–25% of total sesame proteins, respectively. Two gene families separately encoding four 11S globulin and three 2S albumin isoforms were tentatively identified in sesame genome. Amino acid composition of these deduced storage proteins revealed that the richness in methionine and cysteine is attributed mainly to two 2S albumin isoforms and partly to one 11S globulin isoform. Sesame oil, a high-quality edible oil source, comprises mainly triacylglycerols (>95%); the acyl chains esterified to the glycerol backbone are mostly unsaturated essential fatty acids. In comparison with most other edible oils extracted from diverse seeds, sesame oil is extremely stable due to the effective antioxidant activities partly attributed to its abundance of lipid-soluble furofuran lignans, mainly sesamin and sesamolin, which are also demonstrated to possess several biological effects on human health. The oil molecules, including furofuran lignans, in sesame seed are stored in specialized organelles termed oil bodies, which are encapsulated by a layer of proteins on their surface. Three classes of unique proteins, i.e., oleosin, caleosin, and steroleosin, were identified in sesame oil bodies in the past two decades, and gene families encoding three oleosin, two caleosin, and two steroleosin isoforms were found in sesame genome. Particularly, caleosin and steroleosin were named when they were first detected in sesame oil bodies. Therefore, the structural organization of sesame oil body has served as a reference model to study oil bodies in diverse plant species, and the three types of oil body proteins were also subsequently detected in oil bodies of various seeds. Novel techniques for constituting various types of artificial sesame oil bodies with three essential constituents (matrix oil, membrane phospholipid, and oil body protein) have been successfully established, and applications of these artificial oil bodies are actively developed.
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Background: Incomplete abortion is a common complication of pregnancy. Sesamum indicum L. is a widely used emmenagogue herb. Objectives: We designed a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of sesame for the removal of retained products of conception (RPOC). Methods: In this randomized, open-label, and controlled trial, 45 patients received sesame powder as an intervention group and 45 patients received expectant management as a control group for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was complete resolution of RPOC assessed by sonography. Secondary outcome measures were severity of patients' vaginal bleeding and pain. Results: 84.1% had complete resolution of RPOC in the sesame group, while 26.2% had complete resolution of RPOC in the control group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, patients in the sesame group showed a significantly more decreasing trend in pain and vaginal bleeding compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Sesame had a significant effect on the removal of RPOC and the reduction of pain and vaginal bleeding.
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Introduction: Sesame seeds contain large amounts of antioxidants and phytoestrogens, and it has been shown that the leaf extract of this plant may have some beneficial effects on the reproductive parameters of male rats. Thus we tested the effects of the sesame oil on these parameters of reproductivity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen mature male Wistar male rats were divided into the control and sesame oil groups. For eight weeks the control and sesame oil groups were fed the basic rat diet and basic rat diet supplemented with 5% sesame oil respectively. Following blood collection and euthanasia the epidydimal sperm were counted, the morphology of testes was accessed, and Leydig, Sertoli, spermatogonia and spermatocyts cells were counted in histological sections of the testes. The level of testosterone and estradiol 17- β were measured. Results: Consumption of 5% sesame oil compared to control group, decreased blood glucose and increased the epididymal sperm count and progressive motility and the number of spermatogonia of seminiferous tubule (P<0.05), but had no effect on weight and testicular morphology. Conclusion: This study showed that the sesame oil consumption improves some reproductive parameters, which may be related to the antioxidative and phytostrogenic properties of the sesame oil or insulin action improvement.
Article
The present analysis was to summarize the evidence of the effects of sesame and its derivatives supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Electronic databases were searched from their inception to July 2020. Two investigators independently assessed articles for inclusion, extracted data, and statistical analysis. The quality of included articles was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Major outcomes were synthesized using a random effect model and presented as weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity, subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and publication bias were also conducted. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Overall, 16 trials involving 908 participants were included for statistical pooling. Compared with the control group, sesame intake significantly decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, hip circumference, and waist circumference (P < 0.05). These results were stable in sensitivity analysis, and no significant publication bias was detected. Our findings provided evidence that sesame consumption may reduce the risk of CVD by improving blood lipids, blood pressure, and body weight management. Further large-scale, well-designed RCTs are required to confirm these results.
Article
Background Lignans are large group of polyphenols that are formed by the coupling of two coniferyl alcohol residues. Based on their origin, lignans are broadly grouped into plant lignans such as isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, lariciresinol, and matairesinol; and mammalian lignans such as enterodiol and enterolactone. Based on the oxidation level of the lignan skeleton, they are also categorized into numerous groups such as dibenzylfuran, dibenzylbutyrolactol, dihydroxybenzylbutane, arylnaphtalene and aryltetraline lactone derivatives. Depending on structural type and concentration, numerous dietary lignans have been shown to possess biological activities including protective effect against diseases such as hormone-dependent tumors and cardiovascular diseases. Also, they display antioxidant properties in tissues and organs including the liver and the brain, lignans are found in most fiber-rich seeds such as sesame and pumpkin, and grains including barley, wheat, oats and rye. Scope and approach This paper focus on the metabolism in humans, and recent studies on the antioxidant and possible prooxidant effects of lignans at three levels: in vitro, in vivo in animals and clinical studies. Key Findings and Conclusions: Most of the studies investigating the antioxidant effect of lignans were in vitro and animal models and only five clinical trials were found; one evaluating the effect of enterolactone on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and four investigating the effects of plant lignans including flaxseed lignan components, secoisolariciresinol and sesamin on lipid peroxidation. So, lignans seem to be a valuable source for identifying new molecules for preventing various diseases especially cardiovascular disorders. Since most of studies are preclinical, however, further clinical trials are required to achieve more conclusive results.
Chapter
Sesame seed has higher oil content (around 50%) than most of the known oilseeds, although because of the labor‐intensive harvesting of the seeds, its production is far less than the major oilseeds such as soybean or rapeseed. Sesame oil is generally regarded as a high‐priced and high‐quality oil. It is one of the most stable edible oils despite its high degree of unsaturation. The presence of natural phytochemicals accounts for both the superior stability of sesame oil and the beneficial physiological effects of sesame.
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Background: Melanin protects against the harmful effects of ultraviolet irradiation to the mammalian skin. However, melanin overproduction causes several esthetic problem like a melasma, freckle, age spot and chloasma. So, the development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious hyperpigmentation diseases. Methods: This study evaluated the anti-melanogenic effect of sesamolin, a lignan compound isolated from sesame seeds, on melanogenesis induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in B16F10 melanoma cells using zymography, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Also, docking simulations between sesamolin and tyrosinase were performed using Autodock vina, and the skin irritancy of sesamolin was predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Results: Sesamolin significantly inhibited the expression of melanogenesis-related mRNA levels, as well as proteins such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2. Sesamolin inhibitory activity was dose-dependent, and 50 µM sesamolin demonstrated the strongest competitive inhibition against intercellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis without exerting cytotoxic effects. Tyrosinase docking simulations revealed that sesamolin (-6.5 kcal/mol) bound to the active site of tyrosinase more strongly than the positive control (arbutin, -5.7 kcal/mol). Conclusion: Sesamolin is a good candidate for melanogenic inhibition. However, sesamolin was predicted as a weak sensitizer by Derek EC3 prediction. It is necessary to confirm the safety of sesamolin as a cosmetic material in a biological skin toxicity experiment.
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Sesamol is a phenolic compound naturally found in sesame seeds. It has beneficial health effects in humans, as it features significant antioxidant activity and has anticancer and anti-aging properties. Therefore, finding a suitable electrode surface for sesamol determination is important. The prominent advantage of boron-doped diamond electrodes is their use in many sensing platforms without the need for the surface modification. This study represents the first time that sesamol has been determined using boron-doped diamond electrodes in acidic media by square wave voltammetry. Linear responses of sesamol were obtained in the concentration range from 0.2 µM to 1000 µM, and the detection limit was determined to be 85 nM based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The relative standard deviations were 2.1% for a 1 µM standard with three measurements.
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Mayonnaise was prepared by replacing refined sunflower oil with physically refined rice bran oil (RBO), filtered sesame oil (SO) and blends of both RBO:SO. Emulsions were formulated using xanthan gum as a replacer for egg. The effect of replacing xanthan gum on varying oil blends (RBO:SO) on the physicochemical properties such as texture (consistency), stability, viscosity, and bioactives (oryzanol and sesamol content) were also studied. Significant differences were observed in the fat content of the emulsions prepared. Xanthan gum based mayonnaise’s had 63–65% fat, whereas control sample with egg had 78% fat. The spreadability ranged between 1.2 and 1.6 N and stability of these spreads was found to be better than that of control. Mayonnaise with the desired colour, optimum spreadability and excellent emulsion stability could be prepared using RBO, and blends of RBO:SO. Significant differences were seen in the instrumental consistency and rheological studies among the mayonnaises prepared. The present study focusses on the preparation of a healthy mayonnaise using rice bran and sesame oil and their blends which have beneficial health effects due to the presence of oryzanol and sesamol.
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Prevalence of obesity has received global attention in recent years, and lipid consumption has been considered as one of the direct reasons for obesity and related diseases. However, increasing evidences have indicated that edible vegetable oils could exert non-negligible physiological benefits in daily diet, including suppression of appetite, blood lipid lowering, prevention of adipocyte synthesis, and reduction of inflammatory response. Bioactive phytochemicals in lipids and oils, such as tocopherol, phenolic compound, and phytosterol, play an important role in these effects in vitro and in vivo studies. For these reasons, the present review focusses on minor bioactive components in oil and their anti-obesity effects, aiming to provide a systematic information on the relationships between these minor components and obesity, and related diseases.
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The ethno-botanical documentation among ethnic people in Sathyamangalam wildlife sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India has been investigated for the first time. A total of 61 medicinal plants having new combination uses were reported with adjuvant in the treatment of dermatological, Genitourinary and gastrointestinal ailments. This study could help in the recovery and conservation of traditional medicine system among educated generation. The present study was aimed to: (1) documentation of the traditional knowledge (2) quantitative analysis using Use value (UV), Informant consensus factor (ICF), Index of agreement on remedies (IAR), Relative frequency citation (RFC) and Cultural Importance index (CII) (3) validation of ethno-botanical data using in silico biological activity and toxicity prediction studies. Semi-structured direct interviews were conducted to acquire information from the study area tribes. Total of 89 tribes including both gender among various communities were interviewed and their ethno-botanical knowledge was documented. The data were assessed using ethno-botanical indices methods to estimate the consistency of usage herbal knowledge in various ailments. A total of 61 species were recorded for treatment of categorized ailments. The collected medicinal information from ethnic groups shows remarkable new usage of medicinal plants to particular ailments. Our comparative in silico studies also supported the traditional medicine results with correspondence to their bioactive. Traditional knowledge of ethnic people also linked to their culture and history. This study also infers the usage of traditional plant based medicine. Further research related to the bioactivities of reported plants should be encouraged to explore the importance in pharmaceutical industry. © 2018 Center for Food and Biomolecules, National Taiwan University
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The high stability of sesame oil against oxidative deterioration is attributed to lignans in its non-glycerol fraction. The present study evaluates the effects of feeding sesame lignans (sesamin and sesamolin) on Fe2+-induced oxidative stress in rats. Three groups, each of sixteen male weanling WNIN rats, were fed diets containing 200 g casein/kg and 100 g oil/kg (group 1, groundnut oil; group 2, sesame oil; group 3, sesame oil+sesamin (0·4 g/kg). After 45 d of feeding, eight rats from each group were injected with saline (9 g Na Cl/l, controls) intraperitoneally while the remaining eight rats were injected with 30 mg Fe2+/kg body weight as ferrous sulfate in normal saline. The animals were killed after 90 min to evaluate hepatic function and antioxidant status. Compared with those fed groundnut oil (group 1), sesame oil-fed rats (groups 2 and 3) had lower levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, serum glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase activities and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities, indicating protection against Fe-induced oxidative stress. Despite similar tocopherol levels in the three diets, hepatic α-tocopherol levels were higher in rats fed the sesame-oil diets (groups 2 and 3) compared with controls (group 1). However, activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly (P<0·05) increased only in rats fed higher levels of lignans (group 3). These observations suggest that sesame lignans may have sparing effects on tocopherols. The increased bioavailability of tocopherols in the presence of dietary lignans might be due to the regeneration of oxidized tocopherols. The synergistic effects of lignans with tocols has nutritional and therapeutic implications.
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The effects of sesamin, a lignan from sesame oil, on various aspects of cholesterol metabolism were examined in rats maintained on various dietary regimens. When given at a dietary level of 0.5% for 4 weeks, sesamin reduced the concentration of serum and liver cholesterol significantly irrespective of the presence or absence of cholesterol in the diet, except for one experiment in which the purified diet free of cholesterol was given. On feeding sesamin, there was a decrease in lymphatic absorption of cholesterol accompanying an increase in fecal excretion of neutral, but not acidic, steroids, particularly when the cholesterol-enriched diet was given. Sesamin inhibited micellar solubility of cholesterol, but not bile acids, whereas it neither bound taurocholate nor affected the absorption of fatty acids. Only a marginal proportion (ca. 0.15%) of sesamin administered intragastrically was recovered in the lymph. There was a significant reduction in the activity of liver microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase after feeding sesamin, although the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, drug metabolizing enzymes, and alcohol dehydrogenase remained uninfluenced. Although the weight and phospholipid concentration of the liver increased unequivocally on feeding sesamin, the histological examination by microscopy showed no abnormality, and the activity of serum GOT and GPT remained unchanged. Since sesamin lowered both serum and liver cholesterol levels by inhibiting absorption and synthesis of cholesterol simultaneously, it deserves further study as a possible hypocholesterolemic agent of natural origin.
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Conventional techniques for the determination of fatty acid composition of lipids require solvent extraction, purification, hydrolysis, and derivatization procedures that are both lengthy and cumbersome. A 1-hr direct transesterification procedure carried out in methanol-benzene 4:1 with acetyl chloride circumvented all these steps and was applicable for analysis of both simple (triglycerides) and complex lipids (cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and sphingomyelin). Recoveries (greater than 95%) of standards unaffected by the presence of 5% water and 200 mg of silica suggested that the technique could be used for the quantitative analysis of total fatty acids as well as of fatty acids in classes of lipids separated on silica from biological samples. When compared to the Folch procedure, the technique led to a 20.1% increase in total fatty acids for plasma, 3.9% for feces, 7.4% for bile, and 9.7% for rat liver. We therefore conclude that this one-step direct transesterification procedure is superior to currently used methods, not only because of its simplicity and speed, but also because of its added precision.
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Currently there is considerable interest in the potential health benefits of oil seeds, such as soy and flaxseed, especially in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer. We therefore evaluated health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed in relation to serum lipids, indicators of oxidative stress, and ex vivo sex hormone activities. Twenty-nine hyperlipidemic subjects (22 men and 7 postmenopausal women) completed two 3-wk treatment periods in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects were given muffins that contributed approximately 20 g fiber/d from either flaxseed (approximately 50 g partially defatted flaxseed/d) or wheat bran (control) while they consumed self-selected National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diets. Both muffins had similar macronutrient profiles. Treatment phases were separated by > or = 2 wk. Partially defatted flaxseed reduced total cholesterol (4.6+/-1.2%; P = 0.001), LDL cholesterol (7.6+/-1.8%; P < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (5.4+/-1.4%; P = 0.001), and apolipoprotein A-I (5.8+/-1.9%; P = 0.005), but had no effect on serum lipoprotein ratios at week 3 compared with the control. There were no significant effects on serum HDL cholesterol, serum protein carbonyl content, or ex vivo androgen or progestin activity after either treatment. Unexpectedly, serum protein thiol groups were significantly lower (10.8+/-3.6%; P = 0.007) at week 3 after the flaxseed treatment than after the control, suggesting increased oxidation. These data indicate that partially defatted flaxseed is effective in lowering LDL cholesterol. No effects on lipoprotein ratios, ex vivo serum androgen or progestin activity, or protein carbonyl content were observed. The significance of increased oxidation of protein thiol groups with flaxseed consumption requires further investigation.
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Flaxseed, the richest known source of plant lignans, has been shown to have chemoprotective effects in animal and cell studies. Some of its effects may be mediated through its influence on endogenous hormone production and metabolism. Two competing pathways in estrogen metabolism involve production of the 2-hydroxylated and 16 alpha-hydroxylated metabolites. Because of the proposed differences in biological activities of these metabolites, the balance of the two pathways has been used as a biomarker for breast cancer risk. We examined the effects of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolite excretion in postmenopausal women. Twenty-eight postmenopausal women were studied for three seven-week feeding periods in a randomized crossover design. During the feeding periods, subjects consumed their usual diets plus ground flaxseed (0, 5, or 10 g/day). Urinary excretion of the estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHEstrogen) and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone (16 alpha-OHE1) as well as their ratio, 2/16 alpha-OHE1, was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Flaxseed supplementation significantly increased urinary 2-OHEstrogen excretion (p < 0.0005) and the urinary 2/16 alpha-OHE1 ratio (p < 0.05) in a linear, dose-response fashion. There were no significant differences in urinary 16 alpha-OHE1 excretion. These results suggest that flaxseed may have chemoprotective effects in postmenopausal women.
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The studies presented in this report were designed to further investigate the causal association between phytoestrogen action and increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. Phytoestrogens include isoflavones that bind to estrogen receptors and therefore exert estrogenic action. This study included 20 postmenopausal women that ingested 30 g soy milk daily for 10 weeks. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones and SHBG were measured. Total isoflavones significantly increased from 0.014 +/- 0.01 micromol/L (baseline) to 0.53 +/- 0.19 ,micromol/L, and paired responses showed that some subjects clearly increased their SHBG levels. The percent change in SHBG showed a positive correlation with phytoestrogen concentration; all women who had circulating phytoestrogen levels above 0.6 micromol/L increased by at least 30% their SHBG values. Results suggest that phytoestrogens may significantly increase SHBG in subjects whose SHBG concentrations are in the low end of the concentration range.
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We studied the effects of dietary intervention with three vegetable oils (Linola, corn or sesame oil, all good sources of gamma-tocopherol) on absolute and relative concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in human serum. The oils contained only small amounts of linolenic acid but varying amounts of oleic and linoleic acids, and they had different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. Forty healthy female students (mean age 26 y) were randomly assigned to one of three groups and consumed a diet that contained one of the three oils for 4 wk. Refined oils were distributed as ingredients in specially prepared buns, in margarine or as dressing. Serum tocopherols, serum lipoproteins and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were measured. The gamma-tocopherol concentrations normalized to serum lipids increased significantly in the corn and sesame oil groups (P < 0.01), and the alpha-/gamma-tocopherol ratios decreased significantly from baseline concentrations in all groups (P < 0.05). The alpha-tocopherol concentrations did not change during the diet period in any of the three groups. Serum cholesterol, serum apolipoprotein B and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations decreased significantly only in the Linola oil group (P < 0.05). These data show that a moderately modified natural diet that contains both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol increases the serum gamma-tocopherol concentration in healthy women without affecting the serum alpha-tocopherol concentration.
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The risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis drastically increases at the onset of menopause. Phytoestrogens have been suggested to inhibit bone loss and protect the cardiovascular system, in part by improving lipid profiles. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of flaxseed, a rich source of the phytoestrogens called lignans, on lipid metabolism and biomarkers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy were assigned to one of two treatment groups in a double-blind randomized study. Women were asked to consume 40 g of either ground flaxseed or wheat-based comparative control regimen daily for 3 months. In addition, all subjects received 1,000 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily. Flaxseed supplementation lowered (P < 0.05) both serum total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 6%, whereas the comparative control regimen had no such effect. Flaxseed regimen reduced serum levels of both low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol by 4.7% and triglyceride by 12.8%, albeit not statistically significant. Serum apolipoprotein A-1 and apolipoprotein B concentrations were significantly (P < 0.005) reduced by 6 and 7.5%, respectively, by the flaxseed regimen. Markers of bone formation and resorption were not affected by either of the treatments. The findings of this study indicate that flaxseed supplementation improves lipid profiles but has no effect on biomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women.
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Postabsorptive elimination of the various forms of vitamin E appears to play a key role in regulation of tissue tocopherol concentrations, but mechanisms of tocopherol metabolism have not been elucidated. Here we describe a pathway involving cytochrome P450-mediated omega-hydroxylation of the tocopherol phytyl side chain followed by stepwise removal of two- or three-carbon moieties, ultimately yielding the 3'-carboxychromanol metabolite that is excreted in urine. All key intermediates of gamma-tocopherol metabolism via this pathway were identified in hepatocyte cultures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. NADPH-dependent synthesis of the initial gamma- and alpha-tocopherol 13'-hydroxy and -carboxy metabolites was demonstrated in rat and human liver microsomes. Functional analysis of several recombinant human liver P450 enzymes revealed that tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase activity was associated only with CYP4F2, which also catalyzes omega-hydroxylation of leukotriene B(4) and arachidonic acid. Tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase exhibited similar binding affinities but markedly higher catalytic activities for gamma-tocopherol than alpha-tocopherol, suggesting a role for this pathway in the preferential physiological retention of alpha-tocopherol and elimination of gamma-tocopherol. Sesamin potently inhibited tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase activity exhibited by CYP4F2 and rat or human liver microsomes. Since dietary sesamin also results in elevated tocopherol levels in vivo, this pathway appears to represent a functionally significant means of regulating vitamin E status.
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This paper reports the blood lipid status of people aged 4 years and older in Taiwan. The data is based on the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT: 1993-1996), which adopted a multi-stage, stratified clustering sampling scheme. Altogether, 5097 subjects (2451 males and 2646 females) had data on triglyceride and 5643 subjects (2736 males and 2907 females) had data on cholesterol. We found that (a) cholesterol levels of males were lower than females in mid-to old age group (greater than or equal to45 years old); (b) triglyceride values of females were lower than males in young adulthood (19similar to44 years), but higher than males after the age of 45 years, and (c) adult females had higher HDL-C value and lower ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C than males. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 10.2% in adult males and 12.6% in mid-to-old aged men, and that in females was 11.2% and 24.4%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 13.4% and 6.1% in adult males and females (greater than or equal to19 years as a whole), respectively. It was 12.3% in mid-to-old aged men (greater than or equal to45 years), and 11.9% in women. The mean cholesterol values were similar to values of several previous surveys in different areas of Taiwan. But it was higher than those in some areas of Mainland China, and lower than those of western countries. People in metropolitan cities had a higher level of blood cholesterol than other areas. The average triglyceride values of males and females were higher than those of previous studies in Taiwan and of people in Mainland China. Mountainous stratum with predominantly aboriginal residents had higher level of triglycerides and body mass index (BMI) than other strata. The associations between dietary intakes of men and women and blood lipids were examined controlling for age and BMI. Result showed that Keys score, which was derived from saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and dietary cholesterol of a 24-hour recall, was positively related to blood cholesterol and LDL-C in men, but not in women. Average alcohol intakes per day were related to HDL-C positively, but LDL-C negatively in men and women. The regional differences in blood lipid profiles in Taiwan are consistent with the dietary and life-style variations island-wide.
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Background: Reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of breast cancer, but there are only a few prospective studies on endogenous sex hormone levels and breast cancer risk. We reanalyzed the worldwide data from prospective studies to examine the relationship between the levels of endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Methods: We analyzed the individual data from nine prospective studies on 663 women who developed breast cancer and 1765 women who did not. None of the women was taking exogenous sex hormones when their blood was collected to determine hormone levels. The relative risks (RRs) for breast cancer associated with increasing hormone concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression on case–control sets matched within each study. Linear trends and heterogeneity of RRs were assessed by two-sided tests or chi-square tests, as appropriate. Results: The risk for breast cancer increased statistically significantly with increasing concentrations of all sex hormones examined: total estradiol, free estradiol, non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound estradiol (which comprises free and albumin-bound estradiol), estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. The RRs for women with increasing quintiles of estradiol concentrations, relative to the lowest quintile, were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04 to 1.95), 1.21 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.66), 1.80 (95% CI = 1.33 to 2.43), and 2.00 (95% CI = 1.47 to 2.71; Ptrend<.001); the RRs for women with increasing quintiles of free estradiol were 1.38 (95% CI = 0.94 to 2.03), 1.84 (95% CI = 1.24 to 2.74), 2.24 (95% CI = 1.53 to 3.27), and 2.58 (95% CI = 1.76 to 3.78; Ptrend<.001). The magnitudes of risk associated with the other estrogens and with the androgens were similar. SHBG was associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk (Ptrend = .041). The increases in risk associated with increased levels of all sex hormones remained after subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer within 2 years of blood collection were excluded from the analysis. Conclusion: Levels of endogenous sex hormones are strongly associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
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The cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes that catalyse metabolism of the estrogen, estrone (E 1 ), to the putative carcinogen 16a-hydroxy E 1 (16α-OHE 1 ) in humans were determined. The potential of the most abundant circulating form of estrogen, estrone 3-sulfate (E 1 S), to be the substrate was also investigated. Human liver microsomal sulfatases convert E 1 S to E 1 , an essential prerequisite for formation of 16α-OBE 1 from added E 1 S in this system. E 1 metabolism to 16α-OHE 1 in a panel of 15 human liver microsomal preparations correlated with total P450 concentrations (r 2 = 0.63) and with activities associated with P450 forms CYP3A4 and 3A5 (r 2 = 0.72). E 1 16α-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes was inhibited by 75% by monoclonal anti human CYP3A4/5 antibodies at 4 mg antibody/nmol total P450, and by troleandomycin, a specific CYP3A4/5 inhibitor. Rates of E 1 metabolism to 16α-OHE 1 were 1.6-fold higher when E 1 was generated in situ from E 1 S than when E 1 was added. Microsomal preparations of cDNA expressed CYP3A4 or 3A5, with NADPH-P450-reductase co-expressed, both metabolized E 1 to 16α-OHE 1 , and added cytochrome b 5 increased the rates 5.1- and 7.5-fold, respectively. In these systems rates of E 1 metabolism to 16α-OHE 1 were 2.8-fold higher when E 1 was generated in situ from E 1 S than when E 1 was added. Kinetic values for E 1 metabolism to 16a-OHE 1 by human liver microsomes and for the expressed CYP3A4 system were K m 154 and 172 μM, respectively, and V max 238 pmol/min/nmol total P450 and 1050 pmol/min/nmol CYP3A4, respectively. Thus, formation of the putative carcinogen 16α-OHE 1 is catalysed by CYP3A4 and 3A5 and stimulated by cytochrome b 5 . E 1 S is not a substrate but formation of E 1 from E 1 S in situ stimulates formation of 16α-OHE 1 , possibly because E 1 S is more water soluble and in situ generation of E 1 provides for facilitated exposure of E 1 to the P450 substrate binding sites. Blocking of the pathway of E 1 to 16α-OHE 1 could provide a therapeutic approach for diminishing the risk of estrogen dependent breast cancer.
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Some historical facts on and botanical descriptions of sesame are given. Some flavor studies of raw and roasted sesame seeds and oils are described. Composition and some usages are also briefly reported. Sesame has long been regarded in the Orient as a health food which increases energy and prevents aging. Sesame oil has been known empirically as a cooking oil which is highly resistant to oxidative deterioration in comparison with other edible oils. Until recently there were no scientific studies to elucidate these interesting aspects of sesame seed and oil, but the author and members of his group initiated studies on the chemical elucidation of antioxidative principles of sesame seed and oil, and extensively investigated the antiaging effect of sesame. Presence of various new antioxidative lignan phenol compounds in sesame seed and oil is described. Sesaminol has been identified as a new antioxidative principle in raw sesame salad oil. The mechanism of the superior antioxidative activity of roasted sesame oil is being elucidated and is consistent with the synergistic effect of the browning products with tocopherol, sesamol, and sesamin. Noticeable results concerning the antiaging effect of sesame have been shown in a series of animal experiments. The suppressive effect on senescence in mice by long‐term feeding of sesame was demonstrated. Sesame lignans had a synergistic effect on vitamin E activities when added to tocopherols. The addition of sesame lignans, especially that of antioxidative lignan sesaminol in the diets of rats, markedly enhanced vitamin E activity of γ‐tocopherol to the same level of α‐tocopherol, and also significantly enhanced the vitamin E activity of α‐tocopherol. These effects were accompanied by a marked increase in the concentrations of these tocopherols in blood and liver. The enhancement of vitamin E activity by lignans is very important from the viewpoint of evaluating vitamin E activity as well as the antiaging effect of various foods. Various interesting physiological activities of sesame lignans in animal and human tests were shown, such as hypocholesterolemic activity, suppressive activity of chemically induced cancer, and enhancing effect on various liver activities involving detoxification of carbon tetrachloride and ethanol. These recent developments in chemical and physiological studies on sesame seed and oil seem to partially unveil the mystery surrounding sesame though there remain many interesting physiological activities in various aspects of advanced nutritional and phsyiological sciences which need to be clarified. These recent studies demonstrate that sesame, though a minor constituent of daily diets, plays an important role in developing the potential powers of other food constituents as well as markedly raising food quality, not just in the aroma and taste, but also in nutritional and physiological aspects. Because much attention has been focused on the effect of the daily diet on health, especially on circulatory disorders, carcinogenesis, and senility, it seems that sesame seed and oil should be considered as one of the more valuable foods for good health and for good quality of life in general.
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Low circulating levels of the adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are thought to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. In women, either a positive or null association with CVD has been found. The nature of the relation between DHEAS and CVD risk factors in women is unclear and is based on cross-sectional data. We present results from a longitudinal investigation of serum DHEA and DHEAS and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 236 women, initially 50–60 years old, from a population-based prospective (1986–1995) study of the menopausal transition. We used generalized estimating equations to model the relation of serum DHEA and DHEAS to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A and B, adjusting for other factors related to CVD. Both DHEA and DHEAS were positively related to diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and DHEAS was negatively related to apolipoprotein A. DHEA and DHEAS were also positively related to smoking, alcohol use, estrone, and estradiol levels, and inversely related to age. Our results suggest that higher levels of DHEA and DHEAS in middle-aged women may indicate increased CVD risk.
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Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that 16α-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites, biologically strong estrogens, are associated with breast cancer risk, while 2-hydroxylated metabolites, with lower estrogenic activity, are weakly related to this disease. This study analyzes the association of breast cancer risk with estrogen metabolism, expressed as the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone, in a prospective nested case-control study. Between 1987 and 1992, 10,786 women (ages 35-69 years) were recruited to a prospective study on breast cancer in Italy, the Hormones and Diet in the Etiology of Breast Cancer (ORDET) study. Women with a history of cancer and women on hormone therapy were excluded at baseline. At recruitment, overnight urine was collected from all participants and stored at -80°C. After an average of 5.5 years of follow-up, 144 breast cancer cases and four matched controls for each case were identified among the participants of the cohort. Among premenopausal women, a higher ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone at baseline was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer: women in the highest quintile of the ratio had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer of 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.25-1.34]. The corresponding adjusted OR in postmenopausal women was 1.29 (95% CI = 0.53-3.10). Results of this prospective study support the hypothesis that the estrogen metabolism pathway favoring 2-hydroxylation over 16α-hydroxylation is associated with a reduced risk of invasive breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.
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The effect of processing of coated and dehulled sesame seeds on the content of endogenous antioxidants, namely sesamin, sesamolin, and γ-tocopherol in hexane-extracted oils, was studied over 35 d of storage under Schaal oven test conditions at 65°C. Seeds examined were Egyptian coated (EC) and dehulled (ED) and Sudanese coated (SC) varieties. Processing conditions of raw (RW) seeds included roasting at 200°C for 20 min (R), steaming at 100°C for 20 min (S), roasting at 200°C for 15 min plus steaming for 7 min (RS) and microwaving at 2450 MHz for 15 min (M). The sesamin content in fresh oils from EC, ED, and SC raw seeds was 649, 610, and 580 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Corresponding values for the content of sesamolin in oils tested were 183, 168 and 349 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the content of γ-tocopherol, the only tocopherol present in the oils, ranged from 330 to 387 mg/kg sample. The effect of processing on changes in the sesamin content in oils from coated seeds was low and generally did not exceed 20% of the original values. On the other hand, oils from dehulled seeds underwent a more pronounced decrease in their sesamin content than the oil from coated seeds after 35 d of storage at 65°C. The corresponding changes in sesamolin and γ-tocopherol contents were more drastic. The RS treatment, which would be the optimal to prepare sesame oil with better quality, was found to retain 86, 80 and 60% of the sesamin, sesamolin and γ-tocopherol, respectively, originally present in the seeds after the storage period. The loss in the content of endogenous antioxidants present in the oils paralleled an increase in their hexanal content.
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Thirty postmenopausal women (11 omnivores, 10 vegetarians and 9 apparently healthy women with surgically removed breast cancer) were investigated with regard to the association of their urinary excretion of estrogens, lignans and isoflavonoids (all diphenols) with plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). A statistically significant positive correlation between urinary total diphenol excretion and plasma SHBG was found which remained statistically significant after elimination of the confounding effect of body mass determined by body mass index (BMI). Furthermore we found a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma SHBG and urinary excretion of 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and estriol which also remained significant after eliminating the effect of BMI. Furthermore we observed that enterolactone (Enl) stimulates the synthesis of SHBG by HepG2 liver cancer cells in culture acting synergistically with estradiol and at physiological concentrations. Enl was rapidly conjugated by the liver cells, mainly to its monosulfate. Several lignans and the isoflavonoids daidzein and equol were found to compete with estradiol for binding to the rat uterine type II estrogen binding site (the s.c. bioflavonoid receptor). It is suggested that lignans and isoflavonoids may affect uptake and metabolism of sex hormones by participating in the regulation of plasma SHBG levels and in this way influence their biological activity and that they may inhibit cancer cell growth like some flavonoids by competing with estradiol for the type II estrogen binding sites.
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Incubation with sesame oil increases the mycelial dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid content of an arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina, but decreases its arachidonic acid content [Shimizu, S., K. Akimoto, H. Kawashima, Y. Shinmen and H. Yamada (1989) J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66, 237-241]. The factor causing these effects was isolated and identified to be (+)-sesamin. The results obtained in experiments with both a cell-free extract of the fungus and with rat liver microsomes demonstrated that (+)-sesamin specifically inhibits delta 5 desaturase at low concentrations, but does not inhibit delta 6, delta 9 and delta 12 desaturases. Kinetic analysis showed that (+)-sesamin is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki for rat liver delta 5 desaturase, 155 microM). (+)-Sesamolin, (+)-sesaminol and (+)-episesamin also inhibited only delta 5 desaturases of the fungus and liver. These results demonstrate that (+)-sesamin and related lignan compounds present in sesame seeds or its oil are specific inhibitors of delta 5 desaturase in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in both microorganisms and animals.
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The analysis of plasma (or serum) for retinol, tocopherols, lycopene, and α- and β-carotene is a complex analytical problem. This chapter discusses the simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of retinol, tocopherols, lycopene, and α- and β-carotene in serum and plasma. The single most critical element in this analysis is proper standardization that begins with an accurate assignment of the concentration of each stock standard to be used. As the tocopherols, lycopene, and carotene are transported in plasma in lipoprotein particles, one major concern of the assay is to be able to extract these compounds from the plasma matrix. As the lipoprotein content of samples will differ, it is possible that the efficiency of extraction of these compounds may also vary. To correct for this, the standard curve is based on internal standards that have extraction and chromatographic properties similar to those of the analyte and on standards that are added to a matrix of pooled serum or plasma. The chromatographic analysis is performed on a 5-μm particle C18 Biophase ODS column.
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The kinetics of the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) can be measured continuously by monitoring the change of the 234 nm diene absorption. The time-course shows three consecutive phases, a lag-phase during which the diene absorption increases only weakly, a propagation phase with a rapid increase of the diene absorption and finally a decomposition phase. The increase of the dienes is highly correlated with the increase of MDA or lipid hydroperoxides. The duration of the lag-phase is determined by the endogenous antioxidants contained in LDL (vitamin E, carotenoids, retinylstearate). Water-soluble antioxidants (ascorbic acid, urate) added in micromolar concentrations prolong the lag-phase in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the lag-phase is a convenient and objective procedure for determining the susceptibility of LDL from different donors towards oxidation as well as effects of pro- and antioxidants.
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Because much data have accrued to support the concept that oxidatively modified LDL (Ox-LDL) can promote atherogenesis, the role of antioxidants in decreasing LDL oxidation has assumed great importance. High-dose alpha-tocopherol supplementation in humans decreases the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the minimum dose of alpha-tocopherol that would decrease the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. The effect of alpha-tocopherol in doses of 60, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 IU/d on copper-catalyzed LDL oxidation was tested in a randomized placebo-controlled study over 8 weeks. There were eight subjects in each group. Oxidation of LDL was monitored by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and lipid peroxides by the thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) assay over an 8-hour time course at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. Neither placebo nor any of the doses of alpha-tocopherol resulted in any side effects or exerted an adverse effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile. However, there was a dose-dependent increase in plasma and lipid-standardized alpha-tocopherol levels with increasing doses of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. LDL alpha-tocopherol appeared to follow a similar trend. When the time-course curves of LDL oxidation and the kinetics of LDL oxidation were examined, there was no significant effect at 8 weeks compared with baseline in the groups that received placebo or alpha-tocopherol 60 or 200 IU/d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Each year approximately 2.5 million U.S. women are hospitalized for cardiovascular illness, which also claims the lives of 500,000 women annually; half these deaths are due to coronary heart disease1. Despite the magnitude of this problem and its adverse repercussions on the national public health, we have insufficient information about preventive strategies, diagnostic testing, responses to medical and surgical therapies, and other aspects of cardiovascular illness in women. This lack of information is compounded by the less frequent participation of women in research studies; the difference has been due in part to the exclusion of women of childbearing age . . .
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Broadly defined, phytoestrogens include isoflavones, coumestans, and lignans. A number of these compounds have been identified in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly consumed by humans. Soybeans, clover and alfalfa sprouts, and oilseeds (such as flaxseed) are the most significant dietary sources of isoflavones, coumestans, and lignans, respectively. Studies in humans, animals, and cell culture systems suggest that dietary phytoestrogens play an important role in prevention of menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, cancer, and heart disease. Proposed mechanisms include estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, induction of cancer cell differentiation, inhibition of tyrosine kinase and DNA topoisomerase activities, suppression of angiogenesis, and antioxidant effects. Although there currently are no dietary recommendations for individual phytoestrogens, there may be great benefit in increased consumption of plant foods.