SMAD4 mutations found in unselected HHT patients
Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands Journal of Medical Genetics
(Impact Factor: 6.34).
11/2006; 43(10):793-7. DOI: 10.1136/jmg.2006.041517
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease exhibiting multifocal vascular telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in either the endoglin (ENG) or activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1, ACVRL1) genes; both members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta pathway. Mutations in SMAD4, another TGF-beta pathway member, are seen in patients with the combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis (JP) and HHT (JP-HHT).
We sought to determine if HHT patients without any apparent history of JP, who were undergoing routine diagnostic testing, would have mutations in SMAD4. We tested 30 unrelated HHT patients, all of whom had been referred for DNA based testing for HHT and were found to be negative for mutations in ENG and ALK1.
Three of these people harboured mutations in SMAD4, a rate of 10% (3/30). The SMAD4 mutations were similar to those found in other patients with the JP-HHT syndrome.
The identification of SMAD4 mutations in HHT patients without prior diagnosis of JP has significant and immediate clinical implications, as these people are likely to be at risk of having JP-HHT with the associated increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. We propose that routine DNA based testing for HHT should include SMAD4 for samples in which mutations in neither ENG nor ALK1 are identified. HHT patients with SMAD4 mutations should be screened for colonic and gastric polyps associated with JP.
Available from: Ivana Kandic
- "The most common forms of HHT, HHT1 and HHT2, have been linked to mutations in the endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVLR1 or ALK1) genes respectively, both encoding putative receptors for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily that play a critical role for the proper development of the blood vessels –. Mutations in SMAD4 have also been identified in a subset of patients with a combined syndrome of HHT and juvenile polyposis . "
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) play an important role in vascular repair and regeneration. This study was designed to examine the function of CACs derived from patients with HHT. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) isolated from patients with HHT and age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were assessed for expression of CD34, CD133 and VEGF receptor 2 by flow cytometry. PBMNCs were cultured to procure early outgrowth CACs. Development of endothelial cell (EC) phenotype in CACs was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. CAC apoptosis was assayed with Annexin V staining, and CAC migration assessed by a modified Boyden chamber assay. mRNA expression of endoglin (ENG), activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ACVLR1 or ALK1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in CACs was measured by real time RT-PCR. The percentage of CD34+ cells in PBMNCs from HHT patients was significantly higher than in PBMNCs of healthy controls. CACs derived from patients with HHT not only showed a significant reduction in EC-selective surface markers following 7-day culture, but also a significant increase in the rate of basal apoptosis and blunted migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1. CACs from HHT patients expressed significantly lower levels of ENG, ALK1 and eNOS mRNAs. In conclusion, CACs from patients with HHT exhibited various functional impairments, suggesting a reduced regenerative capacity of CACs to repair the vascular lesions seen in HHT patients.
Available from: Eleftheria Vasilaki
- "Perturbations of BMP signaling pathways have been implicated in a diverse set of developmental disorders, tumorigenesis and diseases including ectopic ossification and cardiovascular diseases. Mutations in ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes have been shown to cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (2–4), which is a multisystemic vascular disorder characterized by epistaxis, telangiectases and arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The ACVRL1 gene encodes an endothelial-specific type I receptor for TGF-β members, ALK-1, whose signals are transmitted through BMP-specific receptor-regulated Smads (BR-Smads; Smad1/5/8) (5). "
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ABSTRACT: Dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are implicated in human genetic disorders. Here, we generated genome-wide maps of Smad1/5 binding sites in ECs and PASMCs. Smad1/5 preferentially bound to the region outside the promoter of known genes, and the binding was associated with target gene upregulation. Cell-selective Smad1/5 binding patterns appear to be determined mostly by cell-specific differences in baseline chromatin accessibility patterns. We identified, for the first time, a Smad1/5 binding motif in mammals, and termed GC-rich Smad binding element (GC-SBE). Several sequences in the identified GC-SBE motif had relatively weak affinity for Smad binding, and were enriched in cell type-specific Smad1/5 binding regions. We also found that both GC-SBE and the canonical SBE affect binding affinity for the Smad complex. Furthermore, we characterized EC-specific Smad1/5 target genes and found that several Notch signaling pathway-related genes were induced by BMP in ECs. Among them, a Notch ligand, JAG1 was regulated directly by Smad1/5, transactivating Notch signaling in the neighboring cells. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanism of BMP signaling and the pathogenesis of vascular lesions of certain genetic disorders, including hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Available from: Andreas Lux
- "The majority of HHT cases are due to mutations in either endoglin or ALK1 [Berg et al., 2003; Kjeldsen et al., 2005; Bossler et al., 2006; Letteboer et al., 2006; Bayrak-Toydemir et al., 2006b] but approximately 1–2% of presumptive HHT patients referred for DNA-based diagnostic testing instead carry a mutation in SMAD4 [Gallione et al., 2006]. These patients, presenting initially with HHT but molecularly diagnosed as having JP–HHT, should be considered clinically as if they were at risk for JP and its associated cancer predisposition. "
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile polyposis (JP) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are clinically distinct diseases caused by mutations in SMAD4 and BMPR1A (for JP) and endoglin and ALK1 (for HHT). Recently, a combined syndrome of JP-HHT was described that is also caused by mutations in SMAD4. Although both JP and JP-HHT are caused by SMAD4 mutations, a possible genotype:phenotype correlation was noted as all of the SMAD4 mutations in the JP-HHT patients were clustered in the COOH-terminal MH2 domain of the protein. If valid, this correlation would provide a molecular explanation for the phenotypic differences, as well as a pre-symptomatic diagnostic test to distinguish patients at risk for the overlapping but different clinical features of the disorders. In this study, we collected 19 new JP-HHT patients from which we identified 15 additional SMAD4 mutations. We also reviewed the literature for other reports of JP patients with HHT symptoms with confirmed SMAD4 mutations. Our combined results show that although the SMAD4 mutations in JP-HHT patients do show a tendency to cluster in the MH2 domain, mutations in other parts of the gene also cause the combined syndrome. Thus, any mutation in SMAD4 can cause JP-HHT. Any JP patient with a SMAD4 mutation is, therefore, at risk for the visceral manifestations of HHT and any HHT patient with SMAD4 mutation is at risk for early onset gastrointestinal cancer. In conclusion, a patient who tests positive for any SMAD4 mutation must be considered at risk for the combined syndrome of JP-HHT and monitored accordingly.
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