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Hallucinatory Fish Poisoning (Ichthyoallyeinotoxism): Two Case Reports From the Western Mediterranean and Literature Review



Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is a rare kind of food poisoning contracted following the ingestion of fish. The responsible toxins are unknown, and the clinical feature is characterized by the development of CNS disturbances, especially hallucinations and nightmares. As the implicated fish species may be also related to ciguatera poisoning, there may be possible confusion between the two fish-borne intoxications. In order to clarify this, the literature pertaining to "dreamfish" was reviewed and two cases are presented. A 40-year-old man experienced mild digestive troubles and terrifying visual and auditory hallucinations after eating a specimen of Sarpa salpa in a restaurant. As he had severe behaviour troubles, he was managed in the hospital and recovered 36 h after the meal. He was unable to recall the hallucinatory period. Another man, 90-years-old and previously healthy, had auditory hallucinations 2 h after eating a specimen of Sarpa salpa. The two following nights, he had numerous nightmares and recovered spontaneously after a period of 3 days.
Clinical Toxicology, 44:185–188, 2006
Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0731-3810 print / 1097-9875 online
DOI: 10.1080/15563650500514590
Hallucinatory Fish Poisoning (Ichthyoallyeinotoxism):
Two Case Reports From the Western Mediterranean
and Literature Review
Hallucinatory Fish Poisoning
Luc de Haro and Philip Pommier
Centre Antipoison, Hôpital Salvator, Marseille, France
Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is a rare kind of food poisoning con-
tracted following the ingestion of fish. The responsible toxins are
unknown, and the clinical feature is characterized by the develop-
ment of CNS disturbances, especially hallucinations and night-
mares. As the implicated fish species may be also related to
ciguatera poisoning, there may be possible confusion between the
two fish-borne intoxications. In order to clarify this, the literature
pertaining to “dreamfish” was reviewed and two cases are pre-
sented. A 40-year-old man experienced mild digestive troubles
and terrifying visual and auditory hallucinations after eating a
specimen of Sarpa salpa in a restaurant. As he had severe behav-
iour troubles, he was managed in the hospital and recovered 36 h
after the meal. He was unable to recall the hallucinatory period.
Another man, 90-years-old and previously healthy, had auditory
hallucinations 2 h after eating a specimen of Sarpa salpa. The two
following nights, he had numerous nightmares and recovered
spontaneously after a period of 3 days.
Keywords Ichthyoallyeinotoxism; Ichthyosarcotoxism; Hallucina-
tory Fish Poisoning; Dreamfish
Ichthyosarcotoxism is a type of food poisoning caused via
the ingestion of fish. The most common and widely investi-
gated form of ichthyosarcotoxism is ciguatera poisoning that
affects the peripheral nervous system. It is due to contamina-
tion of fish flesh by various toxins produced by the benthic
dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. A less common form is
ichthyoallyeinotoxism, characterized by development of cen-
tral nervous system disturbances, especially hallucinations and
nightmares. Ichthyoallyeinotoxism has been reported in many
locations around the world (1,2). The purpose of this article is
to describe two new cases of ichthyoallyeinotoxism that
occurred in the Western Mediterranean after ingestion of Sarpa
salpa, and to review the literature concerning this rare poisoning.
April 1994
A previously healthy 40-year-old executive began feeling
weak and tired within 2 h after eating freshly caught baked sea
bream (Sarpa salpa) for dinner while on vacation in Cannes on
the French Riviera. Nausea and vomiting developed quickly
during the night. The next day symptoms persisted and were
accompanied by marked muscle weakness. He decided to
shorten his vacation and drive home. At that point, he began to
experience blurring of vision and hallucinations involving
aggressive and screaming animals. Agitation and disorientation
led him to seek medical assistance (he was not able to drive
anymore as he was seeing giant arthropods around his car).
Physical examination upon arrival at the hospital emergency
room demonstrated no notable abnormalities: no fever, no sign
of focalization or sensory-motor deficit, and normal hemody-
namic status except for sinusal tachycardia linked directly to
the mental disturbances. During hospitalization, the patient
recovered rapidly with complete resolution of symptoms
within 36 h post ingestion. He was unable to recall the halluci-
natory period.
March 2002
A previously healthy 90-year-old retiree began experiencing
auditory hallucinations 2 h after ingesting a sea bream (Sarpa
salpa) that he had purchased from a professional fisherman in
Saint Tropez on the French Riviera. He was used to eating this
kind of fish, and had cleaned the fish after he had purchased it.
Hallucinations were of a particularly terrifying nature (human
screams and bird squealing), and he had numerous nightmares
for the next two nights. Fearing that these symptoms might
Received 15 March 2005; accepted 24 March 2005.
Address correspondence to Luc de Haro, Toxicovigilance, Centre
Antipoison, Hôpital Salvator, 249 boulevard Sainte Marguerite,
13009 Marseille, France. E-mail:
Fish species described as hallucinogenic in the Literature
Fish Families Species
distribution Common names
Described as
hallucinogenic in
Acanthuridae Acanthurus triostegus Indo-Pacific Ocean Convict surgeonfsh, Tang (USA),
Manini (Hawaii)
Herbivorous Hawaii (8)
Kyphosidae Kyphosus cinerascens
Kyphosus vaigiensis
Kyphosus fuscus
3 species in
Indo-Pacific Ocean
Sea chub (USA), Nenue, Manaloa
(Hawaii), Dreamfish (Norfolk)
Herbivorous K. cinerascens and K. vaigiensis
in Hawaii (8); K. fuscus in
Norfolk Island (9)
Mugilidae Mugil cephalus
Neomyxus chaptalli
Indo-Pacific Ocean
Common mullet (USA), Ama (Hawaii),
Haarder, flathead mullet (South Africa)
Omnivorous Hawaii (3)
Mullidae Mulloidichthys
Upeneus arge
Both species in
Indo-Pacific Ocean
Surmullet, goatfish (USA), Weke’a’a,
Weke-ula (Hawaii for M. samoensis),
Weke pueo (Hawaii for U. arge), Jome
(Marshall Islands), Tebaweina
(Gilbert Islands), Afolu i’a sina (Samoa)
Omnivorous Both species in
Hawaii (3,14,18).
Pomacentridae Abudefduf
Indo-Pacific Ocean Damselfish (USA), Maomao (Hawaii),
Ulavapua, Alala saga, Mutu (Samoa),
Bakej (Marshall Islands), Tebukibuki
(Gilbert Islands), Palata (Philippines),
Sergent-Major (French Polynesia)
Herbivorous Gilbert Islands (10)
Serranidae Epinephelus
Tropical Indo-Pacific
Coral Grouper (USA), Gatala (Samoa),
Rero (Polynesia), Baraka, Kugtung
(Philippines), Coral Rockcod
(Australia), Vieille (Seychelles,
Mauritius, French)
Carnivorous Gilbert Islands (10)
Siganidae Siganus argenteus
Siganus corallinus
Siganus luridus
Siganus rivulatus
Siganus spinus
5 species in Indo-Pacific
Ocean, S. luridus and
S.rivulatus settled in
Mediterranean and
Red sea
Rabbitfish (English), Poisson Lapin,
Cordonnier (Mauritius, Réunion,
French), Aras (Israel)
Herbivorous S. argenteus and S. corallinus in
Mauritius (19).
S. luridus in Israel (7, 16).
S. rivulatus in Mauritius (19)
and suspected in Israel (5).
Siganus spinus in Réunion
island (12)
Sparidae Sarpa salpa Mediterranean sea Saupe (English & French), Salema
(Spain & Israel)
Herbivorous Tunisia (4), France (11) and
Israel (5,6).
signal the beginning of a major mental illness, he did not tell
his friends or attending physician. The manifestations abated
three days after he had eaten the fish. Later, he recalled a warn-
ing that he had heard at the fish market concerning the halluci-
nogenic potential of sea bream and decided to contact the
Poison Control Center in Marseille.
Clinical symptoms of ichthyoallyeinotoxism occur within a
few minutes to 2 h after ingestion of toxic fish. The first symp-
toms resemble inebriety with loss of balance and coordination
and generalized malaise (1–3). Sore throat and heartburn have
also been reported in the initial phase. Within a few hours, spe-
cific signs of poisoning occur including delirium, visual and/or
auditory hallucinations (often involving animals), depression,
feelings of impending death with reactive tachycardia and
hyperventilation, and disturbed behavior. If they are able to
sleep, patients classically report terrifying nightmares (3). Gas-
trointestinal symptoms including nausea, abdominal pain, and
diarrhea have been described in a few cases, but are usually
low-grade (3). No specific treatment or antidote treatment is
available. Appropriate management of transient behavioral
disturbances (e.g., using benzodiazepine or neuroleptics), is
important to prevent self-inflicted or other injury. Symptomatic
treatment for gastrointestinal manifestation can enhance
patient comfort. Symptoms generally abate within 24 to 36 h,
but weakness may persist for several days (1–3).
Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is widespread in tropical and temper-
ate areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans as well as in the
Mediterranean Sea. Toxic fish species belong to the 8 families
detailed in Table 1. Most are herbivores or scavengers living in
coastal areas. It should be noted that toxicity in all species var-
ies according to fishing location, season, and way of preparing
the fish (3). In the Mediterranean, most poisonings involving
Sarpa salpa (eaten in Tunisia, France and Israel but considered
as inedible in Italy and Spain), have been reported in spring
and summer (4–7). A classically reported exacerbating factor is
consumption of fish cooked without removing the head, and/or
not immediately gutted after being caught (8). Although the
toxic agents are still unknown, some authors have implicated
toxic macroalgaes (caulerpaceae family) that are ingested and
contaminate the flesh of fish (3,4). These toxins are probably
heat stable since case reports have been described after inges-
tion of fried, boiled, steamed or raw fish (3,7). Most cases have
been described anecdotally as unexpected, sporadic accidental
food poisonings, usually occurring in endemic areas after con-
sumption of fish considered as safe. However some cases of
intentional consumption of “dreamfish” have been reported (8–
10). Consumption of Sarpa salpa was reported for recreational
purposes in the Mediterranean during the Roman Empire (11),
and for ceremonial purposes particularly in Polynesian popula-
tions (8–10). The traditional names given to hallucinogenic
species reflect their potentially toxic effect. Sarpa salpa is
called “the fish that makes dreams” in Arab; Siganus spinus is
called “the fish that inebriates” in Mascareignes (southwest
coast of Reunion Island) (12,13); and Mulloidichthys samoen-
sis is called “the chief of ghosts” in the Hawaiian Islands of
Molokai, Kauai, and Oahu (8, 14,15).
It should be emphasized that tropical fish species that cause
ichthyoallyeinotoxism are also implicated in cases of ciguatera
poisoning. In this regard, there has been some confusion con-
cerning these two forms of ichthyosarcotoxism. Some cases of
ichthyoallyeinotoxism reported in the western (11) and eastern
Mediterranean (5–7,16) after ingestion of Sarpa salpa or Siga-
nus luridus, have been described as ciguatera despite typical
clinical signs of ichthyoallyeinotoxism, (i.e., hallucinations
and nightmares lasting for a few hours). In this regard, it
should be noted that the presence of Gambierdiscus toxicus,
the dinoflagellate solely responsible for ciguatera, has not been
formally documented in the Mediterranean. It should be
emphasized that there are differences in clinical expression:
ichthyoallyeinotoxism is characterized by central nervous sys-
tem involvement, whereas ciguatera features peripheral ner-
vous system involvement. The two diseases are also different
with regard to potential severity and duration. Most patients
with ichthyoallyeinotoxism recover within 36 h (1–3), while
many patients with ciguatera die or present prolonged symp-
tomatology for several months (17).
Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is a rare, poorly understood fish-
borne intoxication. Its incidence is probably underestimated for
several reasons. The first is that symptoms often occur at night
and are short-lived. As a result, patients do not always seek
medical advice, as was the case for our second patient. Another
reason is that the disease occurs in remote geographical areas
(islands and isolated archipelagoes), where there are few medi-
cal facilities able to document cases. Finally, voluntary inges-
tion by its very nature seldom leads to medical intervention.
Great care is necessary to avoid confusing ichthyoallyeinotox-
ism and ciguatera that involve the same species in overlapping
endemic areas.
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... In Egypt, reports on the occurrence of ciguatera cases (including several fatalities) since the 1980s until recently are found in the literature (Abd-Elhaleem and Abd-Elkarim, 2011;El Masry and Fawzi, 2011;El Masry and Tawfik, 2013). Recent poisoning cases with a hallucinatory component also were described in 1994 and 2002 in the western Mediterranean (de Haro and Pommier, 2006). These observations are consistent with the report of Gambierdiscus cells on various macroalgal species sampled in Crete in 2003, which constitutes the earliest record of this genus in the Mediterranean Sea (Aligizaki and Nikolaidis, 2008). ...
... However, studies conducted on various rabbit fish (Siganus sp.) samples failed to unequivocally link these incidents to CP, since the presence of CTXs could not be confirmed (Bentur and Spanier, 2007). This raises concern for possible misdiagnosis of CP with other forms of ichthyosarchotoxism occurring in this area (Chevaldonné, 1990;de Haro and Pommier, 2006). For instance, it was suggested that previous poisoning cases linked to S. salpa consumption were in fact the result of these fish feeding on Caulerpa macroalgae and contaminated with caulerpenyne, a sesquiterpene with strong neurotoxic and deterrent properties (Paul and Fenical, 1986;Brunelli et al., 2000). ...
CIGUATERA POISONINGS: A GLOBAL REVIEW OF OCCURRENCES AND TRENDS Chinain M.1*, Gatti C.M.1, Darius H.T.1, Quod J.-P.2, Tester P.A.3 1Laboratory of Marine Biotoxins, Institut Louis Malardé – UMR EIO, BP 30, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia 2ARVAM-Pareto, Technopole de la Réunion, 14 rue Henri Cornu, 97490 Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France 3Ocean Tester, LLC, 295 Dills Point Road, Beaufort, North Carolina, 28516, USA ABSTRACT Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is the most prevalent, phycotoxin related seafood poisoning across the globe, affecting between 10,000 to 50,000 people annually. This illness results from the consumption of seafood contaminated with lipid soluble toxins known as ciguatoxins (CTXs) that are produced by benthic dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The present work reviews the global occurrence of CP events and outbreaks, based on both scientific and grey literature. Ciguatera prevalence is significantly underestimated due to a lack of recognition of ciguatera symptoms, limited collection of epidemiological data on a global level, and reticence to report ciguatera in CP-endemic regions. Analysis of the time-series data available for a limited number of countries indicates the highest incidence rates are consistently reported from two historical CP-endemic areas i.e., the Pacific and Caribbean regions, a situation due in part to the strong reliance of local communities on marine resources. Ciguatera-related fatalities are rare (<0.1% of reported cases). The vast majority of outbreaks involve carnivorous fish including snappers, groupers, wrasses, and barracudas. Since 2000, an expansion of the geographical range of CP has been observed in several areas like Macaronesia and east and southeast Asia. In some of these locales, random surveys confirmed the presence of CTXs in locally sourced fish, consistent with the concurrent report of novel CP incidents (e.g., Canary Islands, Madeira, Selvagens Islands, New South Wales). One characteristic of outbreaks occurring in Asia is that they often present as large disease clusters due to group consumption of a single contaminated fish. Similar observations are reported from the Indian Ocean in the form of shark poisoning outbreaks which often lead to singular types of CP characterized by a high fatality rate. Other atypical forms of CP linked to the consumption of marine invertebrates also have been documented recently. Owing to the significant health, socioeconomic and socio-cultural impacts of ciguatera, there is an urgent need for increased, standardized, coordinated efforts in ciguatera education, monitoring and research programs. Several regional and international initiatives have emerged recently, that may help improve patients' care, data collection at a global scale, and risk monitoring and management capabilities in countries most vulnerable to CP's toxic threat. Keywords: Ciguatera Poisoning, outbreaks, epidemiology, atypical forms, global occurrence, Gambierdiscus spp., Fukuyoa spp., ciguatoxins; toxin analyses
... A great diagnostic aid is the fact that humans consuming the same fish flesh or related fish catches are compared with several different patients who exhibit clinical symptoms and time course consistent with CFP (Stinn et al., 2000). 46.6.1 Differential diagnosis PSP, NSP, scombrotoxin fish poisoning, pufferfish poisoning (also referred to as Fugu poisoning), and hallucinatory fish poisoning usually have some CFP common clinical symptoms (De Haro and Pommier, 2006). Other diseases with similar clinical symptomology include botulism, enterovirus infection, and bacteremia (Ting and Brown, 2001); organophosphate poisoning, electrolyte disorders often caused by a loss of bodily fluids through prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, eosinophilic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, GuillainÀBarre syndrome, and other neurologic conditions (Gatti et al., 2008). ...
... Ichthyoallyeinotoxism (S. luridus): The ingestion of its flesh may induced central nervous system symptoms including hallucinations and nightmaresichthyoallyeinotoxismlasting to 36 h. Ichthyoallyeinotoxism was reported also following consumption of the native Sarpa salpa (Spanier et al., 1989;de Haro and Pommier, 2006). It may be misdiagnosed as "ciguatera-like poisoning" (see Raikhlin-Eisenkraft and Bentur, 2002), but the latter usually lasts for weeks or months. ...
The Mediterranean region is, by far, a prime travel destination, having hosted more than 330 million tourists in 2016, mostly for seaside holidays. A greatly increased influx of thermophilic Red Sea species, introduced through the Suez Canal in a process referred to as Lessepsian invasion (in honor of Ferdinand de Lesseps who instigated the building of the Suez Canal), have raised awareness among scientists, medical personnel, and the public, of health risks caused by some venomous and poisonous marine species. The main species of concern are the poisonous Lagocephalus sceleratus, and the venomous Plotosus lineatus, Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Pterois miles, Synancea verrucosa, Rhopilema nomadica, Macrorhynchia philippina and Diadema setosum. Recognizing that the main factors that drive the introduction and dispersal of Red Sea biota in the Mediterranean, i.e., Suez Canal enlargements and warming seawater, are set to increase, and international tourist arrivals are forecasted to increase as well, to 500 million in 2030, an increase in intoxications and envenomations by alien marine species is to be expected and prepared for.
... The detection of possible CTX-compounds in Siganus sp. by Bentur and Spanier (2007) was performed using a Cigua-Check strip test, which was later considered unreliable (Bienfang et al., 2011). In addition, the clinical symptoms described, including hallucinations, are rare in CP cases (Chinain et al., 2019) and they are indicative of ichthyoallyeinotoxism, which is often mistaken for cases of CP (De Haro and Pommier, 2006). ...
Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa are genera of toxic dinoflagellates which were mainly considered as endemic to marine intertropical areas, and that are well known as producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a human poisoning occurring after the consumption of fish or more rarely, shellfish containing CTXs. The presence of these microalgae in a coastal area is an indication of potential risk of CP. This study assesses the risk of CP in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean Sea) according to the distribution of both microalgae genera, and the presence of CTX-like and MTX-like toxicity in microalgal cultures as determined by neuro-2a cell based-assay (neuro-2a CBA). Genetic identification of forty-three cultured microalgal strains isolated from 2016 to 2019 revealed that all of them belong to the species G. australes and F. paulensis. Both species were widely distributed in Formentera, Majorca and Minorca. Additionally, all strains of G. australes and two of F. paulensis exhibited signals of CTX-like toxicity ranging respectively between 1 and 380 and 8–16 fg CTX1B equivalents (equiv.) • cell⁻¹. Four extracts of F. paulensis exhibited a novel toxicity response in neuro-2a cells consisting of the recovery of the cell viability in the presence of ouabain and veratridine. In addition, G. australes showed MTX-like toxicity while F. paulensis strains did not. Overall, the low CTX-like toxicities detected indicate that the potential risk of CP in the Balearic Islands is low, although, the presence of CTX-like and MTX-like toxicity in those strains reveal the necessity to monitor these genera in the Mediterranean Sea.
... D'autres syndromes sont rapportés après ingestion de fruits de mer et de poissons : le plus fréquent en Europe et le mieux connu est le scombrotoxisme après ingestion de chair avariée de poissons bleus [14] ; mais citons aussi les hypervitaminoses A après ingestion de foie de gros poissons (mérous, sérioles, thon, marlins. . .) [20], les hallucinations observées lors des ichthyoallyeinotoxismes [21], le tétrodotoxisme qui, loin de ne concerner que le Japon, est à l'origine de cas graves rapportés en outremer [2], le carchatoxisme (ingestion de chair de grands requins contaminés par les carchatoxines d'origine inconnue), le clupéotoxisme (contamination par la palytoxine des sardines et anchois planctonophages), le chélonitoxisme (intoxication par chair de tortues marines contaminées par certaines toxines de cyanobactéries), et d'autres formes encore plus rares tels l'ichthyogallotoxisme ou l'ichthyootoxisme. . . ...
Résumé La ciguatéra est une intoxication fréquente en zone tropicale. Depuis 1993, le Centre Antipoison de Marseille travaille sur le sujet de la Toxinologie marine et des intoxications par produits de la mer. Les auteurs rapportent l’expérience de ce service sur la ciguatéra de 1993 à 2017. Quarante-neuf intoxications ont été étudiées concernant 175 patients (25 cas avec un seul patient et 24 cas collectifs avec 2 à 30 patients). Cent douze patients étaient des touristes de métropole intoxiqués durant leurs vacances et 62 patients étaient des habitants d’Outremer intoxiqués chez eux. Un seul patient, un marin civil, a été intoxiqué lors de son activité professionnelle. L’espèce de poisson incriminée a été identifiée dans 70 % des cas et appartenait alors majoritairement à trois familles : 10 mérous (Serranidae), 5 barracudas (Sphyraenidae) et 5 vivaneaux (Lutjanidae). Les intoxications ont eu lieu en Atlantique dans 23 cas (98 patients), dans l’océan Indien dans 12 cas (53 patients) et dans l’océan Pacifique dans 14 cas (24 patients). Au total, 61 % des cas de ciguatéra (30/49 dossiers) ont été pris en charge au cours de la dernière décennie. Les symptômes sont apparus entre 2 à 12 heures après le repas contaminant, et le tableau clinique de la phase initiale était variable selon l’origine géographique. Tous les cas en Atlantique ont débuté par des signes digestifs, alors que plus de 50 % des cas dans la région Pacifique n’ont jamais présenté de signe gastro-intestinal, avec alors un tableau initial dominé par des signes neurosensoriels d’emblée comme des paresthésies et/ou des dysesthésies. Un cas mortel a été collecté en 1999 : un homme de 73 ans est décédé d’un arrêt respiratoire brutal après ingestion d’un barracuda dans un restaurant local à Cuba. L’évolution des 174 autres patients a été classique avec des symptômes persistant plusieurs semaines (63 % des patients), voire plus d’un trimestre (18 % des patients). Trente-six pour cent des patients de cette série ont rapporté des épisodes de rechute des signes neurologiques (paresthésies, dysesthésies, allodynie, prurit) plusieurs mois après l’intoxication, et ce après consommation de boissons alcoolisées ou de chair de poisson. De tels épisodes de résurgence sont rapportés dans la littérature mais leur mécanisme physiopathologique reste mystérieux.
This chapter reports for the first time on incidences of Ichthyoallyeinotoxism scombrotoxic fish poisoning in Iraq. All cases were described and causes of such intoxications were given and discussed. It is vital for the policy makers Iraqi to introduce plans to educate people about the dangerous fish species inhabit their environment especially those living in the rural areas.
Visual hallucinations (VHs) are extremely rare in snakebites. We report a case of Russell’s viper bite in an otherwise healthy 55-y-old woman who presented to a hospital in south India with established clinical features of systemic and local envenomation, including coagulation failure, without any neurologic manifestations on admission. She reported simple VH on the third day, which abruptly stopped on the fifth day without any specific medications. Clinical, laboratory, imaging, and electrophysiological studies did not reveal any neuropsychiatric disorders. Including this case, only 5 cases of VH are documented in the literature, 2 following cobra and viper bites and 1 after a sea snake bite. Two cases were reported from Australia and 1 each from the United States, Iran, and India.
Caulerpin (CPN), a secondary metabolite in the Caulerpa genus, has a detrimental effect on some fish native to the Mediterranean Sea. CPN levels in the tissues of invasive Caulerpa cylindracea and non-invasive C. prolifera were studied, as well as the accumulation of CPN in Sarpa salpa (dream fish) tissues. Maximum CPN levels were found in the C. cylindracea, liver, muscle and brain tissues of S. salpa to be 11.82 ± 0.2 mg/g dry weight; 11.28 ± 7.68 μ g/g wet weight, 0.38 ± 0.11 μ g/g wet weight; and 0.50 ±0.02 μ g/g wet weight, respectively. In conclusion, we showed that CPN migrates from Caulerpa taxa to S. salpa. The negative health effects of CPN accumulation in S. salpa have already been reported in various reported papers. As such, to prevent any possible health consequences, the consumption of S. salpa may not be recommended during August when CPN concentrations are higher than the levels observed in other months.
This chapter comprehensively details Mediterranean lagoonal‐marine migratory fish Sparidae. It provides information regarding their systematics, ecobiology, ethology, genetics and their exploitation. Fish of the Sparidae family are characterized by a fairly compressed fusiform or oval body, their anterior profile being elevated by the existence of a supra‐occipital crest. Diplodus annularis belongs to the subfamily of Sparidae species. It is present in the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Azov Sea. The chapter presents the growth parameters of the Ludwig von Bertalanffy model obtained in different regions of the Mediterranean. Diplodus annularis feeds both during the day and at night. Diplodus puntazzo is found mainly in the Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic, from the Bay of Biscay to Sierra Leone, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. It belongs to nectobenthic species, and is therefore coastal and gregarious. Diplodus puntazzo is the subject of semi‐industrial, artisanal and recreational fishing.
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Currently different classes of psychoactive substances are easily available for abuse, including several hundred novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Some of these drugs occur naturally in plants and animals or are chemically modified from plant or animal compounds and have been abused by humans over millennia. Recently, the occurrence of a new ‘drug culture’ (e.g., psychonauts) who consume a great variety of NPS with hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties, facilitated the development of a new ‘psychedelic trend’ towards the consumption of substances contained in some species of animals (‘psychedelic fauna’). The present review aims at providing an overview of the most commonly abused ‘psychedelic animals’, by combining a dual search strategy coming from online psychonauts’ experiences and English literature searches on the PubMed/Medline Google Scholar databases. A multilingual qualitative assessment on a range of websites and online resources was performed in order to identify a list of animals who possess some psychoactive properties and could be abused by humans for recreational purposes. Several species are implicated (i.e., ants, amphibians, fish). Routes of administration depend on the animal, substance included, metabolism, toxicity and individual, social and cultural variability. Online purchase and access are easy through tourism-related search strategies (‘frog trip”, ‘help of charmer snake’, ‘religious trip’).
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One hundred and fifty-nine ichtyosarcotoxic outbreaks, including 477 people, were recorded in the island of Réunion (SW Indian ocean) between 1986 and 1994. Ciguatera outbreaks represented 78.6% of the total cases and its annual incidence rate was estimated to be 0.78/10,000 residents. Symptoms caused by ciguatera poisoning are not different from those reported in Pacific and Caribbean islands, except for the additional symptoms of hallucinatory poisoning in 16% of the patients. Serranidae fish, including species of great commercial value, were the most commonly incriminated accounting for 50% of the outbreaks.
The categories of fish poisoning as proposed by Halstead and Lively (1954) are revised. An attempt is made to document what appear to be the established phenomena of ciguatera, an illness of occasional occurrence following the ingestion of various tropical reef and inshore fishes and possibly certain echinoids and gastropods. The toxin appears to be cumulative and the most toxic fishes, generally, are large piscivorous types like barracuda, jacks, and groupers. Plankton-feeding fishes have not been implicated in ciguatera. Herbivorous and detritus-feeding fishes and mollusk-feeders may be poisonous. Fishes causing ciguatera are not found universally over large areas, but are localized, often in small sectors. A region once poisonous may lose its poisonous fishes and vice versa. Previous theories of the cause of ciguatera are discussed, and a new hypothesis is presented. In this, it is assumed that a benthic organism, most likely a blue-green alga, is the source of the toxin. This organism would seem to be one of the first growing in normal ecological succession in tropic seas. The localization of poisonous fishes is explained in terms of availability of new substratum for marine growth. Recommendations are made for further reasearch on ciguatera.
illus., col. plates 2. ed.
Introduction De nombreuses populations a travers le monde dependent de l’environnement marin. On estime a 60 % la proportion de la population mondiale qui vit le long des zones cotieres; la plupart d’entre-elles dependent de la mer pour assurer leur survie (National Research et al., 1999). Cette relation intime qu’entretiennent les humains avec l’ocean est particulierement forte dans les regions meridionales telles que la region des Caraibes. Le tourisme et l’industrie de la peche represe...
Among the animals that live in the sea are many that may be poisonous to eat; these animals include fish, sharks, crabs, molluscs, and turtles. Of all marine animals the most important are fish, which are for so many people an essential source of food. There are a number of different ways in which teleost fish may be poisonous. Some fish are naturally poisonous; puffers for instance are always toxic. Some species of fish can be poisonous at certain seasons; in Fiji there is a species of sardine which may be deadly poisonous in the later months of the year. A third type of poisoning is found where some fish are poisonous to eat when they are caught on certain reefs or parts of a reef, and yet when caught on other parts of the same reef, or on nearby reefs, are perfectly safe to eat. This type of poisoning, known as ciguatera, is common throughout the tropical Pacific, usually on oceanic islands and isolated reefs.
In this paper, the authors present a general table of the present extension of ciguatoxism in the Mascarene Islands. A statistically significant relation exists between the variations of poisonous fish proportions and the periods of tropical cyclones in this fishing area. The tests showed that the ciguatera known from Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos and Saya-de-Malha Islands, is also present in the Amirantes Islands. The coastal ichtyosarcotoxism of the Reunion was also studied; this phenomenon does not constitute an obstacle to the activity of the artisanal fishery.