Functional impact of HIV coreceptor-binding site mutations

Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 225 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 08/2006; 351(1):226-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.03.017
Source: PubMed


The bridging sheet region of the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein interacts with the major virus coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. We examined the impact of mutations in and adjacent to the bridging sheet region of an X4 tropic HIV-1 on membrane fusion and entry inhibitor susceptibility. When the V3-loop of this Env was changed so that CCR5 was used, the effects of these same mutations on CCR5 use were assayed as well. We found that coreceptor-binding site mutations had greater effects on CXCR4-mediated fusion and infection than when CCR5 was used as a coreceptor, perhaps related to differences in coreceptor affinity. The mutations also reduced use of the alternative coreceptors CCR3 and CCR8 to varying degrees, indicating that the bridging sheet region is important for the efficient utilization of both major and minor HIV coreceptors. As seen before with a primary R5 virus strain, bridging sheet mutations increased susceptibility to the CCR5 inhibitor TAK-779, which correlated with CCR5 binding efficiency. Bridging sheet mutations also conferred increased susceptibility to the CXCR4 ligand AMD-3100 in the context of the X4 tropic Env. However, these mutations had little effect on the rate of membrane fusion and little effect on susceptibility to enfuvirtide, a membrane fusion inhibitor whose activity is dependent in part on the rate of Env-mediated membrane fusion. Thus, mutations that reduce coreceptor binding and enhance susceptibility to coreceptor inhibitors can affect fusion and enfuvirtide susceptibility in an Env context-dependent manner.

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Available from: John M Muchiri, Jan 13, 2015
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    • "An interesting observation from our study was the absence of correlation between the infectivity of the recombinant viruses studied and their susceptibility to several different entry inhibitors or neutralizing antibodies. The affinity of Env-coreceptor interactions is one factor that can influence both Env fusion kinetics and the sensitivity of Env to the inhibition by enfuvirtide and TAK-779 [35,36,56,59], although mutations that modify sensitivity to co-receptor antagonists without modifying fusion kinetics have also been described [36,60]. The failure to find a correlation between Env infectivity and sensitivity to these inhibitors suggests that differences affecting membrane fusion that are independent of Env-coreceptor affinity (e.g., "fusogenicity") or differences affecting other Env properties (e.g., the expression or stability of Env trimers) make an important contribution to the wide spectrum of Env infectivities observed in this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have shown that viral quasi-species with genetically diverse envelope proteins (Env) replicate simultaneously in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Less information is available concerning the extent that envelope sequence diversity translates into a diversity of phenotypic properties, including infectivity and resistance to entry inhibitors. To study these questions, we isolated genetically distinct contemporaneous clonal viral populations from the plasma of 5 HIV-1 infected individuals (n = 70), and evaluated the infectivity of recombinant viruses expressing Env proteins from the clonal viruses in several target cells. The sensitivity to entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, TAK-799), soluble CD4 and monoclonal antibodies (2G12, 48d, 2F5) was also evaluated for a subset of the recombinant viruses (n = 20). Even when comparisons were restricted to viruses with similar tropism, the infectivity for a given target cell of viruses carrying different Env proteins from the same patient varied over an approximately 10-fold range, and differences in their relative ability to infect different target cells were also observed. Variable region haplotypes associated with high and low infectivity could be identified for one patient. In addition, clones carrying unique mutations in V3 often displayed low infectivity. No correlation was observed between viral infectivity and sensitivity to inhibition by any of the six entry inhibitors evaluated, indicating that these properties can be dissociated. Significant inter-patient differences, independent of infectivity, were observed for the sensitivity of Env proteins to several entry inhibitors and their ability to infect different target cells. These findings demonstrate the marked functional heterogeneity of HIV-1 Env proteins expressed by contemporaneous circulating viruses, and underscore the advantage of clonal analyses in characterizing the spectrum of functional properties of the genetically diverse viral populations present in a given patient.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Retrovirology
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    • "It has been shown that an apparent binding affinity between Env and CCR5 correlates with the resistance of fusion to coreceptor binding inhibitors [25,27,28]. Accordingly, we used the CCR5 binding inhibitor, Sch-C [48], to evaluate the apparent relative affinity of Env(wt) and Env(NYP) to CCR5(wt). "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) induces membrane fusion as a result of sequential binding to CD4 and chemokine receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4). The critical determinants of CCR5 coreceptor function are the N-terminal domain (Nt) and the second extracellular loop. However, mutations in gp120 adapt HIV-1 to grow on cells expressing the N-terminally truncated CCR5(Delta 18) (Platt et al., J. Virol. 2005, 79: 4357-68). We have functionally characterized the adapted Env (designated Env(NYP)) using a quantitative cell-cell fusion assay. The rate of fusion with target cells expressing wild-type CCR5 and the resistance to fusion inhibitors was virtually identical for wild-type Env and Env(NYP), implying that the coreceptor affinity had not increased as a result of adaptation. In contrast, Env(NYP)-induced fusion with cells expressing CCR5(Delta 18) occurred at a slower rate and was extremely sensitive to the CCR5 binding inhibitor, Sch-C. Resistance to Sch-C drastically increased after pre-incubation of Env(NYP)- and CCR5(Delta 18)-expressing cells at a temperature that was not permissive to fusion. This indicates that ternary Env(NYP)-CD4-CCR5(Delta 18) complexes accumulate at sub-threshold temperature and that low-affinity interactions with the truncated coreceptor are sufficient for triggering conformational changes in the gp41 of Env(NYP) but not in wild-type Env. We also demonstrated that the ability of CCR5(Delta 18) to support fusion and infection mediated by wild-type Env can be partially reconstituted in the presence of a synthetic sulfated peptide corresponding to the CCR5 Nt. Pre-incubation of wild-type Env- and CCR5(Delta 18)-expressing cells with the sulfated peptide at sub-threshold temperature markedly increased the efficiency of fusion. We propose that, upon binding the Nt region of CCR5, wild-type Env acquires the ability to productively engage the extracellular loop(s) of CCR5 - an event that triggers gp41 refolding and membrane merger. The adaptive mutations in Env(NYP) enable it to more readily release its hold on gp41, even when it interacts weakly with a severely damaged coreceptor in the absence of the sulfopeptide.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Retrovirology
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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