ArticleLiterature Review

A Review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.)

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Abstract

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Chamomile tea, brewed from dried flower heads, has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Evidence-based information regarding the bioactivity of this herb is presented. The main constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin and their glucosides. The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the flowers are the terpenoids alpha-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Chamomile has moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and significant antiplatelet activity in vitro. Animal model studies indicate potent antiinflammatory action, some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as antispasmotic and anxiolytic effects. However, human studies are limited, and clinical trials examining the purported sedative properties of chamomile tea are absent. Adverse reactions to chamomile, consumed as a tisane or applied topically, have been reported among those with allergies to other plants in the daisy family, i.e. Asteraceae or Compositae.

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... (Singh et al., 2011;Stanojevic et al., 2016). Because of these bioactive compounds that act synergistically, chamomile flowers oil shows antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities (McKay and Blumberg, 2000;Abdoul-Latif et al., 2011;Neelma et al., 2014;Stanojevic et al., 2016;Göger et al., 2018;Al-Dabbagh et al., 2019). Based on the previous information, the use of chamomile oil (ChO) as an eco-friendly feed supplement is an interesting approach. ...
... These results indicate that ChO possesses potent antioxidant and immune properties due to its high contents of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, with particularly high levels of chamazulene, α-bisabolol, bisabolol oxide A, and guaiazulene (Costescu et al., 2008). These compounds are known to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge free radicals, and enhance the antioxidant and immune activity (McKay and Blumberg, 2000;Singh et al., 2011;Abdoul-Latif et al., 2011;Š krovánková et al., 2012;Stanojevic et al., 2016;Al-Dabbagh et al., 2019). ...
... These results suggest that ChO has antimicrobial activity, which may be linked to its own antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds via targeting the bacterial membrane adhesive proteins and preventing the adherence to the host cells and consequently Relative percent of survival (%) ChO levels (g/kg diet) inhibiting the bacterial growth (Ahmad et al., 2020). In this regard, several in vitro studies have demonstrated the antibacterial efficacy of chamomile against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (McKay and Blumberg, 2000;Singh et al., 2011;Ismail et al., 2011;Stanojevic et al., 2016;Sourav et al., 2019). Lis-Balchin et al. (1998) found that ChO was effective against 25 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and 20 Listeria monocytogenes strains. ...
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The effects of dietary chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) oil (ChO) on Indian shrimp (Penaeus indicus)’s growth performance, biochemical parameters, antioxidants, innate immunity, and resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection were investigated. For eight weeks, shrimp (4.0–4.5 g) were fed with diets enriched with 0.0 (control), 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 g ChO/kg feed three times a day to apparent satiety. Intramuscularly, V. parahaemolyticus were injected after the feeding trial, and clinical symptoms and mortalities were observed for 96 h. In ChO-fed animals, growth-stimulating effects were seen on final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed intake with an optimum level of 3 g/kg diet. Dietary ChO did not significantly affect feed conversion ratio, protein efficienct ratio, protein productive value, and energy utlilization. Protein (total protein, albumin, and globulin) profile, as well as antioxidant and immunity variables, significantly higher in ChO-fed animals particularly at the 3.0 and 5.0 g/kg feed treatments. Conversily, significantly reductions in levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide were detected in animals fed 3.0 or 5.0 g ChO/kg feed. Vibrio spp. showed low abundance in the gills and intestine of ChO-fed Indian shrimp compared to the control one; particularly in the treatments of 3.0 and 5.0 g/kg feed. The control group died completely after the bacterial challenge; however, ChO-fed animals were more resistant, with relative survival rates of 80.0% and 86.7% in the 3.0 and 5.0 g ChO/kg feed treatments, respectively, with no significant difference between them. Therefore, diets containing 3.0 g ChO/kg feed were found to be optimum for Indian shrimp, boosting its growth, antioxidant capacity, and innate immunity. Furthermore, ChO-enriched meals effectively increased its resistance to infection by V. parahaemolyticus.
... Many benefits are attributed to herbs such as C. sinensis (tea), P. anisum (anise), M. recutita (chamomile), P. boldus (boldo), and C. citratus (lemongrass). These plants have been well documented to have relaxation (Boskabady & Ramazani-Assari, 2001), anxiolytic (McKay & Blumberg, 2006), antibiotic (Danlami et al., 2011;Gülcin et al., 2003;Lima et al., 2006;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Silva et al., 2008;Vila et al., 1999), anticonstipation (Reiniger et al., 1999), anti-inflammatory (Backhouse et al., 1994;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Tas et al., 2006), antimenopausal (Nahidi et al., 2008), antiplatelet (McKay & Blumberg, 2006, antioxidant (Choi et al., 2001;Garg et al., 2012;Levites et al., 2001;Miura et al., 2000;Quezada et al., 2004;Wiseman et al., 1997), antispasmodic (Gilligan, 2005;McKay & Blumberg, 2006), antidiarrheal (Tangpu & Yadav, 2006), antimalarial (Tchoumbougnang et al., 2005), anti-ulcer (Al Mofleh et al., 2007), and antithrombotic (Basila & Yuan, 2005) properties. Additionally, they help ameliorate digestive (Picon et al., 2010), cardiovascular (Negishi et al., 2004), neurodegenerative (Gülcin et al., 2003;Youn et al., 2002), and hepatic issues (Arhoghro et al., 2012;Reiniger et al., 1999) and have benefits for diabetic patients (Rajeshwari et al., 2011). ...
... Many benefits are attributed to herbs such as C. sinensis (tea), P. anisum (anise), M. recutita (chamomile), P. boldus (boldo), and C. citratus (lemongrass). These plants have been well documented to have relaxation (Boskabady & Ramazani-Assari, 2001), anxiolytic (McKay & Blumberg, 2006), antibiotic (Danlami et al., 2011;Gülcin et al., 2003;Lima et al., 2006;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Silva et al., 2008;Vila et al., 1999), anticonstipation (Reiniger et al., 1999), anti-inflammatory (Backhouse et al., 1994;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Tas et al., 2006), antimenopausal (Nahidi et al., 2008), antiplatelet (McKay & Blumberg, 2006, antioxidant (Choi et al., 2001;Garg et al., 2012;Levites et al., 2001;Miura et al., 2000;Quezada et al., 2004;Wiseman et al., 1997), antispasmodic (Gilligan, 2005;McKay & Blumberg, 2006), antidiarrheal (Tangpu & Yadav, 2006), antimalarial (Tchoumbougnang et al., 2005), anti-ulcer (Al Mofleh et al., 2007), and antithrombotic (Basila & Yuan, 2005) properties. Additionally, they help ameliorate digestive (Picon et al., 2010), cardiovascular (Negishi et al., 2004), neurodegenerative (Gülcin et al., 2003;Youn et al., 2002), and hepatic issues (Arhoghro et al., 2012;Reiniger et al., 1999) and have benefits for diabetic patients (Rajeshwari et al., 2011). ...
... Many benefits are attributed to herbs such as C. sinensis (tea), P. anisum (anise), M. recutita (chamomile), P. boldus (boldo), and C. citratus (lemongrass). These plants have been well documented to have relaxation (Boskabady & Ramazani-Assari, 2001), anxiolytic (McKay & Blumberg, 2006), antibiotic (Danlami et al., 2011;Gülcin et al., 2003;Lima et al., 2006;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Silva et al., 2008;Vila et al., 1999), anticonstipation (Reiniger et al., 1999), anti-inflammatory (Backhouse et al., 1994;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Tas et al., 2006), antimenopausal (Nahidi et al., 2008), antiplatelet (McKay & Blumberg, 2006, antioxidant (Choi et al., 2001;Garg et al., 2012;Levites et al., 2001;Miura et al., 2000;Quezada et al., 2004;Wiseman et al., 1997), antispasmodic (Gilligan, 2005;McKay & Blumberg, 2006), antidiarrheal (Tangpu & Yadav, 2006), antimalarial (Tchoumbougnang et al., 2005), anti-ulcer (Al Mofleh et al., 2007), and antithrombotic (Basila & Yuan, 2005) properties. Additionally, they help ameliorate digestive (Picon et al., 2010), cardiovascular (Negishi et al., 2004), neurodegenerative (Gülcin et al., 2003;Youn et al., 2002), and hepatic issues (Arhoghro et al., 2012;Reiniger et al., 1999) and have benefits for diabetic patients (Rajeshwari et al., 2011). ...
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The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead in infusion tea bags of Camellia sinensis (tea), Pimpinella anisum (anise), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Peumus boldus (boldo), and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for four commercial brands sold in Tacna, Peru, to compare these concentrations with international standards. The moderate level of arsenic obtained for C. sinensis (0.294 mg kg⁻¹) exceeded the Codex Alimentarius standard for three of the four analyzed brands, while the level of arsenic in P. boldus (0.220 mg kg⁻¹) exceeded the same standard and the Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) parameters for only one brand. The moderate level of cadmium outlined in the Codex Alimentarius and by the World Health Organization (WHO) was exceeded by two infusion tea bag brands of M. recutita (0.210 mg kg⁻¹) and one brand of C. citratus (0.134 mg kg⁻¹). Finally, based on the MERCOSUR parameters, moderate levels of lead were exceeded by only one brand of C. citratus (0.535 mg kg⁻¹). To evaluate possible health risks, we also calculated the hazard index (HI) of the heavy metals in the target herbal tea bags. The values obtained were less than 1, showing negligible noncarcinogenic health risks for consumers. Despite this information and because of the elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead obtained in some of our results, we suggest more detailed studies to obtain more information about the potential toxicity of these products to humans.
... Matricaria chamomilla (synonym: Matricaria recutita), commonly known as chamomile, is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the world (Singh et al., 2011;Srivastava et al., 2010;Raal et al., 2012). Preparations from chamomile flowers have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic and sedative effects (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;European Medicines Agency, 2015), and contain a number of biologically active compounds, including essential oils (e.g. chamazulene, α-bisabolol and spiroethers) and phenolic compoundsphenolic acids, coumarins and flavonoids (Mulinacci et al., 2000;McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Haghi et al., 2014). ...
... Preparations from chamomile flowers have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic and sedative effects (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;European Medicines Agency, 2015), and contain a number of biologically active compounds, including essential oils (e.g. chamazulene, α-bisabolol and spiroethers) and phenolic compoundsphenolic acids, coumarins and flavonoids (Mulinacci et al., 2000;McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Haghi et al., 2014). ...
... Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties of chamomile preparations. Beneficial effects of chamomile for digestion problems and nervous system functioning were also established (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Sharifi-Rad et al., 2018). In particular, chamomile preparations are recommended for stress and mental disorders, insomnia, anxiety and hysteria (Amsterdam et al., 2009;Mao et al., 2016). ...
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Obesity is an increasing health concern related to many metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. Many studies suggest that herbal products can be useful dietary supplements for weight management due to the presence of numerous biologically active compounds, including antioxidant polyphenols that can counteract obesity-related oxidative stress. In this review we focus on Matricaria chamomilla, commonly known as chamomile, and one of the most popular medicinal plants in the world. Thanks to a high content of phenolic compounds and essential oils, preparations from chamomile flowers demonstrate a number of pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and sedative actions as well as improving gastrointestinal function. Several recent studies have shown certain positive effects of chamomile preparations in the prevention of obesity and complications of diabetes. These effects were associated with modulation of signaling pathways involving the AMP-activated protein kinase, NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARγ transcription factors. However, the potential of chamomile in the management of obesity seems to be underestimated. This review summarizes current data on the use of chamomile and its individual components (apigenin, luteolin, essential oils) to treat obesity and related metabolic disorders in cell and animal models and in human studies. Special attention is paid to molecular mechanisms that can be involved in the anti-obesity effects of chamomile preparations. Limitation of chamomile usage is also analyzed.
... The Egyptian chamomile was categorized under the α bisabololoxide A group 4,5,6 . Over 120 constituents have been identified in chamomile 7 . Chemical constituents identified as secondary metabolites, including 28 terpenoids, 36 flavonoids and 52 additional compounds with potential pharmacological activity 8 .The yield of essential oil of chamomile depends on the plant genotype as well as the environmental conditions under which the plants are grown 9,10,4,6,11,12 . ...
... Generally, the total amount of monoterpene increased from 3.08 % in the essential oil of dry flower Chamomile oil is produced conventionally by steam distillation as endorsed in many pharmacopeias. It incorporates several chemical class entities including sesquiterpenes α-bisabolol is known as levomenol, and bisabolol oxides A & B (≤ 78%), farnesene (12-28%) and chamazulene (1-15%); and polyacetylene derivatives, e.g.,spiroethers (cis/transen-ynedicycloethers (8-20%) 7 . The qualitative and quantitative chemical characteristics of chamomile oil have revealed the existence of four different chamomile chemotypes, in terms of their essential oil composition 36,37 . ...
... Chamomile has been traditionally used for weight loss in Turkey. In addition to weight loss, chamomile is also used for health benefits in cosmetics, the food industry, and medical applications 18 . ...
... a One-way ANOVA, p<0.05 within-group People have used herbs for decades for the treatment of various diseases. Chamomile is a herb used to treat and prevent obesity with different properties, but there are only a few studies about this effect 9,12,18,24 . This study found that the chamomile effect reduces body weight compared to a high-fat diet in rats. ...
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The addition of herbs to the diet is one of the methods for the treatment of obesity. It is aimed to examine the extracts of chamomile to use in the treatment of obesity, against high-fat diet. In this study, 6-8 weeks old fifteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Five of the rats separated randomly for the control group and fed with a standard pellet for ten weeks. Ten rats were fed with a high-fat diet for four weeks. After this period, the rats were randomly divided into two groups (high-fat control and chamomile). Blood samples were taken for lipid profiles and glucose. With the high-fat diet, body weights and total cholesterol had increased significantly (p<0.05). Chamomile had a 39.2% decrease in body weight and a 38.8% decrease in blood glucose (p<0.05). There was no difference between groups in other lipid parameters. Chamomile may be used in the treatment of obesity.
... It is one of the most popular medicinal plants used as a herb infusion i.e. herbal tea beverage (Formisano et al., 2015), because of its sweet, grassy, and slightly fruity aroma (Zadeh et al., 2014). It is used for treating numerous ailments, including sleep disorders, anxiety, digestion and intestinal conditions (McKay and Blumberg, 2006). Over 120 constituents have been recognized in chamomile essential oil, out of which α-bisabolol, chamazulene, β-farnesene, bisabolol oxides and α-bisabolone oxide are the most important ones (Ghasemi et al., 2016). ...
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Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used as a herb infusion for treating numerous ailments, including sleep disorders, anxiety, digestion and intestinal conditions etc. Chamomile essential oil is used in a wide variety of consumer goods such as detergents, soaps, toiletries, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, confectionery food products, soft drinks, distilled alcoholic beverages (hard liquor) and as insecticide. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, there are two types of essential oils, one rich in bisabolol oxides and the other in α-bisabolol, which are preferred for tea brewing because of its sweet, grassy, and slightly fruity aroma. From the other side, varieties rich in chamazulene and β-farnesene have bitter taste, and because of that they are low valuable raw material. According to the results of the essential oil composition obtained from three different chamomile samples grown in Province of Vojvodina, it could be concluded that domestic cultivars “Banatska” and “Tetraploidna” contains β-farnesene as dominant compound, while the content of bisabolol oxides and α-bisabolol was lower than required standards in European Pharmacopoeia. Because of that they could not be classified as quality raw material. The German cultivar “Mabamille” grown in agroecological conditions of Vojvodina region, with 37.5% of α-bisabolol can be classified as a bisabolol rich type, and as high quality row material.
... Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) is a medicinal plant used traditionally as a mild sedative and to treat gastrointestinal problems. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties (12,13). These herbs possess the aforementioned biological properties due to the occurrence of several secondary metabolites, such as phenolic constituents, terpenoids, and flavonoids, in their extracts. ...
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The processing of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) results in the production of a significant amount of plant by-products; herbal material of inferior quality and/or unusable plant parts that are not commercially exploitable. An extensive study of Greek native species was performed toward the production of innovative bioactive products using as raw materials the by-products obtained from the processing of cultivated MAPs. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (oregano), Sideritis scardica (Greek mountain tea), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Matricaria recutita (chamomile) were selected due to their wide use for the preparation of beverages and culinary purposes. The determination of the percentage of the post-harvest processing by-products was performed for a 3 years period (2018–2020). Results showed that by-products derived from the above-mentioned species' processing constitute 64% (thyme), 54% (oregano), 37% (Greek mountain tea), and 24% (chamomile) of the total processed mass. To value the by-products as a potent source of bioactive ingredients, superior and inferior quality herbal material of the aforementioned plant species were extracted by an ultrasonic assisted extraction method. Hydroalcoholic extracts were chemically investigated using high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. In addition, their free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were estimated. Based on the results, herbs by-products revealed similar chemical content to the superior herbal material by the means of HPTLC and LC-MS analysis. In addition, strong free radical scavenging related to a high phenolic content was detected in the case of thyme, oregano, and Greek mountain tea. Moreover, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the essential oils (EOs) of oregano and thyme by-products revealed the presence of carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene among the major constituents. Finally, the LC-MS analyses of aqueous extracts of Greek mountain tea and chamomile by-products led to the identification of several bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Overall, the presence of bioactive constituents in by-products, such as terpenes, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids underly their potent use as food antimicrobial and antioxidant additives, in the preparation of high added-value products, such as enriched aromatic edible oils, and innovative herbal teas, such as instant beverages.
... Matricaria chamomilla L. (family: Asteraceae), commonly known as 'German chamomile', 'Hungarian chamomile' or 'wild chamomile', is a herbaceous plant natively distributed in European and West Asian regions (107). Its aerial part's ethanol extract dose-dependently lessened postprandial blood glucose levels and showed protective action on pancreatic b-cells of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. ...
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Diabetes, a chronic physiological dysfunction affecting people of different age groups and severely impairs the harmony of peoples' normal life worldwide. Despite the availability of insulin preparations and several synthetic oral antidiabetic drugs, there is a crucial need for the discovery and development of novel antidiabetic drugs because of the development of resistance and side effects of those drugs in long-term use. On the contrary, plants or herbal sources are getting popular day by day to the scientists, researchers, and pharmaceutical companies all over the world to search for potential bioactive compound(s) for the discovery and development of targeted novel antidiabetic drugs that may control diabetes with the least unwanted effects of conventional antidiabetic drugs. In this review, we have presented the prospective candidates comprised of either isolated phytochemical(s) and/or extract(s) containing bioactive phytoconstituents which have been reported in several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies possessing noteworthy antidiabetic potential. The mode of actions, attributed to antidiabetic activities of the reported phytochemicals and/or plant extracts have also been described to focus on the prospective phytochemicals and phytosources for further studies in the discovery and development of novel antidiabetic therapeutics.
... According to the results of this study, chamomile was more effective than placebo in reducing menstrual-related mood disorders (p < 0.001). Flavonoids, one of the most important compounds in chamomile, increase progesterone levels through their direct effect on the pituitary gland, so this plant can be effective in modulating premenstrual mood symptoms [24], also, the soothing and anti-anxiety effects of chamomile are due to the presence of compounds such as camazoline and flavonoids in this plant [25] can be useful in the effectiveness of this plant in relieving premenstrual mood symptoms. In Sharifi et al.'s study, administration of chamomile extract reduced the severity of PMS symptoms, and compared to mefenamic acid, its effect on the overall severity and psychological symptoms of PMS was greater [21], which was In line with the results of the present study. ...
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Objective A significant percentage of reproductive-age women experience mood symptoms during the days before menstruation that can affect different aspects of a person's life, the use of some medicinal plants can be helpful in controlling premenstrual emotional symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile capsules on menstrual-related mood disorders. Study design This clinical trial study was performed on 118 students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were divided into two groups of chamomile and placebo. Both groups received one capsule every 8 hours for 7 days before the onset of menstrual bleeding. The data collection tool was a Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST). Data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney, independent t-test, Wilcoxon, and analysis of covariance. Results According to the results of the Mann-Whitney test Chamomile capsules were more effective than placebo in reducing menstrual-related mood disorders (p < 0/001). The results of the analysis of covariance showed that after controlling the associated variables, the changes in the severity of mood symptoms between the two groups were significantly different (p < 0/05). Conclusion The results of this study show that the use of chamomile capsules can be an effective treatment in alleviating emotional symptoms related to menstrual cycles.
... Traditionally, chamomile has been used as a breath freshener, digestive aid, immunity booster, sleep aid, and reliever of allergic symptoms, bronchitis, menstrual problems, and insect bites [36]. The flowers of chamomile are rich in polyphenols such as quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, patuletin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, and coumarins [37][38][39]. ...
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The pivotal role of childhood nutrition has always roused a growing interest from the scientific community. Plant extracts and bioactive dietary components play a significant role in the maintenance of human health and wellness, with the potential to modulate risk factors and manage symptoms for a large number of common childhood disorders such as memory impairment, respiratory illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic derangements, and pathologies related to the oral cavity. This review is designed to highlight the health benefits of botanical extracts and bioactive dietary components in children as evidenced by clinical trials, considering their safety with regards to childhood sensibilities. The supplementation of children with the herbal extracts or bioactive components mentioned in this review leads to the conclusion that they are useful for treating various ailments, with no serious adverse events being reported. However, for the limited number of investigations specifically focused on the safety of such products in children, time is needed to expand the literature data covering the safety of childhood supplementation with botanical extract and bioactive food components.
... Chamomile, also known as Chamomilla recutita and Matricaria chamomilla, is a popular medicinal plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family and has a wide range of therapeutic properties. Chamomile consist of active components including flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, patuletin and their glucoside derivatives) and terpenoids (α-bisabolol and chamazulene) [230][231][232]. Quantitatively, the multifunctional flavonoid, apigenin (Fig. 3), is the most abundant flavonoid in chamomile flowers. ...
Article
Wound is defined as any injury to the body such as damage to the epidermis of the skin and disturbance to its normal anatomy and function. Since ancient times, the importance of wound healing has been recognized, and many efforts have been made to develop novel wound dressings made of the best material for rapid and effective wound healing. Medicinal plants play a great role in the wound healing process. In recent decades, many studies have focused on the development of novel wound dressings that incorporate medicinal plant extracts or their purified active compounds, which are potential alternatives to conventional wound dressings. Several studies have also investigated the mechanism of action of various herbal medicines in wound healing process. This paper attempts to highlight and review the mechanistic perspective of wound healing mediated by plant-based natural products. The findings showed that herbal medicines act through multiple mechanisms and are involved in various stages of wound healing. Some herbal medicines increase the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) which play important role in stimulation of re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, formation of granulation tissue, and collagen fiber deposition. Some other wound dressing containing herbal medicines act as inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression thereby inducing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in various phases of the wound healing process. Besides the growing public interest in traditional and alternative medicine, the use of herbal medicine and natural products for wound healing has many advantages over conventional medicines, including greater effectiveness due to diverse mechanisms of action, antibacterial activity, and safety in long-term wound dressing usage.
... α-Bisabolol also known as levomenol is a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol which was first identified and extracted from Matricaria chamomilla [3]. However, α-Bisabolol is also present abundantly in various medicinal plants essential oils. ...
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α-Bisabolol is one of the important monocyclic sesquiterpenes, derived naturally from essential oils of many edible and ornamental plants. It was first obtained from Matricaria chamomilla, commonly known as chamomile or German chamomile. The available literature indicates that this plant along with other α-Bisabolol containing plants is popularly used in traditional medicine for potential health benefits and general wellbeing. Nutritional studies are indicative of the health benefits of α-Bisabolol. Numerous experimental studies demonstrated pharmacological properties of α-Bisabolol including anticancer, antinociceptive, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antimicrobial. This review aims to collectively present different pharmacological activities based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present review using synoptic tables and figures, we comprehensively present that α-Bisabolol possesses therapeutic and protective activities, therefore, it can be used for potential health benefits based on pharmacological effects, underlying molecular mechanism, and favorable pharmaceutical properties. Based on the studies mostly performed in cell lines or animal models, it is evident that α-Bisabolol may be a promising nutraceutical and phytomedicine to target aberrant biological mechanisms which result in altered physiological processes and various ailments. Given the polypharmacological effects and pleiotropic properties, along with favorable pharmacokinetics, and dietary availability and safety, α-Bisabolol can be used as a dietary agent, nutraceutical or phytopharmaceutical agent or as an adjuvant with currently available modern medicines. The regulatory approval of this molecule for use as food additives, and in cosmetics and fragrance industry is also supportive of its human usage. Moreover, further studies are necessary to address pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and toxicological aspects before clinical or nutritional usage in humans. The pharmacological effects and biological actions opens up opportunities on the pharmacological basis of its use in future therapeutics.
... 16,17 Other herbal teas that are popularly drunk worldwide (as researched as result of their popularity) are chamomile, rooibos, mate, hibiscus, mint, etc. 15 Many herbal teas are normally ingested as part of the food habits but certain users drink these beveragessuch as the teas mentioned aboveas infusions for medicinal purposes as well. 18,19 Whether as a food or as a medicinal plant, herbal teas are interesting sources of bioactive molecules that can participate in many physiological pathways to maintain health or prevent certain diseases, such as cardiometabolic or cardiovascular diseases, as well as other chronic conditions known to result from chronic systemic inflammation. 3 In this sense, polyphenols from teas are particularly known to act as antioxidants modulating other physiological processes; they have been demonstrated to be involved in the prevention of chronic and inflammatory disorders such as systemic inflammation or neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. ...
Article
South African rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea is globally consumed for its health benefits and caffeine free nature, but no information is available on the neuroprotective capacity of (unfermented) green rooibos....
... α-Bisabolol is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, found in Matricaria chamomilla and other aromatic plants such as Eremanthuserythropappus, Smyrniopsisaucheri, Salvia runcinata, and Vanillosmopsis species [10,11] shown to possess potent analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties [12][13][14]. In a murine model of osteoarthritis, α-bisabolol suppressed the inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration induced by advanced glycation end products (AGE) [15]. ...
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The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis) are increasing worldwide. The etiology of IBD is multifactorial, including genetic predisposition, dysregulated immune response, microbial dysbiosis, and environmental factors. However, many of the existing therapies are associated with marked side effects. Therefore, the development of new drugs for IBD treatment is an important area of investigation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α-bisabolol, a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol present in many aromatic plants, in colonic inflammation. To address this, we used molecular docking and dynamic studies to understand how α-bisabolol interacts with PPAR-γ, which is highly expressed in the colonic epithelium: in vivo (mice) and in vitro (RAW264.7 macrophages and HT-29 colonic adenocarcinoma cells) models. The molecular docking and dynamic analysis revealed that α-bisabolol interacts with PPAR-γ, a nuclear receptor protein that is highly expressed in the colon epithelium. Treatment with α-bisabolol in DSS-administered mice significantly reduced Disease Activity Index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and colonic length and protected the microarchitecture of the colon. α-Bisabolol treatment also reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL1β, TNF-α, and IL-17A) at the protein and mRNA levels. The expression of COX-2 and iNOS inflammatory mediators were reduced along with tissue nitrite levels. Furthermore, α-bisabolol decreased the phosphorylation of activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) proteins and enhanced colon epithelial PPAR-γ transcription factor expression. However, the PPAR-α and β/δ expression was not altered, indicating α-bisabolol is a specific stimulator of PPAR-γ. α-Bisabolol also increased the PPAR-γ transcription factor expression but not PPAR-α and β/δ in pretreated in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. α-Bisabolol significantly decreased the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL-1 and IL-8) mRNA in HT-29 cells treated with TNF-α and HT-29 PPAR-γ promoter activity. These results demonstrate that α-bisabolol mitigates colonic inflammation by inhibiting MAPK signaling and stimulating PPAR-γ expression.
... However, there are differences in the main volatile substances of different species of chamomile, an analysis of terpenoid biosynthesis pathways based on co-expression networks showed that the main volatiles of German chamomile are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, while the main volatiles of Roman chamomile are esters (Mann and Staba, 1986;Tai et al., 2020). Roman Chamomile essential oils are often used as a mild sedative to calm nerves, decrease anxiety, and cure nightmares, insomnia, and other sleep difficulties (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Singh et al., 2011). Researchers investigated the effect of inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil on depressive-like behaviors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats for 2 weeks. ...
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Mood disorders, also often referred to as affective disorders, are a group of psychiatric illnesses that severely impact mood and its related functions. The high medical expenditures have placed a significant financial burden on patients and their families. Aromatherapy is an alternative and complementary treatment that utilizes essential oils (EOs) or volatile oils (VOs) to achieve major therapeutic goals. In general, EOs are volatile chemicals that enter the body primarily through skin absorption and/or nasal inhalation. In addition, they can work through oral administration. Inhalation aromatherapy has shown unique advantages for treating mood disorders, especially depression, anxiety and mental disorders such as sleep disorder, which have been validated over the last decade through clinical and animal studies. Accumulating evidence has shown that EOs or VOs can bypass the blood-brain barrier to target brain tissue through the nasal-brain pathway. Subsequently, they act on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and limbic system in the brain to improve symptoms of anxiety, depression and improve sleep quality. Here, we review the natural aromatic plants’ volatiles or essential oils used commonly as adjuncts to manage mood disorders and illustrate the mechanisms of inhalation aromatherapy, and mainly summarized the application of transnasal inhalation aromatherapy in depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We conclude that aromatherapy does not cause side-effects, which is vastly different from commonly used psychotropic drugs. Inhalation aromatherapy via brain-targeted nasal delivery offers potentially efficacious treatment for mental disorders and merits further study.
... It has been reported that Bisabolol and chamazulene are active compounds found in chamomile essential oil. The dry flowers of Chamomile have numerous properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and also possess some mild astringent properties [32][33][34][35]. ...
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It is a common perspective that medicinal plants have played and continue to perform an undeniably major role in the lives of people worldwide. Essential oils are the key constituents of medicinal herbs and their biological activities have been discovered since ancient times and are enormously utilised in multiple industries. The essential oils possess important biological properties like antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, insecticidal, etc. Because of these unique features they are more acceptable and are utilised in various fields throughout the world. In the cosmetics industry they play an important role in the development of perfumes while in the food industry they have been used as food preservatives. Essential oil components are interestingly utilised for pharmaceutical applications. The most investigated properties are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, anxiolytic activities etc. The current thrust area is evaluation for aromatherapy and anti-cancer, as it is noted that essential oils reported in plants may prevent, inhibit, or even reverse formation of cancerous cells. The aim of this chapter is to provide a concise and comprehensive overview on the therapeutic and pharmaceutical potential of essential oils in the current scenario.
... With the increasing interest in healthcare, the importance of herbal tea is widely recognized by millions of people in the domain of diet-based therapies. In recent decades, a series of herbal teas, including peppermint tea (Mckay and Blumberg, 2006b), chamomile tea (Mckay and Blumberg, 2006a), bush tea (Joubert et al., 2008), hawk tea (Jia et al., 2014) and so on, have been extensively studied. The consumption of herbal tea could decrease the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases (El and Karakaya, 2009). ...
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E Se tea, processed by the fresh leaves of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes, is a traditional herbal tea with various human benefits. The present study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity and hypolipidemic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract (EE) and hot-water extract (WE) from E Se tea. Eight main chemical constituents in EE and WE were respectively identified and quantified by UHPLC-HRMS/MS. EE is rich in TPC and TFC, while WE had higher TPS content. Both EE and WE exhibited strong antioxidant activity with no significant difference. The acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 values were higher than 5000 mg/kg, while both WE and EE had no significant adverse effect in rats by subacute toxicity assay. However, the triglyceride (TG) content in experiment groups (male) and highest doses groups (female) significantly decreased. Furthermore, the hypolipidemic effect of WE and EE were performed on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. The result exhibited that either WE or EE could effectively regulate lipid droplet accumulation in liver, and reduce the adipocyte size. These results demonstrated that these two extracts from E Se tea could be regarded as a potential functional dietary supplement in preventing and treating diet induced metabolic diseases.
... Decades of traditional and scientific research and its application have confirmed its multi-therapeutic, esthetic, and nutritional properties (Singh et al. 2011). Chamomile has also been shown to have mild antioxidant and antibacterial properties (Simpson 2001;McKay and Blumberg 2006). This plant's blue essential oil is used in medicine, cosmetics, and cuisines, as well as to bring flavor to alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages (Sashidhara, Verma, and Ram 2005). ...
... Essential oil extracted from the flowers contain terpenoids, alphabisabolol and its oxides, and azulene, including chamazulene. Chamomile demonstrates to have moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and significant platelet aggregation inhibition in vitro [130]. It is able to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen and whole blood aggregation by collagen. ...
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Natural anticoagulant drugs can be obtained from plants, rich in secondary bioactive metabolites which, in addition to being effective antioxidants, also possess anticoagulant and antiplatelet properties and, for this reason, can be excellent candidates for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. This review reports an overview of the hemostatic process and thrombotic disorders together with data on plants, more and less common from around the world, containing bioactive compounds characterized by antiplatelet and anticoagulant activity. The reported literature was obtained from Medline, PubMed, Elsevier, Web of Science, Google Scholar considering only articles in the English language, published in peer-reviewed journals. The number of citations of the articles and the impact factor of the journals were other parameters used to select the scientific papers to be included in the review. The analysis of the literature data selected demonstrates that many plants’ bioactive compounds show antiplatelet and anticoagulant activity that make them potential candidates to be used as new natural compounds able to interfere with both primary and secondary hemostasis. Moreover, they could be used together with anticoagulants currently administered in clinical practice to increase their efficacy and to reduce complications in the treatment of thrombotic disorders.
... Rosmarinic acid and various flavonoids, including eriocitrin, hesperidin, and luteolin, are phenolic elements of the leaves. Menthol and menthone are the two major volatile components of the essential oil of Mentha piperita [21]. e purpose of this study was to examine some biological properties (antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities) of two commonly used Moroccan medicinal herbs, Mentha piperita and Lavandula multifida. ...
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Mentha piperita and Lavandula multifida are widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and infectious diseases. The aims of this work were the determination of the chemical composition of Mentha piperita (MPEO) and Lavandula multifida (LMEO) essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. The chemical composition was determined by GC-MS analysis. The antibacterial effects were evaluated against several bacterial strains using disc diffusion, MIC, and MBC methods. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using DPPH, H2O2, and xanthine oxidase, and the antidiabetic activity was estimated by the inhibitory effects of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase activities. GC-MS results showed that the main compounds of MPEO were menthone (29.24%), levomenthol (38.73%), and eucalyptol (6.75%). However, eucalyptol (28.11%), 2-bornanone (11.57%), endo-borneol (7.82%), and linalyl acetate (5.22%) are the major compounds of LMEO. The results exhibited important inhibitory effects against some bacterial strains with MIC = MBC = 0.39 mg/mL for MPEO against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC. However, LMEO exhibited remarkable antioxidant and antidiabetic activities compared to MPEO. Indeed, LMEO inhibited DPPH, H2O2, and xanthine oxidase with concentrations of 15.23, 21.52, and 8.89 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, LMEO exhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase at IC50 = 85.34 and IC50 = 59.36 µg/mL, respectively. The findings showed that both MPEO and LMEO exhibit promising biological properties. However, the application of these species or their main bioactive compounds requires further investigation.
... The former showed lower activities in ABTS and FRAP assays (although higher than C. officinalis and S. officinalis) with phenolics constituting a significant amount of extractables-which can be concluded on the basis of the results of FC assay, and which is again consistent with literature 52 . Flavonols constitute a fairly small group among phenolic compounds in chamomile, and the literature data show that apigenin (which performs poorly in FL-Al assay) is the most abundant flavonoid in chamomile 30 . Based on the low yield of MC-SFE and the results of colorimetric assay activities shown by it, it can be concluded that the content of non-polar redoxactive compounds in chamomile is fairly low. ...
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Damask rose is a well-established, abundant source of phytochemicals, as well as economically important essential oil—however, its cultivation is demanding and costly. In this paper, extracts from four raw plant materials— Salvia officinalis , Sambucus nigra , Matricaria chamomilla , Calendula officinalis , known to be rich in phenolic compounds, but also far easier to cultivate—were directly compared to those obtained from Rosa × damascena Mill. By combining diverse extraction methodologies (in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrawave-assisted and microwave-assisted, using supercritical CO 2 ) and complementary in vitro assays (radical scavenging, iron reducing, Folin–Ciocalteau and Al ³⁺ complexation), it was possible to conveniently approximate and compare the phytochemical portfolios of those diverse plants. By factoring in the crop yields of different species, economically important conclusions can be reached—with pot marigold ( C. officinalis ) seemingly the most viable substitute for damask rose as a source of phenolics. Fatty acid and microelement analyses were also performed, to further enrich the chemical profiles of plant extracts. The paper also aims to collate and redesign multiple colorimetric assays frequently used while studying plant extracts in vitro, but criticized for their lack of correlation to in vivo activity. We show that they remain a viable tool for direct comparison of extraction methodologies, while highlighting their shortcomings.
... Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, sym. M. recutita) belongs to the same family as sunflower and is one of the most important medicinal plants [21,22]. Chamomile pollen is smaller than that of sunflower (13-25 µm vs. 26-50 µm) [23,24] and has a highly porous surface. ...
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Pollen grains are natural microcapsules comprised of the biopolymer sporopollenin. The uniformity and special tridimensional architecture of these sporopollenin structures confer them attractive properties such as high resistance and improved bioadhesion. However, natural pollen can be a source of allergens, hindering its biomedical applicability. Several methods have been developed to remove internal components and allergenic compounds, usually involving long and laborious processes, which often cannot be extended to other pollen types. In this work, we propose an abridged protocol to produce stable and pristine hollow pollen microcapsules, together with a complete physicochemical and morphological characterization of the intermediate and final products. The optimized procedure has been validated for different pollen samples, also producing spo-ropollenin microcapsules from Matricaria species for the first time. Pollen microcapsules obtained through this protocol presented low protein content (4.4%), preserved ornamented morphology with a nanoporous surface, and low product density (0.14 g/cm 3). These features make them interesting candidates from a pharmaceutical perspective due to the versatility of this biomaterial as a drug delivery platform.
... Parallel to this search, medicine based on the use of natural agents has been gaining prominence because of the possible therapeutic effects of herbal agents, in addition to being easily accessible and financially feasible, which has promoted the progressive increase in its consumption and indication (Miraj, Azizi, & Kiani, 2016). Chamomile, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is one of the most globally used ancient medicinal plants due to its beneficial therapeutic properties, such as the presence of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids, aspergenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin, and glycosides, which are responsible for the sedative, antiinflammatory, antispamodic, antimicrobial, and restorative activities of this natural agent (McKay & Blumberg, 2006;O'Hara, Kiefer, Farrell, & Kemper, 1998). The floral chapters are the part of the chamomile used to produce the topical medicine and there are several forms of presentation, which includes the topical use, fluid extract (1:1): in hydroethanolic solution, vapour, capsule or tablet containing dry extract, tinctures, infusion and volatile oil (Ministério da Saúde, 2016;WHO monography, 1999). ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical chamomile in the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. It was a systematic review, which sought articles of the randomized clinical trial according to the PRISMA parameters, registered in the PROSPERO. The databases used were PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Bireme. Descriptors were selected from DeCs/MeSH and the PICO strategy was applied. The search found 148 publications. After all the steps, six articles were selected. The total sample included 492 patients and all studies used the same OM measurement scale. The results showed that the application of topical chamomile was effective in the prevention and/or treatment of OM in four of the six studies, with a dose ranging from 1% to 2.5% and duration that ranged from single to 4 times a day. Some limitations were observed: the minimum age of the patients was not informed, and there was no specification of the sites involved or the chemotherapies used. The application of topical chamomile in the preventive/therapeutic of chemo‐induced OM seems to be recommended. In addition, scientific production should be encouraged, as it aims to determine useful protocols for this phytotherapy for the oncology population.
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Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most favoured single ingredient herbs. Chamomile tea is prepared by brewing the dried flower heads which has been used as traditional remedy. It is a crop introduced into India, mainly grown in Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir states of India. The valuable unknown properties of this multipurpose herb should be explored to determine the therapeutic properties of its different parts, extracts, oils, etc. The flowers constitute many phenolic compounds like flavonoids, apigenin, patuletin, glucosides, luteolin and quercetin as main components. This herb is used as an antioxidant, antidepressant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective agents. In addition to that, it is also useful in treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, premenstrual syndrome, knee osteoarthritis andulcerative colitis. Matricaria Recutita chamomilla L. is used for both therapeutically and non-therapeutically around the globe that precipitate its remarkable worth. Chamomile contents of essential oils are widely used in aromatherapy and cosmetics. Most popular chamomile preparation is herbal tea which has been developed and consumed by more than one million cups per day across the globe. This review article briefs about the therapeutic efficiency along with phytology and cultivation techniques.
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The functional beverages (FBs) are an important segment of functional food products due to health benefits they provide and their appealing sensory characteristics, suitability and affordability. FBs market offers many opportunities for new product development (nutraceuticals, colorants, plant-based medicines and products) with desirable and effective composition of nutrients and bioactive molecules (BAMs) aimed to deliver health benefits and improve human well-being. Recently, the use of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the production of FBs has become increasingly popular due to specific content of nutrients (amino and fatty acids) and BAMs (volatile and non-volatile) attributed to the biological effects and health benefits. BAMs are stored in leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, barks and roots, and they mostly include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, tanins, anthocyanins, lignans and stilbenes), essential oils (EOs), terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterols and saponins. The aromatic features of MAPs are mainly related to volatile compounds of EOs, but the presence of non-volatile compounds, such as phenolics, also contributes to the specific sensory properties. Phytochemical profiling of plant species containing specific and complex mixtures of BAMs, provides numerous opportunities for the development of new categories of FBs, but also opens new challenges in their isolation using conventional and advanced extraction techniques, as well as determination of potential biological effects. This review summarizes the categories of the most common FBs, BAMs from selected MAPs and their biological effects, extraction techniques suitable for production of plant extracts and EOs, product quality and prediction trends, and several directions towards future research on FBs development strategies.
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a central neurodegenerative disease generally among the elderly; it accounts for approximately 50–75%of total cases of dementia patients and poses a serious threat to physical and mental health. Currently available treatments for AD mainly relieves its symptoms, and effective therapy is urgently needed. Deposition of amyloid-β protein in the brain is an early and invariant neuropathological feature of AD. Currently the main efforts in developing anti-AD drugs focus on anti-amyloidogenic therapeutics that prevent amyloid-β production or aggregation and decrease the occurrence of neurotoxic events. The results of an increasing number of studies suggest that natural extracts and phytochemicals have a positive impact on brain aging. Flavonoids belong to the broad group of polyphenols and recent data indicate a favorable effect of flavonoids on brain aging. In this review, we collect relevant discoveries from 1999 to 2021, discuss 75 flavonoids that effectively influence AD pathogenesis, and summarize their functional mechanisms in detail. The data we have reviewed show that, these flavonoids belong to various subclasses, including flavone, flavanone, biflavone, etc. Our results provide a reference for further study of the effects of flavonoids on AD and the progress of anti-AD therapy.
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The book includes a description about an indigenous community in Central Andes (Ecuador). It includes the botanical descriptions for 46 plant families and 118 species that are used by this community. It also includes an identification key for the 46 families.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Cancer is the top death causing disease in the world, due to its occurrence through various mechanism and form. Medicinal plants have been extensively used for the purifications and isolations of phytochemicals for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Objectives Consequently, this research was designed to document the traditional practices of anti-cancer plants and its phytochemical essay across the districts of KP, Pakistan. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted (24 districts), from the informants mostly the traditional herbalists (key informants). The information were compared with the publish data using various authentic search engines including, google, researchgate, google scholar and NCBI. Results One hundred and fifty-four (154), anti-cancer plants were recognized belonging to 69 families among all, Lamiaceae (13 sp.), Asteraceae (12 sp.) and Solanaceae (9 sp.) were the preferred families. The local inhabitants in the area typically prepare ethnomedicinal recipes from leaves (33.70%) and whole plants (23.37%) in the form of decoction and powder (24.67%), respectively. Herbs stayed the most preferred life form (61.68%) followed by shrub (21.4%). Similarly, breast (29.22%) and lung cancer (14.83%) was the common disease type. Literature study also authorize that, the medicinal plants of the research area were rich in phytochemical like quercetin, coumarine, kaempferol, apigenin, colchicine, alliin, rutin, lupeol, allicin, berbarine, lutolin, vanilic acid, urocilic acid and solamargine have revealed significant activates concerning the cancer diseases, that replicating the efficacy of these plants as medicines. Conclusion The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is rural area and the local inhabitants have very strong traditional knowledge about the medicinal plants for different diseases like cancer. The medicinal plants for significant ranked disorder might be pharmacologically and phtyochemicaly explored to demonstrate their efficacy. However, the local flora especially medicinal plants facing overgrazing, overexploitation and inappropriate way of collection, however, proper management strategies like reforestation, controlled grazing, proper permission from concerned department and rangeland strategies among others may be assumed to enhance the proper usage of medicinal plants.
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Introduction The presence of stones in the urinary tract is a condition that has accompanied humans since ancient times. In colonial times, this condition was known as “stone pain” and its non-surgical management was based on the use of medicines derived from plants, animals and minerals. Objective To contextualize a medical prescription used to modulate stone pain in the 18th century in the New Kingdom of Granada. Additionally, to analyze its components and evaluate the basis of its possible phytotherapeutic effects on the disease and pain. Material and method Document search in the Cipriano Rodríguez Santamaría Historical Archive of the Octavio Arizmendi Posada Library at Universidad de La Sabana. The document entitled “Prescription for bladder or kidney stone pain” was analyzed, and a complementary review of current scientific literature and original texts was performed with no time limits, in order to compare this prescription to related findings in the history of medicine. Results The transcription of the source document revealed several phytotherapeutic agents such as chamomile (Matricaria recutita), lilies (Lilium lancifolium), clover (Trifolium pratense), and mallow roots (Malva sylvestris), accompanied by a large amounts of water. Conclusions There is scientific evidence that could explain the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of all plant-derived medicines used in this prescription. Abundant water intake to increase urine volume was an essential part of treatment. However, the lack of more precise data related to the prescription and the evolution of the patients makes it difficult to analyze its therapeutic efficacy.
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Drinking water quality is considered a continuing concern of human health. Herein, for the improvement of water quality, dual functioning core‐shell (CS) nanofibers were developed by use of polysulfone (PSU)/graphene oxide (GO) as the adsorbent core layer for removing heavy metal ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/mint extract as the shell layer for inducing antioxidant activity to the water. Various analyses on the strip samples before and after the water treatment experiment were performed. ATR‐FTIR by appearing or disappearing chemical bonds, TEM micrographs based on the formation of shell layer around the nanofibers, FESEM according to the uniformity and diameter of nanofibers, and EDX analysis based on the elemental and mapping results, verified the core‐shell structure of nanofibers. The results of the antioxidant activity demonstrated that after the dissolution shell layer, radical scavenging capability of water was improved effectively. Thereafter, the remained core layer had a high capacity and efficiency for the adsorption of metal ions especially for CS3 with 70.9% and 58.7% efficiency for Fe(III) and Ni(II). By achieving 0.975 and 0.568 L/g partition coefficient (PC), the desired performance of CS3 (core layer: 15 wt% PSU, 0.5% GO and shell layer: 5 wt% PVP, and 2.5 wt% mint) was confirmed.
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COVID‐19 has become the focal point since 2019 after the outbreak of coronavirus disease. Many drugs are being tested and used to treat coronavirus infections; different kinds of vaccines are also introduced as preventive measure. Alternative therapeutics are as well incorporated into the health guidelines of some countries. This research aimed to look into the underlying mechanisms of functional foods and how they may improve the long‐term post COVID‐19 cardiovascular, diabetic, and respiratory complications through their bioactive compounds. The potentiality of nine functional foods for post COVID‐19 complications was investigated through computational approaches. A total of 266 bioactive compounds of these foods were searched via extensive literature reviewing. Three highly associated targets namely troponin I interacting kinase (TNNI3K), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP‐4), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF‐β1) were selected for cardiovascular, diabetes, and respiratory disorders, respectively, after COVID‐19 infections. Best docked compounds were further analyzed by network pharmacological tools to explore their interactions with complication‐related genes (MAPK1 and HSP90AA1 for cardiovascular, PPARG and TNF‐alpha for diabetes, and AKT‐1 for respiratory disorders). Seventy‐one suggested compounds out of one‐hundred and thirty‐nine (139) docked compounds in network pharmacology recommended 169 Gene Ontology (GO) items and 99 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathways preferably AKT signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, ACE2 receptor signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, and PPAR signaling pathway. Among the chosen functional foods, black cumin, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, turmeric, bitter melon, and Indian pennywort were found to modulate the actions. Results demonstrate that aforesaid functional foods have attenuating roles to manage post COVID‐19 complications. Practical applications Functional foods have been approaching a greater interest due to their medicinal uses other than gastronomic pleasure. Nine functional food resources have been used in this research for their traditional and ethnopharmacological uses, but their directive‐role in modulating the genes involved in the management of post COVID‐19 complications is inadequately studied and reported. Therefore, the foods types used in this research may be prioritized to be used as functional foods for ameliorating the major post COVID‐19 complications through appropriate science.
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In this research to measure the concentration of elements in the plant chamomile and effectiveness of these items on the biological processes of the human person and the benefits arising from this plant and plant use alternative chemicals used in the pharmaceutical industry Medicine it was measured elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in three different ways depending the process used to reach the best results and to measure the concentration of the elements and compare them with each other. It has also been on the search study the effect of the measured concentrations of the elements on the Rights of the benefits and harms of health has also been studying the benefits of chamomile for humans and how to take advantage of it. And knowledge of the work of each of these elements with the last element association for the purpose of organizing its work within the human body in biological processes and their effectiveness in regulating vital biological processes. The concentration of elements in the chamomile plant was measured in this research and the effectiveness of these elements on human biological processes, the benefits of this plant, the use of plants as an alternative medicine for the chemicals used in the pharmaceutical industry, and elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) were measured in three different ways depending on the process used to achieve the best results and measure and compare their concentration Together. The research also examined the impact of the trickiness of measured elements on human health from harmful benefits and benefits, and the benefits of the human chamomile were studied and how it could be used. The working of each of these elements is linked to another element for the purpose of organizing their work within the human body is vital processes and their effectiveness in the organization of biological and biological processes.
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Throughout history, Matricaria chamomilla L. (M. chamomilla) has had countless applications in traditional medicine. Its extracts, oils and teas have been used for treating diverse ailments, including wounds, rheumatic pain, menstrual cramps, eye and ear infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and respiratory illnesses. These traditional applications guided modern research into its medicinal effects through increasingly detailed in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials. A plethora of preclinical studies have assessed the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, anti-diarrheal, antispasmodic, wound healing, and anticancer properties of M. chamomilla. These pharmacological properties of M. chamomilla are attributed to its rich reservoir of phytochemical constituents, primarily its flavonoids, such as luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, as well as its sesquiterpenes, mainly chamazulene and (−)-α-bisabolol. Remarkably, preclinical studies have paved the way for progress towards controlled human clinical trials. M. chamomilla has been clinically evaluated for its effects against anxiety, sleep-deficiency, depression, as well as oral, women-related, inflammatory, metabolic, dermatological, gastrointestinal disorders, and children-related conditions. In this sense, this review elucidates and discusses the recent findings for M. chamomilla development as a therapeutic agent that possesses health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment properties. The traditional medicinal uses and evidence-based research studies, which were performed in cell culture, animal models and human subjects to assess the pharmacological activities of M. chamomilla, are extensively highlighted. Particular emphasis is given to some phytochemical constituents of M. chamomilla, which demonstrate great potential in treating various conditions.
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Valorization of botanicals for the development of natural food-grade ingredients is an important task in terms of sustainability and processing waste reduction. In this study, Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) herb was collected at six different vegetation phases in the period 26 May – 23 August 2019 and subjected to biorefining into the several valuable fractions. The yield of hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) was in the range of 0.22% (intensive vegetative growth) to 0.80% (full flowering). Angelic, isobutyric, butyric and methacrylic acid esters and some monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives were the major EO constituents: 3-methylpentyl angelate (20.11-27.56%), methallyl angelate (7.28-10.33%), isoamyl angelate (5.57-9.02%), isobutyl angelate (4.84-6.79%), 2-methylbutyl angelate (3.11-6.32%), 3-methylamyl methacrylate (5.04-6.17%), 3-methylpentyl isobutyrate (4.29-6.64%), 3-methylamyl isobutyrate (4.29-6.64%), α-pinene (1.61-6.37%) and pinocarvone (1.46-4.67%). In order to valorize water soluble and solid EO distillation residues their antioxidant potential was evaluated by several in vitro assays: water extracts were considerably stronger antioxidants than acetone extracts isolated from the solid residues. Water extracts of the plants collected at flowering phases were the strongest antioxidants; their TPC, FRAP and ORAC values were up to 143.2 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, 650, and 5601 μmol TE/g dry extract, respectively, while effective concentrations (EC50) of DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, were down to 0.59 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. Among 7 tentatively identified by UPLC/Q-TOF/MS phenolic constituents the intensity of molecular ion of 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid was the largest. The results obtained may assist for developing flavorings, antioxidants and health beneficial preparations from C. nobile extracts.
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The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to conduct systematic review of any types of complementary and alternative medicine for glycemic control of diabetes mellitus. Four databases was used in this study, the CINAHL, PUBMED, SCOPUS, and ProQUEST. The systematic review were reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. The keywords were used according to medical subject headings (MeSH) in this study were diabetes mellitus AND complementary and alternative medicine AND blood glucose levels or blood sugar or blood glucose. Articles were limited to 2015–2021 and only in English language. We obtained 231 articles from these databases: CINAHL six articles, PUBMED 85 articles, SCOPUS 66 articles, PROQUEST 74 articles. Then, the final results recorded 17 articles. The results of a systematic review showed the effectiveness of natural products as CAM for glycemic control of DM, namely Berberis aristata/ Silybum marianum, fenugreek seed, bitter melon, cinnamon or whortleberry supplements, a combination of herbal plants ( C. spinosa, R. canina, and S. securigera), Nigella sativa, Mulberry juice, chicory, chamomile tea, and bell pepper juice combined with an integrated approach of yoga therapy. Mind body practices such as auditory guided imagery (AGI), qigong and tai chi exercises, and relaxation. Whole system approach, such as acupressure. Health care providers consider CAM for DM management.
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Amyloid β (Aβ) protein is the major component of extracellular amyloid plaques which are the main pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Disruption in the clearance of Aβ is associated with its accumulation and aggregation that eventually leads to amyloid plaques formation. Numerous drugs have shown to possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD, but indeed these drugs only delay the progression of the disease and display numerous side effects. Recently, phytochemicals have drawn much attention in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Among the various phytochemicals, dietary citrus flavonoids have shown potential useful effects against neurological disorders including AD. Dietary citrus flavonoids exhibit a high amount of minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant contents. The present chapter aims to explore the mechanism of Aβ peptide generation, aggregation, and accumulation as well as their prevention through dietary citrus flavonoids.
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This paper introduces the lethal, sublethal, and ecotoxic effects of peppermint and palmarosa essential oils (EOs) and their polymeric nanoparticles (PNs). The physicochemical analyses indicated that peppermint PNs were polydisperse (PDI > 0.4) with sizes of 381 nm and loading efficiency (LE) of 70.3%, whereas palmarosa PNs were monodisperse (PDI < 0.25) with sizes of 191 nm and LE of 89.7%. EOs and their PNs were evaluated on the adults of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.) and cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne F.) and the larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens Say. On S. oryzae and L. serricorne, PNs increased EOs’ lethal activity, extended repellent effects for 84 h, and also modified behavioral variables during 24 h. Moreover, EOs and PNs generated toxic effects against C. pipiens pipiens. On the other hand, peppermint and palmarosa EOs and their PNs were not toxic to terrestrial non-target organisms, larvae of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.), and nymphs of orange-spotted cockroach (Blaptica dubia S.). In addition, PNs were slightly toxic to aquatic non-target organisms, such as brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.). Therefore, these results show that PNs are a novel and eco-friendly formulation to control insect pests.
Chapter
Herbal teas contribute to human health as a dietary source of phenolic compounds, with health benefits thought to be associated with these bioactive compounds. Commercially consumed sage (Salvia officinalis) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) teas, purchased in bulk packaging, were used in this research aimed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity determination. Water and ethanol (30:70 v/v) were used as extraction solvents. The extraction was carried out at four different temperatures, 50 ℃, 60 ℃, 70 ℃ and 80 ℃, respectively. Phenolic content was determinated using Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method and the pFRAP method was used for antioxidant activity determination. Extraction with ethanol at 80 ℃, which was established to be optimum for both teas, resulted in higher phenolic content, as well as higher antioxidant activity, with max TPC in sage teas (1197.08 ± 86.27 mg GAE/100g) and chamomile teas (1133.78 ± 74.04 mg GAE/100g). Antioxidant activity of sage teas was higher than chamomile teas, 550.35 ± 16.56 mg GAE/100g for ethanol extracts and 456.70 ± 30.72 mg GAE/100g for aqueous extracts of sage. Positive correlation was noted between phenolic content and antioxidant activity in sage and chamomile teas. Experimental results indicate that phenolic content can provide substantial antioxidant activity as well as that sage and chamomile teas could be a good alternative as dietary source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidative power.
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Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of mint leaf in reducing the neutrophil chemotaxis in lung tissue of Rattus norvegicus wistar. Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups. In Group 1 (sham), only a laparotomy was performed. In Group 2 (positive control), the laparotomy was followed by upper mesenteric artery clamping and administration of beclomethasone via nebulization for ten minutes. In Group 3 (negative control) only the laparotomy and clamping were done. In Group 4 (mint), the laparotomy and clamping were followed by nebulization of mint leaf extract for ten minutes. All clamps were removed after forty-five minutes from their insertion and treatments, when performed, were instituted soon after. After ninety minutes of reperfusion, right lung base tissue samples were collected and properly stored from all rats. Results: In both Groups 2 and 4, there was reduction in inflammation in comparison to Group 3. Group 1 showed the lowest inflammatory cell count. Comparing average inflammatory cell counts of all groups to each other, there was statistical significance among all, except between groups 2 and 4. Conclusion: These results show that mint leaf extract is able to, trough nebulization treatment, significantly reduce the neutrophil chemotaxis in pulmonary tissue of Rattus norvegicus wistar subjected to induced acute lung injury. Keywords: Mentha, Inflammation, Neutrophils, Chemotaxis
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Matricaria chamomilla L. is a famous medicinal plant distributed worldwide. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat all kinds of diseases, including infections, neuropsychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and liver disorders. It is also used as a sedative, antispasmodic, antiseptic , and antiemetic. In this review, reports on M. chamomilla taxonomy, botanical and ecology description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological and pharmacological properties, possible application in different industries, and encapsulation were critically gathered and summarized. Scientific search engines such as Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online, SpringerLink, Sci-enceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar were used to gather data on M. chamomilla. The phytochem-istry composition of essential oils and extracts of M. chamomilla has been widely analyzed, showing that the plant contains over 120 constituents. Essential oils are generally composed of terpenoids, such as α-bisabolol and its oxides A and B, bisabolone oxide A, chamazulene, and β-farnesene, among other compounds. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts were dominated by phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and coumarins. In addition, M. chamomilla demonstrated several biological properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic , insecticidal, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. These activities allow the application of M. chamomilla in the medicinal and veterinary field, food preservation, phytosanitary control, and as a surfactant and anti-corrosive agent. Finally, the encapsulation of M. chamomilla essential oils or extracts allows the enhancement of its biological activities and improvement of its applications. According to the findings, the pharmacological activities of M. chamomilla confirm its traditional uses. Indeed, M. chamomilla essential oils and extracts showed interesting antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, anti-pyretic, anti-allergic, and analgesic activities. Moreover, the most important application of M. chamomilla was in the medicinal field on animals and humans.
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Since Mentha haplocalyx leaves are rich in bioactive constitutes, particularly volatile compounds, there are higher demands for high-quality dried medicinal and aromatic peppermint products. This study aimed to assess the drying kinetics of hot air thin layer drying Mentha haplocalyx leaves and exploring the effects of hot air-drying temperatures on the textural properties and sensory quality. According to our results, the Midilli model is the best model representing the hot air-drying process. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) and activation energy (Ea) of the hot air-drying process were determined as 7.51 × 10−9–3.03 × 10−8 m2/s and 57.98 KJ/moL, respectively. The changes of textural and aromatic profiles of dried Mentha haplocalyx leaves were subsequently evaluated by the SEM, GC–MS and E-nose technology. Changes in leaf cellular membrane structures were observed in this study, indicating that the loss of moisture content induced the shrinkage of leaf cells during the hot air-drying process. Moreover, the altered profile of volatile compounds was identified at the different drying temperatures. As a result of the GC-MS analysis, increasing the content of D-carvone from 61.89%, 69.25% and 78.2% resulted in drying temperatures of 35 °C, 45 °C and 55 °C, respectively; while a decreasing trend of other volatile compounds, including D-Limonene, cineole and l-caryophyllene was detected as drying temperature elevated. Finally, the aromatic profile was evaluated by E-nose, and results of the flavor radar fingerprint and PCA showed that aromatic profiles were significantly altered by the drying process. The overall results elucidated that the hot air thin layer drying at 35 °C efficiently improved the final quality of dried Mentha haplocalyx leaves by maintaining flavor properties.
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Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Schultz Bip. (Asteraceae), known as golden chamomile, has been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents of total extract and different fractions of this plant were determined. The antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities were also evaluated. Moreover, the phenolic profiles of selected fractions were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis. Results demonstrated total phenolic contents of 37.8–57.2 mg GAE/g and total flavonoid contents of 3.0–111.2 mg QE/g. The ethyl acetate and methanol fractions (EF and MF) had the highest concentrations of phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid compounds. In both DPPH radical scavenging assay and phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, EF showed the best antioxidant activity, followed by MF. EF and MF indicated also the best antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC 1.56 and 12.5 mg ml−1) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.78 and 12.5 mg ml−1). Hexane fraction (HF) had no antibacterial effect. None of the samples had antifungal effect. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay revealed for EF and HF the highest antiproliferative activities (IC50 values ranged from 111.8 to 294.6 μg ml−1). The presence of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside in MF, and p-coumaric acid in EF was confirmed and quantified.
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Microbial pathogens are the most prevalent cause of chronic infections and fatalities around the world. Antimicrobial agents including antibiotics have been frequently utilized in the treatment of infections due to their exceptional outcomes. However, their widespread use has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Furthermore, due to inherent resistance to antimicrobial drugs and the host defence system, the advent of new infectious diseases, chronic infections, and the occurrence of biofilms pose a tougher challenge to the current treatment line. Essential oils (EOs) and their biologically and structurally diverse constituents provide a distinctive, inexhaustible, and novel source of antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. However, due to their volatile nature, chemical susceptibility, and poor solubility, their development as antimicrobials is limited. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymeric and inorganic materials have been studied extensively to overcome these limitations. Nanoparticles are being investigated as nanocarriers for antimicrobial delivery, antimicrobial coatings for food products, implantable devices, and medicinal materials in dressings and packaging materials due to their intrinsic capacity to overcome microbial resistance. Essential oil-loaded nanoparticles may offer the potential benefits of synergism in antimicrobial activity, high loading capacity, increased solubility, decreased volatility, chemical stability, and enhancement of the bioavailability and shelf life of EOs and their constituents. This review focuses on the potentiation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their constituents in nanoparticulate delivery systems for a wide range of applications, such as food preservation, packaging, and alternative treatments for infectious diseases.
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Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
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Plants are incredibly significant in the lives of people around the world. People rely on plants to satisfy basic human needs like food, clothing, shelter, and health care. Because of a rising world population, increasing wages, and urbanization, these needs are growing rapidly. Of course, plants provide food directly and often feed livestock that is then eaten on their own. The value of plants is likely to become fairer among countries as world economies become more accessible and market-oriented through trade agreements such as those from the World Trade Organization. The socio-economic significance of such an understanding of plants is defined in this chapter by providing evidence of the multiple benefits of plant breeding in and beyond agriculture based on reproducible findings and scientific evidence for arable crops.
Article
Purpose This research seeks to develop a model to predict repurchase intention based on the modified theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design/methodology/approach This research is quantitative study involving 150 respondents from five major cities in Indonesia. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data analysis used confirmatory factor analysis–structural equation modeling (CFA–SEM). Findings The research instrument and the proposed model were fit. However, health belief was not proven to have a significant impact on attitude. The perceived behavioral control (PBC) also did not significantly affect repurchase intention. Research limitations/implications Future research that utilizes TPB should incorporate emotional belief as part of the attitude variable. Practical implications In the designing and marketing process, managers of herbal teas companies should consider the health benefits of their products and the feeling of joy it might incite. Originality/value The TPB was initially constructed from three variables: subjective norm, attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Unlike previous research, this study considered cognitive and emotional beliefs as the factors that affected attitude.
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The presence of benzodiazepine-like substances in dried flower heads of Matricaria chamomilla was investigated. After extraction and HPLC purification we tested several fractions for their ability to displace in vitro [3H]Flunitrazepam bound to its receptors in rat cerebellar membranes, [3H]Muscimol linked to GABA receptors in rat cortical membrane preparations and [3H]RO 5-4864 specifically bound to the so-called 'peripheral' benzodiazepine binding sites present in membrane preparations from rat adrenal glands. Few of these fractions displaced both central and peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites and GABA receptors, too. As regards this last activity, by further HPLC analysis we identified GABA as the main agent responsible for the displacing effect. Some of the extracted fractions, not containing GABA, were intracerebronventricularly injected in rats and produced a statistically significant reduction of the locomotor activity. Ongoing experiment by mass spectrometric technique will help in the identification of the benzodiazepine-like compounds present in the extract of Matricaria chamomilla responsible for its sedative effect.
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The chemical composition of the essential oil of chamomile Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch. was studied by GC/MS. Eighty compounds were identified, of which α-bisabolol oxide A (43.8%), α-bisabolone oxide A (13.6%) and β-bisabolene (19.6%) were the major ones.
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The constituents of the essential oil obtained from flowerheads of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch. plants growing around Medianeira city, in Paraná State, Brazil, were analyzed by GC/MS. The major constituents identified in the oil were similar to those found in oils from other parts of the world. The Brazilian oil contained the following major components: bisabolol oxide B (23%), bisabolol oxide A (17%), (Z)-β-farnesene (16%), α-bisabolol (13%), chamazulene (8%) and chamo-spiroether (5%).
Conference Paper
Apigenin, a less-toxic and non-mutagenic flavonoic, suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-(TPA)-mediated tumor promotion of mouse skin. TPA had the ability to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and induced nuclear proto-oncogene expression. Our study indicates that apigenin inhibited PKC by competing with adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Apigenin also reduced the level of PPA-stimulated phosphorylation of cellular proteins and inhibited TPA-induced c-jun and c-fos expression. Curcumin, a dietary pigment phytopolyphenol, is also a potent inhibitor of tumor promotion induced by TPA in mouse skin. When mouse fibroblast cells were treated with TPA alone, PKC translocated from the cytosolic fraction to the particulate fraction. Treatment with 15 or 20 mu M curcumin for 15 min inhibited TPA-induced PKC activity in the particulate fraction by 26-60%. Curcumin also inhibited PKC activity in vitro by competing with phosphatidylserine. Curcumin (10 mu M) suppressed the expression of c-jun in TPA-treated cells. Fifteen flavonoids were examined for their effects on morphological changes in soft agar and cellular growth in v-H-ras transformed NIH3T3 cells. The results demonstrated that only apigenin, kaempferol, and genistein exhibited the reverting effect on the transformed morphology of these cells. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the suppression of PKC activity and nuclear oncogene expression might contribute to the molecular mechanisms of inhibition of TPA-induced tumor promotion by apigenin and curcumin. (C) 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Tea is an important dietary source of flavanols and flavonols. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that tea polyphenols may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the results from epidemiological and clinical studies of the relationship between tea and health are mixed. International correlations do not support this relationship although several, better controlled case-referent and cohort studies suggest an association with a moderate reduction in the risk of chronic disease. Conflicting results between human studies may arise, in part, from confounding by socioeconomic and lifestyle factors as well as by inadequate methodology to define tea preparation and intake. Clinical trials employing putative intermediary indicators of disease, particularly biomarkers of oxidative stress status, suggest tea polyphenols could play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer and heart disease.
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Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert) is a medicinal plant largely grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The aim of this work was to identify the best process conditions to maximize the yields of essential oil and oleoresin, as well as their content of α-bisabolol and chamaluzene. Operating pressure, condensation flow rate, and distillation time, were the variables studied for the steam distillation process. The results showed that these variables exerted a significant effect on the yield. The yield was also strongly affected by the interaction between distillation time and condensation flow rate. The highest yield (0.11% by wt.) was obtained at 0.98 bar, distillation time of 60min., and condensation flow rate of 30 or 60 ml/min. The same result was obtained decreasing the distillation time to 45min using a condensation flow rate of 60ml/min. The oleoresin was obtained both by extraction with ethanol and with isopropyl alcohol, using an agitating extractor. The effects of temperature, ratio of solvent to feed, time of extraction, and type of solvent, on the oleoresin yield were all significant. The largest yield (4.10% by wt.) was obtained using ethanol at 40°C with a solvent/feed ratio of 6, and an extraction of 4 hr. The major compounds of essential oil and of the oleoresin were β-farnesene, linaool acetate, (dihydro), γ-cadinene, α-farnesene, bisabolol oxide B, α-bisabolol, chamazulene, α-bisabolol oxide A, trans-dicycle-ether (MW 200) and butyl phthalate.
Article
We studied the essential oil production of cultivated (BK-2, Degumil) and wild chamomile populations of 4 typical chamomile-rich regions of Hungary. We examined the essential oil composition of flowers, herbs (stem plus leaves) and roots using GC and GC/MS methods. Among cultivated species, the Hungarian BK-2 contains more chamazulene in its essential oil than the German Degumil type, which is mainly cultivated for its a-bisabolol. Both components have important antiinflammatory activities. Wild populations can be easily distinguished from cultivated ones by their high amount of bisaboloides, particularly the flower of Szabadkigyos wild type, which contained on average 48 % of the biologically active (-)-α-bisabolol. The regional wild chamomile samples mentioned above have already been examined previously in our Institute. We found it interesting to compare the content of biologically active components, at the same conditions, of presently promising populations with the results obtained 20 years ago from the same species. While the content of the essential oil of rural Szabadkígyós wild type remained unchanged, there was a trend of the essential oil components towards the therapeutically important compounds. The amount of (-)-α-bisabolol in Szabadkígyós mounted up to a 3-fold increase and we measured a doublefold increase of chamazulene content in BK-2 compared with samples 20 years ago. We can conclude that although a change was observed in the essential oil content and also in the proportion of different components, the fundamental characteristics of the oils remained the same. To keep the genom of Szabadkígyós wild type having high (-)-α-bisabolol content, we used biotechnological methods. The sterile roots of organised culture contained also β-eudesmol, wich was firstly identified from the intact roots by us. Our gas chromatographical and mass-spectroscopical studies showed that sterile chamomile cultures generated the most important terpenoid and polyin compounds characteristic of the mother plant. We identified berkheyaradulene, α-selinene, geranyl-isovalerate and cedrol as new components in these sterile cultures.
Article
Boiling water extracts of commercially available chamomile tea bags, a hydroalcoholic extract of loose chamomile flowers, KAMILLOSAN®, and oil of chamomile were analyzed by HPLC for the coumarins umbelliferone and herniarin. These were found in high concentrations and both were photoactive. In the presence of light herniarin in particular inhibited growth of various microorganisms. The hydroalcoholic extract and KAMILLOSAN® showed antimicrobial activity in the presence of light and none in the dark. Both coumarins may thus contribute to the antimicrobial activity of chamomile extracts, an activity which is commonly attributed to a volatile oil. As a strong photosensitizing agent, capable of inducing phototoxic reactions in humans, herniarin probably plays an important role in the sporadic allergic reactions to chamomile which until now were attributed only to a linear sesquiterpene lactone, anthecotulid. Umbelliferone and herniarin are soluble in hot water as well as in organic solvents and are present in all chamomile preparations.
Article
The CO2-extract from German chamomile contains the lipophilic components of the fiowerheads. Compared with the essential oil, its drug-product ratio is lower and its composition is slightly different. In the pharmacological model of the arachidonic acid cascade, it shows anti-inflammatory properties according to the higher drug-product ratio compared with a "normal" alcoholic extract. Its wound-healing properties should be further evaluated. In the mouse ear edema, it shows a significant, but weaker activity than hydrocortisone. Its use in a treatment scheme of the atopic eczema is promising. However, further clinical evidence is needed.
Article
Some flavonoids are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cause cell cycle arrest. The dependency of the cytostatic effects of five flavonoids (flavone, α-naphthoflavone, apigenin, 3-methoxy-4-nitroflavone and 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone) on a functional AHR was examined in AHR-containing rat hepatoma 5L cells and an AHR-deficient cell line (BP8) derived from the 5L line. The potent AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was cytostatic to the 5L line due to the induction of a G 1 arrest and dramatically elevated steady-state levels of CYP1A1 mRNA. TCDD affected neither the proliferation nor CYP1A1 mRNA contents of BP8 cells. With the exception of apigenin, the flavonoids under study induced G 1 arrest in both 5L and BP8 cells when used at concentrations at which they functioned as AHR agonists, but not antagonists. Apigenin-treated 5L and BP8 cultures primarily arrested in G 2 /M. The AHR-containing murine hepatoma cell line 1c1c7 arrested following exposure to AHR agonist concentrations of flavone and α-naphthoflavone, but not TCDD. Unlike the G 1 arrest observed in 5L cultures, the latter two flavonoids caused principally G 2 /M arrest in 1c1c7 cells. These studies demonstrate that the cytostatic activities of flavonoids do not require the AHR and the site of checkpoint arrest with a specific flavonoid can vary with cell type.
Article
Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankapulshpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice can offset the pharmacological effect of spironolactone. Numerous herbs (eg, karela and ginseng) may affect blood glucose levels and should not be used in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Article
Flavonoids are ubiquitous polyphenolic compounds, found in vascular plants, which are endowed with a large variety of biological effects. Some of these effects have been assumed to result from interactions with the cell plasma membrane. In order to investigate the nature of these interactions a fluorescence study was performed with two flavonoids, currently used in one of the laboratories: apigenin and its homologous dimer amentoflavone. After preliminary assays with DPH in several types of phospholipid liposomes, the effects of these flavonoids on the membrane of mouse L929 fibroblasts were compared, using the non-permeant probe TMA-DPH. Amentoflavone, unlike apigenin, induced a static quenching effect, which denoted an important, but reversible, association of the molecule with the plasma membrane. In addition, amentoflavone treatment induced a dose-dependent increase in TMA-DPH fluorescence anisotropy, which could be interpreted as an increase in membrane lipidic order. For apigenin, the effect was muc...
Article
Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) flowers on hydrodistillation yielded an essential oil and on extraction with organic solvents afforded a biologically active coumarin, herniarin (1). The extracts also yielded oleanolic acid (2), stigmasterol (3), ß-sitosterol (4) and its glucoside (5), of which 2, 4 and 5 are being reported for the first time from M. chamomilla. Complete spectral data of herniarin (1) are reported.
Article
Mineral components play an important role as adjuvants in the therapeutical activity of chamomile. Considering their content in the different species, an interesting observation was that the wild populations are richer in distribution of mineral elements than the cultivated Degumil type, while ratios of K/Na and Ca/Mg in this cultivated type are many times higher than in wild chamomile populations. Chamomile tea extract (infusion) is widely used in digestion complains. Macro-and microelement content of the infusion is relatively low in which relatively high concentrations of potassium, calcium and magnesium were found. The dissolution of mineral elements in tea was between 10% and 26% for most of the elements with the highest value attributed to magnesium (26%).
Article
In order to establish the value of the use of biological activities as accessory criteria (in conjunction with gas chromatography, but in the absence of enantiomeric analysis) for establishing the authenticity of essential oils, the biological activities of 105 commercial essential oils were investigated against 25 species of bacteria, 20 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, and three filamentous fungi; their antioxidant action was also determined and all the results were related to the actual chemical composition of the oils as determined by gas chromatography. The results showed some relationship between the major components and some bioactivities. There was a negative correlation between 1,8-cineole content and antifungal activity. There was, however, great variability between the biological action of different samples of individual oils and groups of oils under the same general name, e.g. lavender, eucalyptus or chamomile, which was reflected in differences in chemical composition, The results suggest that, although the biological activities are not all related to the main components, any significant blending, rectification and adulteration of commercial oils can be monitored by their biological activities. The use of essential oils named simply as ‘chamomile’ or ‘eucalyptus’, or any commercial oil which has been adulterated, cannot be justifiably used in treating medical conditions unless it can be shown that the action is non-specific and independent of the chemical composition. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Phytoestrogen effects on estrogen action and tyrosine kinase activity have been proposed to contribute to cancer prevention. To study these mechanisms, a number of phytoestrogens and related compounds were evaluated for their effects on DNA synthesis (estimated by thymidine incorporation analysis) in estrogen‐dependent MCF‐7 cells in the presence of estradiol (E2), tamoxifen, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. We observed that 1) at 0.01–10 μ?, genistein and coumestrol enhanced ?2‐induced DNA synthesis, as did 10 μ? enterolactone. Chrysin at 1.0–10 μ? and 10 μ? luteolin or apigenin inhibited E2‐induced DNA synthesis, as did all compounds at >10 μ?, 2) tamoxifen enhanced genistein‐induced DNA synthesis but inhibited DNA synthesis induced by all other compounds, and 3) genistein enhanced insulin‐ and epidermal growth factor‐induced DNA synthesis at 0.1–1.0 and 0.1–10 μ?, respectively. At higher concentrations, inhibition was observed. Similar effects were seen with coumestrol. In conclusion, the effects of phytoestrogens in the presence of E2 or growth factors are concentration dependent and variable. At low concentrations, genistein and coumestrol significantly enhanced E2‐induced and tyrosine kinase‐mediated DNA synthesis; at high concentrations, inhibition was observed. Differing effects were observed with the other compounds. The variable effects of phytoestrogens on DNA synthesis must be considered when their roles in cancer prevention or treatment are evaluated.
Article
The effects of organic solvent, time and temperature on the colour-forming reaction are described. For nine solvents tested, the molar absorptivities were in the range 2.0×104−6.7×104 mol−1 cm−1; best sensitivity was obtained with a 1:1 water/2-propanol solution after a standing time of 35 min; temperature should be controlled to ±2°C. Beer's law was obeyed for 0–1.45 μg ml−1 Mn(II). The improved method was applied to determinations of manganese(II) in various herbs and chemical reagents; the values found were in the range 5.4–48.4 μg g−1 in herbs, and 0.001-0.012% (w/w) in reagents.
Article
Apigenin is a plant flavonoid which has been shown to significantly inhibit UV-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis when applied topically, and may represent an alternative sunscreen agent in humans, We have investigated the molecular mechanism(s) by which apigenin inhibits skin tumorigenesis. Initial studies examined the effects of apigenin on the cell cycle. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that culturing cells for 24 h in medium containing apigenin induced a G(2)/M arrest in two mouse skin derived cell lines, C50 and 308, as well as in human HL-60 cells. The G(2)/M arrest was fully reversible after an additional 24 h in medium without apigenin, We investigated the effects of apigenin on cyclin B1 and p34(cdc2), since cyclin B1/p34(cdc2) complexes regulate G(2)/M progression, Western blot and immune complex kinase assays using whole cell lysates from 308 and C50 cells treated for 24 h with 0-70 mu M doses of apigenin demonstrated that apigenin treatment did not change the steady-state level of p34(cdc2) protein, but did inhibit. p34(cdc2) H1 kinase activity in 308 cells. Western blot analysis showed that apigenin treatment of C50 cells and 308 cells inhibited the accumulation of cyclin B1 protein in a dose-dependent manner, The apigenin levels detected in cultured keratinocytes were relevant to those detected in epidermal cells of Sencar mice treated with tumor inhibitory doses of apigenin, In conclusion, we present evidence that apigenin induces a reversible G(2)/M arrest in cultured keratinocytes, the mechanism of which is in part due to inhibition of the mitotic kinase activity of p34(cdc2), and perturbation of cyclin B1 levels.
Article
To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations. Cross-cultural correlation study. Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts. Mortality from coronary heart disease, cancer (various sites), and all causes in the 16 cohorts after 25 years of follow-up. Average intake of antioxidant flavonoids was inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and explained about 25% of the variance in coronary heart disease rates in the 16 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, intake of saturated fat (73%; P = 0.0001), flavonoid intake (8%, P = .01), and percentage of smokers per cohort (9%; P = .03) explained together, independent of intake of alcohol and antioxidant vitamins, 90% of the variance in coronary heart disease rates. Flavonoid intake was not independently associated with mortality from other causes. Average flavonoid intake may partly contribute to differences in coronary heart disease mortality across populations, but it does not seem to be an important determinant of cancer mortality.
Article
Flavonoids isolated from plants used as tranquilizers in folkloric medicine have a selective affinity, for central benzodiazepine receptors (BDZ-Rs) and some of them possess a pharmacological profile compatible with a partial agonist action. Synthetic derivatives of the common flavone nucleus, give rise to high affinity ligands when electronegative groups are introduced in carbons 6 and/or 3'. Representative compounds such as 6,3'-dinitroflavone and, 6-bromo-3'-nitroflavone exhibit a high affinity for the BDZ-Rs (Ki = 1.5 to 30 nM) and have anxiolytic effects not associated with myorelaxant, sedative or amnesic actions. These compounds or similar ones, could lead to improved therapeutic drugs in the treatment of anxiety.
Article
The essential oil of chamomile flowerheads was extracted by supercritical CO2, producing the fractional separation of the extract to enhance the process selectivity. The extract fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and SFC to assess the presence of undesirable compounds and to obtain the detailed oil composition. The best oil was obtained by extracting at p = 90 bar and T = 40 degrees C and fractionating the product in two separators in series operating at p = 90 bar, T = 0 degrees C, and p = 30 bar, T = -5 degrees C, respectively. All undesired compounds were precipitated in the first separator. The oil did not suffer thermal degradation: matricine was not converted to chamazulene. The other chamomile oil characteristic compounds (bisabolol oxides, alpha-bisabolol, and bisabolone oxide) contributed more than 75% and dicycloethers contributed about 13% to the oil composition. Organoleptic analysis confirmed the high quality of the product.
Article
BACKGROUND Stomatitis has been found to be a major dose-limiting toxicity from bolus 5-fluorouracil-based (5-FU) chemotherapy regimens, despite the use of oral cryotherapy. Pursuant to preliminary data which suggested that a chamomile mouthwash might ameliorate this toxicity, a prospective trial was developed to test chamomile in this situation.METHODSA Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed. Patients were entered into the study at the time of their first cycle of 5-FU-based chemotherapy. All patients received oral cryotherapy for 30 minutes with each dose of 5-FU. In addition, each patient was randomized to receive a chamomile or placebo mouthwash thrice daily for 14 days. Stomatitis scores were determined by health care providers and by patients themselves.RESULTSThere were 164 evaluable and well-stratified patients equally randomized to both treatment groups. There was no suggestion of any stomatitis difference between patients randomized to either protocol arm. There was also no suggestion of toxicity. Subset analysis did reveal unsuspected differential effects between males and females that could not be explained by reasons other than chance.CONCLUSION The resultant data from this clinical trial did not support the prestudy hypothesis that chamomile could decrease 5-FU-induced stomatitis. Cancer 1996;77:522-5.
Article
We have investigated the effect of herbal teas (peppermint, chamomile and dandelion) on the activity of hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes using rat liver microsomes. Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 5 each). Three groups had free access to a tea solution (2 %) while the control group had water. Two groups received either green tea extract (0.1 %) or aqueous caffeine solution (0.0625 %). After four weeks of pretreatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes or cytosol with appropriate substrates. Activity of CYP1A2 in the liver microsomes of rats receiving dandelion, peppermint or chamomile tea was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 15 %, 24 % and 39 % of the control value, respectively. CYP1A2 activity was significantly increased by pretreatment with caffeine solution. No alterations were observed in the activities of CYP2D and CYP3A in any group of the pretreated rats. Activity of CYP2E in rats receiving dandelion or peppermint tea was significantly lower than in the control group, 48 % and 60 % of the control, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (244 % of control) in the activity of phase II detoxifying enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the dandelion tea-pretreated group. There was no change in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. The results suggested that, like green and black teas, certain herbal teas can cause modulation of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes.
Article
Matricaria recutita L. is a spontaneous herbaceous perennial plant and its drug is largely used, as an infusion, for its anti-inflammatory properties, especially for respiratory and gastroenteric tracts. Granular soluble extracts of this drug are also used in children’s diets. The purpose of this work was to investigate the polyphenolic content of different parts of chamomile flowers. Methanolic extracts were compared and directly analysed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The comparison between UV-Vis and MS spectra, carried out in positive and negative ionisation mode, allows identification of all the main polyphenolic compounds present in different parts of the flowers. The findings reported herein both confirm the presence of several flavonoids, described previously, and evidence large amounts of caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives. No other evidence of the presence of these compounds in chamomile flowers has been previously reported. Quantitative comparison of the flavonoid and phenolic acid derivatives present in receptacles, ligulate, tubular and total flowers was also performed.
Article
We have shown previously that two flavonoids, apigenin and tangeretin, enhance gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in rat liver epithelial cells, named REL cells. Here, we show that these two flavones also antagonize the inhibition of GJIC induced by tumor promoters like 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (TPA) and 3,5,di-tertio-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT). Their preventive effect is rapid. It does not seem to involve any change of the amount of the connexin expressed in REL cells, connexin 43 (Cx 43), and in its phosphorylation state. Other flavonoids tested including naringenin, myricetin, catechin and chrysin did not enhance GJIC nor counteract TPA-induced inhibition of GJIC.
Article
Structure-activity relationship studies have been performed on the inhibition of antigen-induced histamine release from human basophils by various naturally occurring flavonoids. Quercetin was the most active compound. Of the transitional metal ions, Cu2+ most effectively blocked the inhibitory activity of quercetin, possibly through a chelation mechanism.
Article
Bisabolol, a component of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) was studied in different experimental ulcer models. Bisabolol inhibited the occurence of ulcération induced by indometacine, stress or ethanol. The time of healing of ulcers induced by chemical stress (acetic acid) or by heat–coagulation was shortened by Bisabolol. The chamomile extract Kamillosan®1 also inhibited the occurence of the ethanol–induced ulcération.