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Abstract

A 17-year-old girl presents with a pubic rash which occurred following shaving (Fig. 1). The rash consists of follicular papules and crusts and is mildly pruritic. Questions for the Clinician: What is your diagnosis?What is the obvious cause of the problem?What are common methods of pubic hair removal and their complications?How can clinicians help minimize these complications? Diagnosis: This girl has impetigo, a common and highly contagious bacterial skin infection, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. 1 The infection was no doubt spread locally by pubic hair shaving. Treatment with oral (cephalexin) and topical (mupirocin) anti-staphylococcal antibiotics cleared the infection quickly. What follows is a brief review of pubic hair removal: trends and techniques, as well as complications and strategies to reduce them. Pubic Hair Removal: While trimming or shaving the bikini area is nothing new for women and adolescent girls, more extensive pubic hair removal, once relatively uncommon except for cultural and religious reasons, is now routine. And while the practice has become mainstream in adults and adolescents of both sexes, relatively little has been written in the medical literature about this trend and its associated health consequences. Catering to this trend is a host of personal products designed for pubic hair grooming including specialty razors, electric shavers, and trimmers as well as pubic shaving gels and after-shave lotions. Salons and medical practices are touting pubic hair removal by waxing and lasers. Web sites and popular magazines are offering pubic hair removal tips and products for the novice as well as the experienced. An interesting trend is that of adolescent girls shaving their pubic hair well before they reach Tanner stage 5. Some girls start to remove pubic hair soon after they begin to develop it. It is not uncommon to see 11 and 12-year-old girls with pubic razor stubble. Tanner staging can be tricky in these girls-you have to look for the extent of the stubble, which can be difficult if the shave is close. In the author's experience, girls may learn about shaving their pubic hair from a variety of sources, including their friends, older sisters, magazines, and the internet. Parents may not know their daughter shaves her pubic hair and the reaction to this knowledge may not be positive. Before making any general comments or disclosure about this practice to parents, for example in the setting of an infection, you should obtain your patient's permission first. Younger girls may be surprised at the irritation and folliculitis that may arise from pubic hair removal. Contributing to these problems may be inexperience and poor technique, such as using a blade razor to shave dry skin or using a dull razor. As for pubic hair waxing, a girl's first experience with a "Brazilian wax" may leave her extremely irritated and wishing she had not taken the plunge. Sexually active adolescents may be shocked that they have been auto-inoculating sexually transmitted infections such as molluscum contagiosum and condyloma acuminata throughout their pubic area by shaving. Older adolescents and women with shaving and waxing folliculitis will often continue to shave and wax despite extreme irritation because they simply will not let their pubic hair grow in. In this situation, clinicians should work with patients to help them choose better hair removal techniques and minimize discomfort and irritation (see below). © 2006 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology.

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... At the same time there has been a rise in pubic hair removal, there has been an increase in discussion of negative consequences, as seen by several studies published on the potential risks associated with pubic hair removal in the form of irritation, inflammation, and infections (Trager, 2006). Schild-Suhren et al. (2017) speculate that pubic hair may have a biological function to serve as a safety net to protect the vulva from such things as bacterial infections, so its removal increases risk. ...
... Waxing has also been cited as a potential risk. Trager (2006) and Schmidtberger et al. (2014) identified multiple risks with waxing, including burns, folliculitis, and other infections of skin and soft tissues. Several clinical studies have described individual cases. ...
Article
This exploratory study investigated pubic hair removal behavior among 295 college men and women. Survey questions explored the extent to which young people remove their pubic hair, by what means, how often, and reasons for such behavior. Pubic hair removal by friends and sexual partners, as well as expectations of sexual partners was also explored. Commonalities and differences in responses between college men and women were examined. Results revealed that pubic hair removal is extremely common in both men and women and typically begins in early adolescence. Reasons for pubic hair removal most frequently cited include cleanliness, comfort and appearance. Implications for sexuality education and future research are discussed.
... 60 Extensive pubic hair removal, which was typically only done for cultural and religious reasons, has become more common for aesthetic reasons. 26,61,62 Hair removal may cause skin microtrauma and subsequent spread of infectious agents throughout the pubic area. 61 Severe consequences may include vulvovaginal irritation and infection and spread of sexually transmitted infections (e.g. ...
... 26,61,62 Hair removal may cause skin microtrauma and subsequent spread of infectious agents throughout the pubic area. 61 Severe consequences may include vulvovaginal irritation and infection and spread of sexually transmitted infections (e.g. molluscum contagiosum and HSV). ...
Article
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Women use various feminine hygiene products, often as part of their daily cleansing routine; however, there is a paucity of published medical literature related to the external vulva and how personal hygiene practices can affect it. This review article provides background information on the physiological changes that occur during women’s lives and reviews the relevance of transient and resident microbiota as they relate to common vaginal and vulvar disorders. It also discusses the need for female intimate hygiene, common practices of feminine hygiene from a global perspective, and the potential benefits of using suitable external, topical feminine vulvar washes to minimize the risk of vulvovaginal disorders and to improve overall intimate health in women around the world. Supported by international guidelines, daily gentle cleansing of the vulva is an important aspect of feminine hygiene and overall intimate health. Women should be encouraged to choose a carefully formulated and clinically tested external wash that provides targeted antimicrobial and other health benefits without negatively impacting on the natural vulvovaginal microbiota.
... Of this group, 48% remove most or all pubic hair (Tiggeman & Hodgson, 2008). Young women presenting themselves as a sexually desirable product seem to require the removal of pubic and genital hair to varying degrees, and yet the practice is associated with the (undesirable) acquisition of infections including viral STIs (Dendle, Mulvey, Pyrlis, Grayson, & Johnson, 2007;Trager, 2006 The desire to be beautiful is accepted non-critically and I read the use of the word, 'civilization' as endorsement of the practice as valid, as if it is a practice in keeping with the civilising of society. ...
... The support of 'intimate and personal' practices is given greater importance than helping women to have a microbiologically healthy, infection-free pubic and genital area. Trager's (2006) comments are a useful illustration of Foucault's notion of disciplinary power. It is not a matter of powerful doctors imposing their will upon women. ...
Article
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This study investigates sexual health teaching and its effects. The focus is on how the health clinic works as a pedagogical environment where lessons are offered by clinicians to women patients (often unwittingly) about morality, femininity and the body. Of central concern is the question of how health professionals might contribute to women's quality of life after a viral STI diagnosis. I use examples of the reported engagement between clinicians, women and the two most common viral STIs, the human papilloma virus (HPV) and the herpes simplex virus (HSV). To consider the effects of the myriad beliefs that inform clinical teaching I draw from poststructuralist feminist discourse theory. For data collection I used in-depth email interviews, a research method that allowed participants with viral STIs to 'speak' more freely than might be possible in face-to-face interviews. The method also readily enabled me to interview sexual health clinicians and other women within a wide geographical area, in New Zealand, Australia, North America and England. My research findings include the insights that: by the time women seek out medical care for a viral STI they have received considerable social 'education' that STIs are categorically different from other conditions; although clinicians emphasise the normalcy of viral STIs they tend to have limited knowledge of the difficulties women face in disruptions to sexuality after a diagnosis. Liberal views about sex do not necessarily make the negotiation of safer heterosexual sex and prevention of STI transmission easier for women. Women found it helpful when clinicians addressed both the medical 'normalcy' of viral STIs and their potential to disrupt women's sense of self, sexual and social relationships. In public health education, gynaecological examinations are presented as a routine and essential practice, yet my study found that such examinations are often difficult for women. Research addressing women's reasons for non-compliance with screening emphasises 'underlying' psychological categories of 'anxiety' and 'poor coping'. Minimal attention is paid to the effects of clinicians' interventions upon women's decision-making. My findings indicate that women's screening compliance is influenced by clinicians' gender, (in) attention to power relations, rapport-building, attentiveness to bodily (dis)comfort, and technical skill. In striving for non-judgmental, scientific teaching, clinicians were often unaware that their talk inevitably constituted viral STIs as 'moral' infections. Clinicians may best contribute to women's lives by acknowledging that medical discourse is only one part of the fragmentary and contradictory education women receive about bodies and selves.
... As noted earlier, men have reported using mostly regular razors as the primary instrument with which to remove their body hair. This might explain the recently documented increases in Staphylococcus Aureus Infections identified in men who depilate their body hair (Begier, et al., 2004), as well as an enhanced risk of contracting or transmitting the herpes simplex or human papilloma viruses (Porche, 2007;Trager, 2006). These studies suggest that shaving body hair leaves the skin more susceptible to these diseases because of skin irritation, nicks and cuts, abrasions, and folliculitis (Porche, 2007;Trager, 2006). ...
... This might explain the recently documented increases in Staphylococcus Aureus Infections identified in men who depilate their body hair (Begier, et al., 2004), as well as an enhanced risk of contracting or transmitting the herpes simplex or human papilloma viruses (Porche, 2007;Trager, 2006). These studies suggest that shaving body hair leaves the skin more susceptible to these diseases because of skin irritation, nicks and cuts, abrasions, and folliculitis (Porche, 2007;Trager, 2006). They also suggest that men may not be as vigilant about the depilation process as women, and that men should be educated on improved depilation techniques to prevent medical complications from body depilation (Porche, 2007). ...
Article
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Body depilation is a relatively new area of research inquiry. Although women in many industrialized cultures have engaged in body depilation for some time, this behavior has been documented only recently in men. While originally thought to be the practice of just a small percentage of men, recent studies suggest that more men engage in body depilation than had been previously hypothesized (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005; Martins, Tiggemann, & Churchett, 2008; Tiggemann, Martins, & Churchett, 2008). Nevertheless, this area of research is understudied and the relationship between body depilation and men's overall body image is poorly understood. Since much of the documented evidence of men's body depilation is either descriptive anecdotes via media accounts (see Gomes, 2001; Smith, 2000; Stuever, 2000; Stein, 1999; Schuler, 2000) or scientific investigations of the behavior that were undertaken to provide descriptive data about body depilation by men (see Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, et al., 2005; Martins, et al., 2008; Porche, 2007; Tiggemann, et al., 2008), now the time has come to further the understanding of this behavior in men. The purpose of these studies was to increase both the breadth and depth of our understanding of body depilation in men and its correlates with general body image concerns. A central aim of the first study was to test Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) as a workable theoretical paradigm to explain the genesis and maintenance of body depilation. The second study investigated women's attitudes towards men's body hair and men's body depilation. Research questions that have provided the foundation for the design of this study include: a) is there a relationship between men's drive for muscularity, frequency of weekly exercise, and influence by others (via social comparison) that is related to their body depilation behaviors, b) do sexual minority men differ from heterosexual men with regard to depilation behaviors, c) what are women's attitudes toward men's body hair and body depilation by men, and d) how might the attitudes of sexual minority women differ from heterosexual women on the topic of men's body hair and body depilation by men?
... Un 15% de las adolescentes reconocen haber recibido presión de amigos o familiares para modificar su cuerpo, incluyendo remoción del vello genital (57). Paradójicamente, los padres suelen desconocer que sus hijas rasuran su vello púbico, y cuando se enteran, muchos no reaccionan de la mejor manera, razón por la cual no hay motivos para que no siga siendo una práctica oculta (26). ...
... En la actualidad hay una gran cantidad de artícu los de uso personal (cuchillas y máquinas de afeitar, manuales y eléctricas), de geles para el afeitado y de lociones para después de hacerlo; de centros de estética que realizan depilación temporal con cera o definitiva con láser, y de sitios web y revistas populares que ofrecen consejos para depilar el pubis y productos para hacerlo, tanto para principiantes como para quienes ya tienen experiencia (26). ...
Objective: To show that female pubic hair shaving, a common current practice, is the result of changing trends in dress and fashion, and of the marketing strategies of the manufacturers of hair removal devices; and to consider what women today argue as their reasons for this practice. Materials and methods: The historical background for pubic hair removal is presented, including the approach in other cultures, the frequency and the reasons for this practice at present; the marketing and communication strategies are reviewed. Conclusions: The current female beauty imagery in this early part of the 21st century involves the search for an ideal of smooth hair-free skin which is only achievable through artificial means, leading society as a whole to consider it the standard for cosmetic, hygienic, erotic and self-image reasons.
... Although pubic hair does not in itself have any sexual function other than those attributes given to it by individuals or within a cultural context, it does have a clear biological purpose. Pubic hair serves as a barrier to irritants and friction and, in women specifically, it serves to protect the vulva and vaginal opening from bacterial infection; it is the first line of physical defence against pathogens (Trager, 2006). Some also believe pubic hair functions to catch and trap pheromones, which signal readiness to mate and which can increase sexual arousal in potential partners (Morris, 2004). ...
... Notwithstanding these limitations, the findings of this study provide insights into the prevalence and extent of PHR among women, and how it varies by selected variables. From a health promotion perspective, this level of understanding is particularly pertinent given that greater and more extensive PHR has the potential to result in negative health outcomes, including increased risk of molluscum contagiosum, a viral infection of the skin (Desruelles et al., 2013;Glass et al., 2012;Schmidtberger et al., 2014;Trager, 2006). ...
Article
Objectives: To examine the relationship between women's pubic hair removal (PHR) and genital satisfaction and explore whether attitudes toward, and personal consumption of, pornography are associated with women's engagement in PHR. Methods: Data were collected by online survey from women (N = 152) who were then categorized into groups based on the prevalence and extent of PHR during the previous 4 weeks. Groups were compared on demographic, background, and behavioral variables. Results: Eighty-three percent of respondents reported PHR in the previous 4 weeks and 40% of respondents removed all their pubic hair. Women who were younger, White, and were more satisfied with their genitals were more likely to engage in PHR. Of these, being younger, not having a degree, reporting less positive attitudes toward erotica, and 3 reasons for PHR predicted extensive PHR over limited removal. Conclusions: Findings provide insights into the reasons for, and extent of, PHR among women and factors associated with the practice. The possible influences of partners' preferences for genital hair removal by women and partners' consumption of pornography are important areas for future research.
... In our study, the most common (always plus frequently used) method was found to be waxing used by 42.6% of the patients. Waxing of the genital area is called "Brazilian wax" in western societies and in the middle east, ancient to nowadays, "the wax" is prepared with sugar, water, and lemon juice to remove the hair follicle from the root [7,8]. There are many commercial forms of this sugar wax in the market as well as instant homemade pastes. ...
... Shaving was found to be the second preferred method and the reasons of preference were reported as for the application being instant, easy, and painless. Although shaving with a razor is a very old, easy, and instant method, it may also have some disadvantages like cutting injuries, bleeding, or spread of infection [7]. Glass et al (2012) reported that mostly "women" were effected among patients who presented to U.S. emergency departments with an injury related pubic hair grooming. ...
Article
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Aim. Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. In the Middle East, removal of the female pubic hair has been considered as a tradition of hygiene for many centuries, and it is recommended by Islam. However, development of new technologies such as lasers or home-use depilatory devices may have changed the trends and methods. Although pubic hair removal is known to be very common, there is very few data about the pubic hair removal features of the women in eastern Mediterranean area and Islamic population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the recent trends, demographic, social, and sexual features of pubic hair removal activities among Turkish Cypriot women in North Cyprus. Methods. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were given to volunteered female subjects applied to our outpatient services. Results. The results of our study revealed that a vast majority of Turkish Cypriot women applies regular pubic hair removal and the most common method is waxing. Initialization of pubic hair removal is at the age of menarche and the source of knowledge is the mother. Conclusion. the reasons of pubic hair removal were mostly feeling comfortable, and prevention of odor rather than sexual image or religious reasons.
... Similarly, drawings by Thomas Eakins at the end of the nineteenth century feature pubic hair, but they were made for private patrons. Hollander does not pursue the first realist renderings of female pubic hair in art, but some contemporary scholars name La Maja Desnuda/The Nude Maja (1799) by Francisco Goya as the earliest depiction of pubic hair in a European painting, and Gustave Courbet's controversial L'Origine du monde/The Origin of the World (1866) as the first painting that depicts the female sex with a dark mass of pubic hair as well as with the labia showing (Trager 2006;Ramsey et al. 2009. 11 The reclining female body is only visible from the leg up to the breasts with full exposure of the hairy vulva; in the view of Gaillard and Windish it shows a 'woman reduced by the most archaic male fantasies to her sex ' (2012: 168). ...
... The absence of hair thus reveals the vulva entirely, turning it into a simultaneously vulnerable and sexual site/sight. I stress here the faculty of seeing because of the immense cultural shift of moving 11. Surprisingly, neither Trager (2006) nor Ramsey et al. (2009) supply any references for these claims, other than a reference to Wikipedia. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries: between human–animal, male–female and adult–child. Removal or refusal to remove body hair places the female body on either side of the boundary, thus upholding and displacing binary oppositions between fundamental categories. The new beauty ideal requires techniques of control, manipulation and self-improvement. This article first assesses how empirical studies map and confirm existing trends of body hair removal, and then explores indepth the cultural reasons for the development of the normative ideal of a hairless female body. While body hair functions socially as a taboo, it refers psychologically to the realm of the abject. One line of argument places the taboo in the realm of abjection, while another argument attempts to demystify the Freudian anxieties surrounding the visibility and invisibility of the female sex organ. While the hairless body connotes perfected femininity, it simultaneously betrays a fear of adult female sexuality. The hairless body may be picture-perfect, but its emphasis on visual beauty runs the risk of disavowing the carnality of lived life. The hair-free trend of today’s beauty ideals affirms that the twenty-first-century body is a work in progress.
... These infections are directly associated with body depilation and subsequent "turf burns" or the use of towels or whirlpools that athletes share in the course of their practice and/or games (Begier et al., 2004;Miller et al., 2007). Body depilation also enhances the risk of contracting or transmitting the herpes simplex or human papilloma viruses in both men and women (Porche, 2007;Trager, 2006). Studies have suggested that shaving body hair leaves the skin more susceptible to these diseases because of skin irritation, nicks or cuts, abrasions, and folliculitis. ...
Article
Body depilation, or the reduction or removal of body hair, is a relatively new area of research inquiry. Although women in many industrialized cultures have engaged in depilation for several decades, this behavior has been documented only recently among men. Though originally thought to be widely practiced by women and only a small proportion of men, including athletes or bodybuilders, recent studies suggest that more men engage in body depilation than previously hypothesized. In fact, one recent study estimated the prevalence of men's body depilation at 83.7% which suggests that men are depilating at rates similar to women. Nevertheless sparse literature exists on the topic of depilation and its relationship to the overall body image of women and men, factors that predict depilation, and how the appearance of body hair may be related to body satisfaction, body image disturbance, and symptoms consistent with the clinical disorder known as Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). Clinical issues thought to be associated with body depilation include physical injuries that put men and women at risk for infection as well as psychological risks including BDD. The goals of this research project were to: (a) further explore the depilation practices of both genders, (b) develop and evaluate three scales directly related to body depilation research, (c) identify predictors of depilation among both genders; (d) examine the correlates of depilation, (e) apply and further test theoretical models to explain depilation among both genders, and (e) examine demographic differences in body image disturbance and BDD while controlling for natural body hair growth. In support of the hypotheses, results indicated that men have greater levels of body hair growth at 12 discretely measured body sites compared to women, and that overall, body depilation prevalence is high (90.8%) among the individuals sampled. Depilation prevalence for women was 98.5% while 80.9% for men. Men were more likely to report depilation in the past, having ceased the behavior to allow natural hair growth to resume. Men were also significantly more likely to engage in hair reduction behaviors, e.g., trimming, rather than removing hair all together compared to women. Women reported a significantly greater frequency of injuries as a result of depilation, while men reported greater dissatisfaction with higher levels of chest or back hair growth. Instruments were developed and evaluated to measure depilation appearance comparison, depilation social norms, and body hair growth. In terms of predictors of depilation, appearance comparison was a predictor for both genders, while the drive for muscularity was a unique predictor for men. Theoretical paradigms associated with depilation included Social Comparison Theory, and in part, a belief that depilation is socially normative. Results also provided partial support for hypotheses related to gender, racial/ethnic, and sexual orientation differences in body image disturbance and BDD symptomatology. Overall, the results of this study provide support for the notion that body depilation is a key appearance and body image concern for both genders, though more so for men, but also suggest that more research is needed in order to better understand the role of the appearance of hair on the human body.
... The published literature also does not present a clear picture of do's and don'ts for optimum PHR experience with minimal complications. The papers by Trager et al. [25] and Hodges et al. [23] present the best practices to adopt and pitfalls to avoid during PHR practice; however, these practices and pitfalls are derived from population-based studies conducted in the United States mostly. The generalizability of these recommendations to Asian, African, and Middle Eastern population remains questionable. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background and Objectives - The PHR practices are common around the world, for long the internet has been source of information, which is usually avialble from blogs, forums, social media. A lot of misinformation, misguidance is resulted because of lack of scientifically published literature providing proper information on the PHR practices. We undertook systematic review of existing population based studies to understand the prevalence, attitude, practices of PHR in published literature. Methods - We searched for population based studies across the globe for prevalence, attitude and practice of PHR in study participants on electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, J-Gate, Medline). A total of 307 titles were identified on which 9 were considered eligible for the study. Descriptive analysis was carried on the 9 identified study to know the prevalence, attitude and practices of PHR. Results – The prevalence of PHR at least once was 75%, Friends(73%) were the prime motivators to initiate the first PHR activity. Personal Hygiene(69%) was cited as the most common driver for regular PHR activity. Shaving using Razor blade(58%) was the most common mode of PHR and Abrasion(34%) was the most common complication. Conclusions – Pubic Hair Removal is a common practice among both males and females, the practice is initiated and propelled mostly through personal preferences. The current need is to undertake population based studies, specifically in developing countries and present the evidence backed information on do’s and don’ts for optimum PHR experience with minimal complications. Key words: Pubic Hair removal, Attitude, Practices
... Most of these injuries were due to razor related cuts and lacerations or waxing burns. Molluscum contagiosum, follicular keratosis requiring excision, staphylococcal infections and abscesses are also complications of pubic grooming, especially from waxing [15,[21][22][23][24][25]. In the current study, 5.3% of women attended beauty salons to have their pubic hair removed. ...
Article
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Background Pubic hair grooming, including the complete removal of pubic hair, has become an increasingly common practice, particularly among young women. Although widespread, there is limited data regarding the methods, products, reasons, and complications of pubic hair removal, particularly among Saudi women. The objective was to examine pubic hair removal practices and the prevalence of its complications among Saudi women living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Saudi women between 16 and 60 years of age who had the ability to read and speak Arabic, were eligible to complete an anonymous and self-administered survey on pubic hair removal practices and its complications. Results Between December 2015 and September 2016, 400 Saudi women completed the survey. The age was 26.3 ± 6.9, 16–58 (mean ± SD, range) years. About three quarters (77.0%) self-removed their pubic hair, while the remainder made use of professional personnel in medical clinics (15.5%), beauty salons (5.3%), and professional services at home (2.2%). Many women (41.8%) used a combination of hair removal methods, with non-electric razor as the most common single method used (33.5%), followed by laser (8.7%), sugaring (6.0%), waxing (4.5%), trimming (2.0%), electric razor (2.0%), and cream (1.5%). Three-quarters of women (75.5%) reported complications, and although they were mostly minor injuries, treatment had to be sought for 17.9% of complications. Multivariable analyses showed that no variables remained correlated with the occurrence of complications (age of starting hair removal, income, BMI, level of education, mode of removal, advice on removal). Conclusions Saudi women initiate pubic hair removal in early adolescence. While most complications are minor, close to one in five women experience complications.
... Mechanical techniques to groom or remove pubic hair such as shaving and waxing create microabrasions that serve as portals for infection and contribute to the spread of not only MRSA but also other infectious pathogens, including Molluscum contagiosum, human papillomavirus (HPV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). [30][31][32] In fact, Thurman et al. 34 conducted a study to assess the incidence of MRSA among women with vulvar abscesses. These 33 This report's findings are consistent with those of previous studies of the prevalence of MRSA in skin and soft tissue infections. ...
Article
Full-text available
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common hospital pathogen, but now its prevalence in the community is increasing. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) is the causative agent in many outpatient skin and soft tissue infections. Within the women's health population, CA-MRSA infection can result in a variety of genital skin infections, including boils, furuncles, and abscesses. Antibiotic-resistant strains, reinfection, and transmission among close contacts contribute to difficulty in controlling the spread of this pathogen. This article provides an overview of CA-MRSA, its clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and implications for clinical practice in women's healthcare settings.
... In addition, 18% reported genital cuts, 13% genital rash, and 4% reported visiting a healthcare provider as a result of their complication [10]. A similar clinical investigation assessing viral infections of the pubis among 43 men and 18 women revealed that 10% of patients with high genital lesions reported pubic shaving compared with 3% among nonshavers [14], whereas other scholars have reported case studies that associated negative health outcomes with pubic hair removal [15][16][17]. Additional research is needed to assess the prevalence of these problems in a nonclinical population, among whom side effects may be less common and less severely experienced. ...
Article
Introduction: Pubic hair grooming and removal are common behaviors among men and women. However, little is known about the reasons for grooming, preferred pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with regular grooming. Aims: This study aims to assess pubic hair removal/grooming practices, pubic hairstyle preferences, and genital outcomes associated with pubic hair removal among men and women in a college sample. Methods: Data were gathered from 1,110 participants (671 women and 439 men) at a large public Midwestern university and a small Southern public university. Main outcome measures: Items assessed demographics, pubic hair grooming and removal practices in the past 4 weeks, reasons for pubic hair status, preference for pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with removal and grooming. Results: Most (95%) participants had removed their pubic hair on at least one occasion in the past 4 weeks with shaving being the most commonly reported hair removal technique by women (82%) and men (49%). Women were significantly more likely to report their typical status as hair-free (50% vs. 19%; χ(2) = 165.528, P < 0.001) and men were significantly more likely to prefer a hair-free sexual partner (60% vs. 24%; χ(2) = 211.712, P < 0.001). Genital itching was experienced on at least one occasion by 80.3% of pubic hair groomers and was the most commonly reported side effect. Conclusion: Genital grooming and pubic hair removal are common practices among both men and women of college-age. Women are likely to report stronger associations with feelings of cleanliness, comfort, sex appeal, social norms of their peer group, and affordability as reasons for their chosen pubic hair style. Women also report more experiences with genital side effects of pubic hair removal, an expected result as women are removing pubic hair more frequently and more completely than their male counterparts.
... Pubic hair removal is not inconsequential: it carries some potential health risks (Dendle, Mulvey, Pyrlis, Grayson, & Johnson, 2007;Gibson, 2011;Porche, 2007;Ramsey, Sweeney, Fraser, & Oades, 2009;Riddell et al., 2010;Trager, 2006), with evidence of increased numbers of (mostly minor) genital injuries correlating with an increase in the practice (Glass et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Women’s and men’s bodies and sexuality can be understood as socially situated and socially produced. This means they are affected by, and developed in relation to, patterned sociocultural meanings and representations. We aim here to understand a recently emergent, and potentially gendered, body practice—pubic hair removal—by examining the meanings people ascribe to pubic hair and its removal. Extending the widespread hairless bodily norm for Anglo/Western women, pubic hair removal is an apparently rapidly growing phenomenon. Men, too, are seemingly practicing pubic hair removal in significant numbers, raising the question of to what extent pubic hair removal should be understood as a gendered phenomenon. What we do not yet know is what people’s understandings and perceptions of pubic hair are, and how they make sense of its removal. Using a qualitative survey, the current study asked a series of questions about pubic hair and its removal, both in general and related to men’s and women’s bodies. In total, 67 participants (100% response rate; 50 female; mean age 29, diverse ethnically, predominantly heterosexual) completed the survey. Thematic analysis identified five key themes in the way people made sense of pubic hair and pubic hair removal that related to choice, privacy, physical attractiveness, sexual impacts, and cleanliness. Meanings around pubic hair and its removal were not consistently gendered, but it was still situated as more of an issue for women. With potential impacts on sexual and psychological well-being, sexuality education provides an important venue for discussing, and questioning, normative ideas about pubic hair.
... From a public health perspective, pubic hair removal has been implicated in the spread of certain sexually transmitted infections; however, the evidence has largely been anecdotal or limited to case reports. 1,4,10 Pubic hair removal has also been associated with a decreased incidence of pubic lice. 16 At-home pubic hair removal is typically accomplished by shaving, waxing, trimming with scissors or clippers, or tweezing. ...
... Hence the practice of pubic hair removal may carry greater health risk than is generally recognised. For example, medical complications include local irritation, contact dermatitis, inflammation of the vulva, bacterial infections (e.g., folliculitis), or the spread of viral (e.g., herpes) infections (Tragar 2006). ...
Article
The study aimed to explore the motivations behind and predictors of the practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 235 Australian female undergraduate students completed questionnaires asking about the frequency and reasons for body hair removal, as well as measures of media exposure. It was confirmed that the vast majority (approximately 96%) regularly remove their leg and underarm hair, most frequently by shaving, and attribute this to femininity and attractiveness reasons. A sizeable proportion (60%) also removed at least some of their pubic hair, with 48% removing most or all of it. Here the attributions were relatively more to sexual attractiveness and self-enhancement. Further, having a partner and exposure to particular forms of media predicted pubic hair removal. It was concluded that pubic hair removal is currently different in connotation from leg or underarm hair, but is likely to be on the increase. It can only further the belief that women’s bodies are unacceptable the way they are.
... Although both college women and men in Australia and the US do report that pubic hair removal makes them feel " cleaner " , they do not routinely claim health as a primary rationale. Indeed, pubic hair removal is not healthy; it increases the risk of local skin irritation as well as of external and internal infections (Porche 2007; Trager 2006). The idea that body hair removal reflects a cultural norm is crucial. ...
Article
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Pubic hair removal is common in college age men and women in the United States and Australia. The present research addresses two questions related to this practice: (1) Are objectification and body shape concerns related to pubic hair removal; and (2) Do these relationships differ by gender? U.S. undergraduates, 148 women and 76 men, completed questionnaires about the presence, frequency of, and reasons for pubic hair removal; self-objectification, including self-surveillance and body shame; self-consciousness in sexual situations; and drives for leanness, thinness, and muscularity. While both genders reported similar rates of pubic hair removal, women reported greater frequency and higher normative, sexiness, and cleanliness reasons for pubic hair removal. Normative and sexiness reasons were positively correlated with self-surveillance. The relationships among normative and sexiness reasons and self-objectification were significantly higher for women with women’s body shame and self-surveillance scores more strongly impacted by normative and sexiness reasons. Findings are interpreted within the framework of objectification theory. KeywordsBody hair removal–Body image–Objectification theory
... As noted earlier, men used mostly regular razors as the instrument to remove their body hair. This could explain recent documented increases in staphylococcus infections identified in men who depilate their body hair, as well as enhance their risk of contracting or transmitting the herpes simplex virus or human papillomavirus (Begier et al., 2004;Porche, 2007;Trager, 2006). ...
Article
Men's fitness goals are influenced by the lens through which they view their bodies, which is different from the way women view their bodies. Their increased focus on a muscular, hairless body means that they exercise to enhance their physical bulk and are more likely to engage in depilatory behaviors. In addition, the drive for muscularity may be associated with an increased risk anabolic-androgenic steroids and other nutritional supplements whose utility not clearly demonstrated. In the extreme, the drive for muscularity may manifest itself as a form of body dysmorphic disorder referred to as muscle dysmorphia. However, not all men focus on their muscularity. Gay men are more likely than heterosexual men to experience a desire to be thin and are at greater risk for eating and body image disorders. These issues are discussed in this article.
... An article from a pediatrician also highlights the increased trend for pubic hair removal in younger females, often without proper skin care resulting in folliculitis. This also presents difficulty in accurately assessing Tanner stage [9]. The removal of body and pubic hair may also have beneficial effects on health and well being. ...
Article
Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.
... Combined with information from the medical discipline on the function and risks of PHR, it can help clinicians identify groups that might be most affected by PHR-related health risks, educate these patients, and formulate guidelines for their care when confronted with a PHR problem, such as those formulated by Trager. 27 By aligning these guidelines and care with the reasons why people engage in PHR, these guidelines and care may be better and more widely adopted, leading to better health results. ...
Article
Background: Pubic hair removal (PHR) is a widespread practice that entails certain health risks; however, there remains a lack of scientific information on the prevalence and antecedents of PHR, as well as on its association with sexual behavior and relational satisfaction. Aims: To explore women's and men's attitudes regarding PHR and their PHR practices and the associations with demographic, relational, and sexual characteristics. Methods: A total of 2,687 men and 1,735 women living in Flanders (the Northern part of Belgium) completed an online survey. Participants ranged in age from 15 to 60+ years; they self-identified as heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual and reported various relationship statuses. Main outcome measures: Demographic items (ie, age, religion, partner relationship status), sexuality-related items (ie, sexual activity, sexual orientation, age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners), PHR items (ie, reasons, inclination to have or not have sex after PHR, perceived partner preferences, partner's PHR), and relationship satisfaction, assessed with the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire. Results: Fewer men (39.1%) than women (80.3%) reported (partially) removing their pubic hair. In both men and women, the practice was associated with age, sexual activity, relationship status, and partner's PHR practice and expectations. In men, sexual and relationship satisfaction were correlated with their partner's PHR practices and whether these were in line with the men's expectations. In women, sexual and relationship satisfaction were mostly correlated with whether both partner's expectations were met. Although both men and women reported that the reasons for PHR were related to their sexual experiences and to their partner's preference, only women reported that PHR was a way to enhance feelings of femininity. Finally, the reasons for not engaging in PHR were related to partner preferences and side effects. Conclusion: PHR is a widespread practice and seems strongly associated with personal, partner-related, sexual, and relational factors. Strategies to prevent men and women from being confronted with health risks should take all these factors into account. Enzlin P, Bollen K, Prekatsounaki S, et al. "To Shave or Not to Shave": Pubic Hair Removal and Its Association with Relational and Sexual Satisfaction in Women and Men. J Sex Med 2019;16:954-962.
Article
The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns.
Article
A 32-year-old man presented with chemical burns to his penis following accidental application of depilatory cream to the area. The gentleman consequently sustained deep dermal burns to his penis, experiencing genital swelling and dysuria. This injury was managed conservatively in our burns unit and the patient was discharged shortly after. We present this unusual case of penile burns which has not previously been described in the literature despite depilatory creams being inexpensive and relatively easy to use, and subsequently popular choice amongst available hair removal options.
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Vaginal cleansing products such as douches, sprays, wipes, powders, washes, and deodorants are part of a growing $2 billion industry in North America. Part of the appeal of these products is supposedly attaining vaginal cleanliness, which is marketed in association with product use. Although these products are promoted as healthy, medical research indicates potential health risks for some of these products (e.g. yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, and disruption of the vaginal microbiota). Despite these risks, many women use these products. In this paper, we draw on interviews with women who use vaginal cleansing products to examine the ways in which particular portrayals of the vagina are connected with broader societal messages about female genitalia and with motivations to use vaginal cleansing practices. These portrayals include the healthy vagina, the clean vagina, and the dirty vagina. We show that although participants in our study valued both a clean vagina and a healthy vagina, when tension occurred between these two portrayals, participants prioritized vaginal cleanliness over vaginal health. We argue that this prioritization of the idealized clean vagina is connected to societal pressures of needing to attain unrealistic standards of vaginal cleanliness.
Article
To estimate the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among women with vulvar abscesses and to describe clinical factors associated with inpatient compared with outpatient treatment. We reviewed all women with a vulvar abscess who were treated with incision and drainage between October 2006 to March 2008. We reviewed the abscess cultures and evaluated clinical and laboratory variables associated with inpatient compared with outpatient treatment. During the 80-week study period, 162 women were treated for a vulvar abscess. Methicillin-resistant S aureus was isolated from 85 of 133 (64%) cultured vulvar abscesses. No presenting signs or symptoms were more common among patients with MRSA abscesses. Women with an MRSA vulvar abscess were not more likely to require inpatient admission or experience treatment complications. Inpatient treatment occurred in 64 of 162 (40%) patients and was predicted by medical comorbidities: diabetes (45.3%, odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-4.72), hypertension (34.4%, OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.06-5.13), initial serum glucose greater than 200 (37.5%, OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.48-7.51), and signs of worse infection, ie, larger abscesses (mean 5.2 cm) (P<.001) and elevated white blood cell count of at least 12,000/mm3 (45.3%, OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.44-6.43). Methicillin-resistant S aureus was the most common organism isolated from vulvar abscesses. Inpatient treatment is more common in women with medical comorbidities, larger abscesses, and signs of systemic illness. An antibiotic regimen with activity against MRSA, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, should be considered in similar populations with vulvar abscesses.
Article
Objectives: Vulvodynia is common and characterized by vulvar discomfort and pain. However, few studies have assessed hygienic practices in relation to onset. We investigated whether hygienic behaviors were associated with the onset of vulvodynia. Materials and methods: We assessed a self-reported history of personal hygienic behaviors, including wearing tight-fitting clothing, vulva care and genital washing, pubic hair removal, douching, and powdering, a year before first reported onset of vulvar pain among 213 clinically confirmed cases and a similar time period among 221 general population controls. Results: Compared with women who reported never wearing tight-fitting jeans or pants, women wearing tight-fitting jeans or pants 4 or more times per week had twice the odds of vulvodynia (95% CI = 1.14-3.95). Relative to controls, women with vulvodynia were substantially less likely to report use of soaps and gels to cleanse the vulva (95% CI = 0.17-0.63). Among women who chose to remove pubic hair, those who removed pubic hair from the mons pubis compared with bikini-area only hair removal, were 74% more likely to have vulvodynia (95% CI = 1.05-2.89). Finally, compared with women who reported bikini-area only hair removal less than monthly, those who removed hair from the mons pubis weekly or more were nearly 2 times more likely to be vulvodynia cases (95% CI = 0.83-3.49). Conclusions: Wearing tight-fitting jeans or pants and removing hair from the mons pubis area were associated with increased odds of vulvodynia. Research on how hygienic practices could influence vulvar pain in larger and more temporally addressed populations is warranted.
Article
Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners.
Article
The majority of pubic hair and genital self-image research describes women living in the USA, UK and Australia. This may leave attitudes and behaviours across other cultures and geographic regions ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to describe pubic hair removal attitudes and behaviours among reproductive-age women living in Italy. Individual interviews were conducted with 46 women aged 18-45 years between June and July 2017, living in Florence, Italy and currently utilising the Italian healthcare system. Pubic hair removal was popular among participants. Women mainly removed pubic hair by waxing. Sexual partners influenced removal, as did cultural norms and the desire for cleanliness. Most participants indicated pubic hair removal onset during adolescence, often upon puberty. However, most participants had never discussed removal complications with providers. Pubic hair removal often related to a more positive genital self-image because of social norms surrounding hairlessness. Removal among this sample appears to differ from the literature in other contexts, with women living in Italy engaging in more frequent and earlier waxing. Findings offer opportunities for clinicians to proactively address safe pubic hair practices and women’s genital concerns during consultations.
Article
Depilation is the removal or reduction of body hair below the neck. Traditionally, the presence of male body hair has been considered a symbol of masculinity and virility among certain cultures. However, even during ancient times, Egyptian and Greek cultures considered a hairless male body superior. In this modern era of the changing male body image, the presence of a male hairless body has arisen as a cultural norm among some male subcultures.1 The process of male body hair removal has presented the nurse practitioner with some clinical challenges.
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Objetivo: demostrar que la remoción del vello púbico femenino –una práctica común en la actualidad– es el resultado de los cambios en el vestido y las estrategias de mercadeo de los fabricantes de productos para la remoción del vello y hacer una aproximación a lo que dicen las mujeres hoy en términos de las razones para hacerlo. Materiales y métodos: se presentan los antecedentes históricos de la remoción del vello genital, su manejo en otras culturas, la frecuencia y las razones por las que se hace en la actualidad, y se revisan las estrategias comerciales y de comunicación utilizadas desde el fin del siglo XIX en la cultura occidental. Conclusiones: el imaginario actual de belleza femenina de inicio del siglo XXI implica la modificación del cuerpo en la búsqueda de un ideal de piel tersa y libre de vello, solo posible de manera artificial, haciendo que la sociedad como un todo lo considere normativo por razones estéticas, higiénicas, eróticas y de autoimagen. Palabras clave: vello púbico, imagen corporal, rasurado genital, remoción del vello corporal, depilación, feminidad. ABSTRACT Objective: To show that female pubic hair removal, a common current practice, is the result of changing trends in dress and fashion, and of the marketing strategies of the manufacturers of hair removal devices; and to consider what women today argue as their reasons for this practice. Materials and methods: The historical background for pubic hair removal is presented, including the approach in other cultures, the frequency and the reasons for this practice at present; the marketing and communication strategies used since the end of the 19th in the western culture are reviewed. Conclusions: The current female beauty imagery in this early part of the 21st century involves the search for an ideal of smooth hair-free skin which is only achievable through artificial means, leading society as a whole to consider it the standard for cosmetic, hygienic, erotic and self-image reasons.
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Material and methods: Parameters that evaluated from patients treated in our department between 1st of January, 2006 and 31st of December, 2009 were age, conditions causing immune deficiency, habits of cigarette or alcohol, the way of perineal hair removal, glucose and HbA1c levels at admission, number of debridement under general anesthesia, results of microbiological studies and antibiotics used. Diagnosis was made with physical examination and the finger test proposed by Andresen. All patients underwent to surgical debridement immediately. Wide spectrum antibiotics and attempt to eliminate the underlying causes were started simultaneously with surgical debridement under general anesthesia. Results: Six patients were available regarding the study criteria. The mean age was 46,5 ± 10,4. All patients except one had uncontrolled diabetes. The remaining had hematological malignancy and immune suppression caused by the chemotherapeutics. The hygienic condition of perinea was poor in all. Numbers of debridement under general anesthesia were three, two and one in one, two and three of the patients consecutively. The mean hospital staying was 35 ± 14,9 days. Death due to necrotizing fasciitis was not observed in any cases. Two patients died long after their discharge because of the underlying disease. Necrotizing fasciitis did not relapse in anyone. Conclusion: Results derived from the small number of patients show that synchronous and intensive surgical and medical treatments are promising. However, they need to be reevaluated in studies having larger number of cases.a
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Background and Objectives-The PHR practices are common around the world, for long the internet has been source of information, which is usually avialble from blogs, forums, social media. A lot of misinformation, misguidance is resulted because of lack of scientifically published literature providing proper information on the PHR practices. We undertook systematic review of existing population based studies to understand the prevalence, attitude, practices of PHR in published literature. Methods-We searched for population based studies across the globe for prevalence, attitude and practice of PHR in study participants on electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, J-Gate, Medline). A total of 307 titles were identified on which 9 were considered eligible for the study. Descriptive analysis was carried on the 9 identified study to know the prevalence, attitude and practices of PHR. Results-The prevalence of PHR at least once was 75%, Friends(73%) were the prime motivators to initiate the first PHR activity. Personal Hygiene(69%) was cited as the most common driver for regular PHR activity. Shaving using Razor blade(58%) was the most common mode of PHR and Abrasion(34%) was the most common complication. Conclusions-Pubic Hair Removal is a common practice among both males and females, the practice is initiated and propelled mostly through personal preferences. The current need is to undertake population based studies, specifically in developing countries and present the evidence backed information on do's and don'ts for optimum PHR experience with minimal complications. For your questions please send message to info@scopemed.com Title of the article: Systematic Review of Prevalence, Attitude, Practices of Pubic Hair Removal (PHR) activities. Abstract: Background and Objectives-The PHR practices are common around the world, for long the
Article
Pubic hair removal, now common among women in Anglo/western cultures, has been theorised as a disciplinary practice. As many other feminine bodily practices, it is characterised by removal or alteration of aspects of women's material body (i.e., pubic hair) considered unattractive but otherwise “natural.” Emerging against this theorisation is a discourse of personal agency and choice, wherein women assert autonomy and self-mastery of their own bodies and body practices. In this paper, we use a thematic analysis to examine the interview talk about pubic hair from 11 sexually and ethnically diverse young women in New Zealand. One overarching theme – pubic hair is undesirable; its removal is desirable – encapsulates four themes we discuss in depth, which illustrate the personal, interpersonal and sociocultural influences intersecting the practice: (a) pubic hair removal is a personal choice; (b) media promote pubic hair removal; (c) friends and family influence pubic hair removal; and (d) the (imagined) intimate influences pubic hair removal. Despite minor variations among queer women, a perceived norm of genital hairlessness was compelling among the participants. Despite the articulated freedom to practise pubic hair removal, any freedom from participating in this practice appeared limited, rendering the suggestion that it is just a “choice” problematic.
Article
Kerion is a severe hypersensitivity reaction to fungal infection that is rarely seen in the groin. Frequent shaving of pubic hair and religious conservatism surrounding genital hygiene are common among Bedouin women in the Negev Desert, and may predispose to kerion. This case highlights the clinical course of a 20-year-old Bedouin woman who presented with severe kerion celsi of the pubis and vulva with secondary bacterial infection. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics, oral antifungal medication and wet topical dressings. The case outlines the risk factors and treatment for severe kerion celsi of the groin, as well as possible preventive measures that may reduce its incidence.
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Een jonge vrouw vraagt advies over kleine ontstekingen in de genitaalstreek na het verwijderen van haar schaamhaar [foto].
Article
The 21st century has witnessed an increasingly prevalent trend of women removing their pubic hair. Body hair removal norms have changed significantly over the past several decades. Regardless of the motivation or technique behind pubic hair grooming, this trend is presenting a unique challenge for health care professionals with regard to health education about safe removal and treatment for associated injuries and infections. To provide appropriate education to women, nurses and other clinicians should be familiar with cultural norms, motivations, expectations, methods, dangers, best practices, and treatment options. They should be comfortable discussing grooming practices with women and be prepared to provide guidance on best practices. Women should also be made aware that pubic hair removal may put them at increased risk for transmission of sexually transmitted infections.
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A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal “Brazilian” bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.
Article
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Laser- or flashlamp- (also called intense pulsed light source or IPLS) assisted hair removal is a well tolerated and effective technique for patients who desire permanent reduction of hair growth. Although laser and light sources are very popular because of their non-invasive nature and the speed at which they operate, practitioners and patients have to be cautious to avoid permanent side effects instead of permanent hair reduction. These guidelines focus on patient selection and treatment protocol in order to provide safe and effective treatment. The ideal patient for laser hair removal is light skin with black coarse hair. Blond, grey and white hair does not respond to treatment. Individuals with dark skin, and especially tanned patients, are at higher risk for pigmentary changes. Sunscreen before and after treatment will produce and maintain untanned skin. The type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters must be adapted to the patient (hair thickness, pigment concentration, Fitzpatrick skin type). Treatments should start on a test patch and a treatment grid can improve accuracy. Pre-, parallel and post-cooling, as well as a reduction of the fluence, will prevent adverse effects such as pigment alteration and scar formation. Average rates of long-term hair reduction are reported at between 70% and 90% at 6 months follow-up. At least three repeated treatments should be done to achieve partly permanent epilation.
Article
A 21-year-old white man in otherwise excellent general health was referred for a painful, progressive, facial eruption with associated fever, malaise, and cervicofacial lymphadenopathy. The patient reported that a vesicular eruption progressed from the left side of his face to also involve the right side of his face over the 48 hours preceding his clinic visit. He also reported some lesions in his throat and the back of his mouth causing pain and difficulty swallowing. Four to 7 days before presentation to us, the patient noted exposure to his girlfriend's cold sore. Additionally, he complained of a personal history of cold sores, but had no recent outbreaks. Physical examination revealed a somewhat ill man with numerous vesicles and donut-shaped, 2–4 mm, crusted erosions predominantly on the left side of the bearded facial skin. There were fewer, but similar-appearing lesions, on the right-bearded skin. The lesions appeared folliculocentric (Figure). Cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy was present. Oral exam showed shallow erosions on the tonsillar pillars and soft palate. Genital examination was normal. The remainder of the physical exam was unremarkable. A Tzanck smear of vesicular lesions was positive for balloon cells and many multinucleated giant cells with nuclear molding. A viral culture was performed which, in several days, came back positive for herpes simplex virus. The complete blood cell count documented a white blood cell count of 8000/mm3 with 82.6% neutrophils and 9.0% lymphocytes. Based on the clinical presentation and the positive Tzanck smear, the patient was diagnosed with herpes simplex barbae, most likely spread by shaving. The patient was started on acyclovir 200 mg p.o. five times daily for 10 days. Oxycodone 5 mg in addition to acetaminophen 325 mg (Percocet; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA) was prescribed for pain relief. A 1:1:1 suspension of viscous lidocaine (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE), diphenhydramine (Benadryl; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), and attapulgite (Kaopectate; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY) was given as a swish and spit to relieve the oral discomfort. Good hygiene, no skin-to-skin contact with others, and no further shaving to prevent autoinoculation were stressed. He was advised to discard his old razor. Figure Figure. Multiple folliculocentric vesicles and 2–4 mm crusted erosions on an erythematous base Download figure to PowerPoint
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A case of trauma of the glans peins close to external urinary meatus caused by the sharp pubic hair of the partner during sexual inercourse is discussed.
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Majocchi granuloma was described naturally in situations of occlusion and later from superficial trauma such as shaving. More recently, the disease has occurred in the immunocompromised patient. Iatrogenic disease (tinea incognito) is a new and more subtle form.
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The attributes of the Smoothbeam laser--a 1450 nm diode laser--were considered likely to improve two distinct chronic conditions of flexural skin: Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) and hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). A series of laser treatments were given to the axillae of one patient with each condition. Treatments were painful but tolerated. There were no adverse sequelae following laser treatment. For the patient with HS, partial improvement was achieved after four treatments and sweating was notably reduced. Intermittent laser treatment may be needed to maintain or build upon the improvements gained. Longstanding HS cases, however, with established sinuses and thick scar tissue are unlikely to be helped by this form of laser treatment. There was no subjective or objective improvement seen in the patient with HHD. The only notable beneficial effect was a marked reduction in sweating and elimination of the malodour. Subsurfacing laser treatment in contrast with resurfacing laser treatment has no benefit in the management of HHD. Why the Smoothbeam laser causes sweat reduction is not known--and its clinical value has yet to be established.
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Folliculitis is an inflammatory reaction in the superficial aspect of the hair follicle and can involve the follicular opening or the perifollicular hair follicles. The pilosebaceous unit of the follicle is divided into three compartments: the infundibulum (superficial part, outlined by the sebaceous duct), the isthmus (between the sebaceous duct and arrector pili protuberance), and the inferior segment (stem and hair bulb). This anatomical scheme forms the basis for any evaluation of the clinical manifestations of folliculitis. Most of the follicular conditions can be classified according to their anatomical location and histopathologic patterns. Clinically, the inflammation manifests as 1mm-wide vesicles, pustules, or papulopustules in acute cases; however, hyperkeratosis and keratotic plug formations are indicative of a chronic process. The presence of superficial pustules does not always imply an infectious origin, as there are many noninfectious types of folliculitis. In this review, we describe the different types of folliculitis based on their etiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment. We also discuss some newly described disorders and the latest information on their treatment.
Article
We describe the case of a 52-year-old immunocompetent man with recurrent folliculitis on the left cheek, associated with intense pain. Bacteriological, mycological and Tzanck tests from the lesions were negative. Histopathological study showed an aspecific flogosis pattern. Virological tests carried out on swabs and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from the facial lesions by nested PCR technique (nPCR) demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV\2) in both samples. Skin swabs from other healthy areas of the face resulted negative for herpetic infection. A diagnosis of recurrent herpetic folliculitis by HSV\2 was made. This case report underlines that even in immunocompetent patients HSV\2 lesions can feature atypical clinical aspects. In dermatological assessment the benefits of routine PCR techniques for differential diagnosis of herpetic infection should be considered above all for the prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient management.
Article
A 21-year-old white man in otherwise excellent general health was referred for a painful, progressive, facial eruption with associated fever, malaise, and cervicofacial lymphadenopathy. The patient reported that a vesicular eruption progressed from the left side of his face to also involve the right side of his face over the 48 hours preceding his clinic visit. He also reported some lesions in his throat and the back of his mouth causing pain and difficulty swallowing. Four to 7 days before presentation to us, the patient noted exposure to his girlfriend's cold sore. Additionally, he complained of a personal history of cold sores, but had no recent outbreaks. Physical examination revealed a somewhat ill man with numerous vesicles and donut-shaped, 2-4 mm, crusted erosions predominantly on the left side of the bearded facial skin. There were fewer, but similar-appearing lesions, on the right-bearded skin. The lesions appeared folliculocentric (Figure). Cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy was present. Oral exam showed shallow erosions on the tonsillar pillars and soft palate. Genital examination was normal. The remainder of the physical exam was unremarkable. A Tzanck smear of vesicular lesions was positive for balloon cells and many multinucleated giant cells with nuclear molding. A viral culture was performed which, in several days, came back positive for herpes simplex virus. The complete blood cell count documented a white blood cell count of 8000/mm3 with 82.6% neutrophils and 9.0% lymphocytes. Based on the clinical presentation and the positive Tzanck smear, the patient was diagnosed with herpes simplex barbae, most likely spread by shaving. The patient was started on acyclovir 200 mg p.o. five times daily for 10 days. Oxycodone 5 mg in addition to acetaminophen 325 mg (Percocet; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA) was prescribed for pain relief. A 1:1:1 suspension of viscous lidocaine (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE), diphenhydramine (Benadryl; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), and attapulgite (Kaopectate; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY) was given as a swish and spit to relieve the oral discomfort. Good hygiene, no skin-to-skin contact with others, and no further shaving to prevent autoinoculation were stressed. He was advised to discard his old razor.
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A 20-year-old woman is seeing you for an extremely pruritic vulvar rash which she has had for several days. Her discomfort is almost unbearable. On examination you note significant vulvar erythema edema of the right labia minora and areas of desquamation. A potassium hydroxide preparation of a vaginal swab is negative for yeast forms. On further questioning the cause of her rash becomes apparent. (excerpt)
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Impetigo contagiosa is a common, superficial, bacterial infection of the skin characterised by an inflamed and infected epidermis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes or both. The less common bullous impetigo is characterised by fragile fluid-filled vesicles and flaccid blisters, and is invariably caused by pathogenic strains of S. aureus. In bullous impetigo, exfoliative toxins are produced, although these are restricted to the area of infection and bacteria can be cultured from the blister contents. In the rare variant, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, the exfoliative toxins are spread haematogenously from a localised source causing widespread epidermal damage at distant sites.
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Since 1996, there have been numerous advances in hair laser removal that utilize melanin as a chromophore. All of the devices on the market may be used in patients with light skin (phototypes I-III) and yield hair reduction near 75%. The ruby (694 nm) laser, alexandrite (755 nm) laser, and diode (810 nm) laser, as well as intense pulsed light are commonly used devices for hair laser removal. The long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser represents the safest device for hair removal in dark-skinned patients because of its long wavelength, although the diode laser, alexandrite laser, and intense pulse light may be used. For treatment of light hair, combination radiofrequency and optical devices as well as photodynamic therapy are under investigation.
Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Acomoclitism
  • Glabrousness
Glabrousness. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Acomoclitism. 2006. Accessed February 28, 2006
Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pubic_hair# Cultural
  • Pubic
Pubic hair. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pubic_hair# Cultural. 2006. Accessed February 28, 2006