Article

Mediterranean Diet and Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 9.98). 06/2006; 59(6):912-21. DOI: 10.1002/ana.20854
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on individual dietary components. There is converging evidence that composite dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is related to lower risk for cardiovascular disease, several forms of cancer, and overall mortality. We sought to investigate the association between MeDi and risk for AD.
A total of 2,258 community-based nondemented individuals in New York were prospectively evaluated every 1.5 years. Adherence to the MeDi (zero- to nine-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor in models that were adjusted for cohort, age, sex, ethnicity, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, caloric intake, smoking, medical comorbidity index, and body mass index.
There were 262 incident AD cases during the course of 4 (+/-3.0; range, 0.2-13.9) years of follow-up. Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with lower risk for AD (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98; p=0.015). Compared with subjects in the lowest MeDi tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi tertile had a hazard ratio of 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.16) and those at the highest tertile had a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.87) for AD (p for trend=0.007).
We conclude that higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a reduction in risk for AD.

    • "Oleuropein aglycone (OleA, the main polyphenol in the extra virgin olive oil) is effective against age-related damages and improves disease-associated behavioral deficits [14] [15] [16]. The beneficial effects of OleA against amyloid toxicity to cultured cells [17] [18] [19] and in transgenic model organisms [20] [21] stems from several effects at the molecular and cellular level, the most important of which are related to the ability of OleA to counteract in vitro the aggregation of proteins such as tau, amylin and Aβ42, effectively hampering the formation of toxic oligomeric species [17] [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transthyretin (TTR) is involved in a subset of familial or sporadic amyloid diseases including senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA), familial amyloid polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy (FAP/FAC) for which no effective therapy has been found yet. These conditions are characterized by extracellular deposits primarily found in the heart parenchyma and in peripheral nerves whose main component are amyloid fibrils, presently considered the main culprits of cell sufferance. The latter are polymeric assemblies grown from misfolded TTR, either wt or carrying one out of many identified mutations. The recent introduction in the clinical practice of synthetic TTR-stabilizing molecules that reduce protein aggregation provides the rationale to search natural effective molecules able to interfere with TTR amyloid aggregation by hindering the appearance of toxic species or by favoring the growth of harmless aggregates. Here we carried out an in depth biophysical and morphological study on the molecular features of the aggregation of wt- and L55P-TTR involved in SSA or FAP/FAC, respectively, and on the interference with fibril aggregation, stability and toxicity to cardiac HL-1 cells of demonstrate the ability of Oleuropein aglycone (OleA), the main phenolic component of the extra virgin olive oil. We describe the molecular basis of, such interference and of the resulting reduction to inhibit of TTR amyloid aggregate cytotoxicity. Our data offer the possibility to validate and optimize the use of OleA or its molecular scaffold to rationally design promising drugs against TTR-related pathologies that could enter a clinical experimental phase.
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    • "Diet is a probable risk factor that by modification could possibly reduce or delay the onset of AD [6] [7]. Several epidemiological and clinical studies suggested that adherence to Mediterranean diet improves cognitive function and slows the progression of AD [6] [7] [8]. Daily consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is one of the characteristic elements of a Mediterranean diet [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is one of the main elements of Mediterranean diet. Several studies have suggested that EVOO has several health promoting effects that could protect from and decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of consumption of EVOO-enriched diet on amyloid- and tau- related pathological alterations that are associated with the progression of AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in TgSwDI mice. Feeding mice with EVOO-enriched diet for 6 months, beginning at an age before amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation starts, has significantly reduced total Aβ and tau brain levels with a significant improvement in mouse cognitive behavior. This reduction in brain Aβ was explained by the enhanced Aβ clearance pathways and reduced brain production of Aβ via modulation of APP processing. On the other hand, although feeding mice with EVOO-enriched diet for 3 months, beginning at an age after Aβ accumulation starts, showed improved clearance across the BBB and significant reduction in Aβ levels, it did not affect tau levels or improve cognitive functions of TgSwDI mouse. Collectively, results of this study suggest the long-term consumption of EVOO-containing diet starting at early age provides a protective effect against AD and its related disorder CAA.
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    • "The utilization of olive oil includes gastronomy, cosmetics and pharmaceutics (Uylas¸er and Yildiz, 2014). Epidemiological researches have proved that consumption of olive oil rich in phenolics was correlated with reduced risk of cardiovascular (Estruch et al., 2013) and neurodegenerative diseases (Scarmeas et al., 2006) and even some types of cancer (Owen et al., 2000). The olive leaf health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects have been reported to be in correlation with its phenolics composition (El and Karakaya, 2009; Wang et al., 2008). "
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