Article

CMY-2 beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica serovar infantis isolated from poultry in Japan.

Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka 537-0025, Japan.
Japanese journal of infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 1.16). 05/2006; 59(2):144-6.
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    • "In addition, S. enterica Infantis strains resistant to cephalosporin were isolated from retail meats of domestic poultry in 2001–2003 [21] and in 2004–2005 [22]. Taguchi et al. [22] demonstrated that the cephalosporin-resistant S. enterica Infantis produced CMY-2 β-lactamase. The present study indicated that the CTX-M-2 β-lactamase producing S. enterica Senftenberg was prevalent in broiler chickens on the farm investigated before 1999. "
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 518 fecal samples collected from 183 apparently healthy cattle, 180 pigs and 155 broilers throughout Japan in 1999 were examined to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella. The isolation rates were 36.1% in broilers, 2.8% in pigs and 0.5% in cattle. S. enterica Infantis was the most frequent isolate, found in 22.6% of broiler fecal samples. Higher resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (82.0%), dihydrostreptomycin (77.9%), kanamycin (41.0%) and trimethoprim (35.2%). Resistance rates to ampicillin, ceftiofur, bicozamycin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were <10%. CTX-M-2 beta-lactamase producing S. enterica Senftenberg was found in the isolates obtained from one broiler fecal sample. This is the first report of cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella directly isolated from food animal in Japan.
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    ABSTRACT: Infections associated with either nontyphoid or typhoid Salmonella are of global health concern and are complicated by the increasing prevalence and levels of acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance in the organisms. Salmonellosis is typically associated with foodborne illness, and transmission of resistant Salmonella through food chain, pets and humans, as exemplified by the spread of S. Typhimurium DT104, has been well recorded. Of particular concern is the increasing emergence of multidrug resistance with additional resistance to board-spectrum antimicrobials (e.g., fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and even carbapenem -lactams) in Salmonella. These multidrug resistance determinants are associated with various mobile genetic elements (insertion sequences, transposons and/or integrons) and they are together clustered either in chromosome or on plasmids to form resistance islands responsible for high levels of resistance. A comprehensive review is carried out to elucidate the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that include enzymatic drug inactivation, drug target alterations/protection and inaccessibility of drugs to their cellular targets as a result of increased efflux or decreased influx of the drugs. Several emerging issues such as the detection of extended-spectrum -lactamases (e.g., CTX-M enzymes), finding of carbapenemases and qnr-containing plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella particularly constitute a threat to the therapy of Salmonella infections. Concern is also raised on high-level resistant isolates originated from animals and spread to humans. Further prudent use of antimicrobials in human medicine and agri-food sectors is a key in minimizing the emergency and spread of various resistant Salmonella.
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    ABSTRACT: During the period of 2007-2008, a total of 270 pig fecal samples were collected from a meat processing plant located in southern Japan and examined for Salmonella species. A total of 44 Salmonella isolates were recovered, and antimicrobial resistance was detected in serotypes Typhimurium (n=9), Infantis and Choleraesuis (n=2), and Derby, Miyazaki and Schwarzengrund (n=1). Multidrug resistance was seen in serotypes Typhimurium (n=8) and Infantis (n=2). The most commonly observed resistance phenotypes were against streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole (100%), ampicillin (90%), chloramphenicol (50%), cephalothin (30%) and cefoxitin, ceftazidime and kanamycin (each 20%). Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella Infantis isolates producing plasmid-mediated, bla(CMY-2) gene were detected. These AmpC-producing isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and cephems (cephalothin, cefoxitin and ceftazidime). Resistance transfer experiments showed that transconjugants and transformants coexpressed resistance phenotypes similar to the donor isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report worldwide describing serovar Infantis from pigs capable of producing AmpC β-lactamase. Then, we detected the pentadrug-resistance phenotype in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which yielded class 1 integron amplicons of 1.0 and 1.2 kb. Genetic fingerprinting analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and an assay by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. In conclusion, the findings of this survey call for the systematic and comprehensive domestic and international surveillance programs to determine the true rates of occurrence of AmpC-producing Salmonella both in the livestock and public health sectors.
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