The Prognostic Significance of Fibrosarcomatous Transformation in Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 05/2006; 30(4):436-43. DOI: 10.1097/00000478-200604000-00002
Source: PubMed


Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a superficial tumor characterized by high rates of local recurrence and a small risk of metastasis. Fibrosarcomatous (FS) areas rarely arise in DFSP, and considerable controversy exists as to whether these tumors have a higher risk of metastasis than the typical DFSP. The aim of this study was to reappraise the prognostic significance of FS changes in DFSP by analyzing 41 patients from the consultation files of our institution. The study included 23 females and 18 males, with a median age of 48 years (range, 16-100 years). Eighteen lesions were located on the trunk, 16 on the extremities, and 7 on the head/neck region. All tumors were treated with local excision, and the surgical margins were considered positive for tumor in 22 of 39 cases (56%). Fibrosarcomas arose de novo in 38 cases and as a recurrence in 3 cases. All tumors involved the dermis and subcutis, and the FS component comprised 5% to 95% of the tumor area (median, 60%). Mitotic rates of the FS component (median, 20 mitoses/10 high-power fields [HPFs]; range, 5-48/10 HPFs) were considerably higher than those of the neighboring DFSP component (0-2 mitoses/10 HPFs). Immunohistochemical analyses showed that CD34 expression was stronger and more extensive in the DFSP component (97% positive; median intensity, 3+) than in the FS component (81% positive; median intensity, 2+). The MIB-1 labeling index was higher in the FS areas (median, 20%; range, 5%-45%) than in the DFSP areas (<3%). Expression of p53 was present in 92% of the FS areas and in only 3% of adjacent DFSP areas. Follow-up data revealed that 8 patients had local recurrences, 4 patients (10%) had metastases, and 2 patients died of disease. None of the variables evaluated, including margin status, FS proportion, and mitotic count, correlated with disease progression. We demonstrate that FS change in DFSP is a form of tumor progression that carries an increased risk of metastasis over classic DFSP and is associated with gains of p53 mutations and increased proliferative activity.

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    • "Microsatellite instability and p53 mutations are involved in tumor progression to the fibrosarcomatous variant (DFSP-FS) [5]. Although the major recurrence risk for DFSP is local relapse, DFSP-FS subtype is associated with an aggressive clinical course, more likely to develop distant metastases [6,7]. Several case reports in the literature have demonstrated that DFSP can metastasize to the lungs [8-10], as well as, pancreatic or retroperitoneal spaces similar to the current case [11-13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans (DFSP) is a rare skin tumor, characterized by frequent local recurrence but is seldom metastatic. It is histologically characterized by storiform arrangement of spindle cells. Cytogenetically, most tumors are characterized by translocation 17:22 leading to overexpression of tyrosine kinase PDGFB which can be targeted with tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Imatinib. We describe the first case of unresectable pancreatic metastases from DFSP treated with neoadjuvant Imatinib and subsequently R0 metastectomy. Additionally, a comprehensive systematic review of DFSP pancreatic metastases and the current published data on the use of Imatinib in DFSP is summarized.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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    • "This supports the view that an increase of PDGFB signaling might result in the appearance of tumors composed of transformed and senescent cells, limiting the intrinsic aggressiveness of the tumors. Interestingly, the very rare aggressive version of the DFSP, the DFSP Fibrosarcomatous, may displays p53 loss of function [16]. This is in agreement with the idea that p53 loss might decrease the ability of PDGFB to induce senescence and potentially DFSP aggressiveness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Normal cells enter a senescent state upon aberrant oncogenic signals and this response inhibits tumor initiation and progression. It is now well admitted that intracellular and membrane localized oncogenes can illicit oncogene induced senescence. However, the effect of mitogenic growth factor on cellular senescence is so far largely unknown. Here we show that normal human dermal fibroblasts display a complex response to Platelet derived growth factor B (PDGFB) expression. Indeed, PDGFB expression induces, in the same cell population, both senescence and cellular transformation. Remarkably both populations are sustained with passages suggesting that transformed cells eventually enter a senescent state. This senescence state is p53 dependent as inhibiting the p53 pathway blocks the ability of PDGFB to induce senescence and results in strong cellular transformation increase upon PDGFB expression. The relevance of these observations is supported by the fact that human dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, skin tumors arising from constitutive PDGFB production with little aggressiveness, also display some senescence hallmarks. Together these data support the view that PDGFB, a mitogenic growth factor, has a limited ability to induce senescence. We propose that this low level of senescence might decrease the transforming ability of this factor without totally abolishing it.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Aging
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    • "It appears in approximately 10-15% of DFSP cases, characterized by a higher incidence of local relapse and distance metastasis. According to Mentzel et al. [21] progression of DFSP to FS-DFSP may represent "dedifferentiation" and Abbott et al. [22] demonstrated that "FS change in DFSP represents a form of tumor progression with increased risk of metastasis over classic DFSP, associated with gains of p53 mutations and increased proliferative activity". "
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm associated with a high cure rate. We present a case of aggressive DFSP with fibrosarcomatous areas in the head and neck. A 28-year-old Mediterranean female presented with a 45-day history of rapidly growing cutaneous lesion of the face. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of DFSP. Subsequently, the patient underwent wide local surgical resection, followed by reconstruction. Histopathology report revealed fibrosarcomatous transformation and the patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. The patient continues to be disease free at the 35-month follow-up. Although DFSP behave as non-aggressive malignancy, surgery with complete removal of the affected area is the intervention of choice. Moreover, adjuvant treatment and follow-up of the patient is essential in order to prevent recurrence.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Head & Neck Oncology
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