Thyroid cancer in Luxembourg: A national population-based data report (1983-1999)

Division of pathology, National Health Laboratory, Luxembourg.
BMC Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.36). 04/2006; 6(1):102. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-6-102
Source: PubMed


Twenty years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl (Eastern Europe), there is still a controversial debate concerning a possible effect of the radioactive iodines, especially I-131, on the increase of thyroid carcinomas (TCs) in Western Europe. Time trends in incidence rates of TC in Luxembourg in comparison with other European countries and its descriptive epidemiology were investigated.
The population-based data of the national Morphologic Tumour Registry collecting new thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1983 and 1999 at a nation-wide level in the central division of pathology were reviewed and focused on incidence rates of TC. Data from 1990 to 1999 were used to evaluate the distribution by gender, age, histological type, tumour size and the outcome.
Out of 310 new thyroid carcinomas diagnosed between 1990 and 1999, 304 differentiated carcinomas (A: 80% papillary; B: 14.5% follicular; C: 3.5% medullary) and 6 anaplastic/undifferentiated TCs (D: 2%) were evaluated. The M/F-ratio was 1:3.2, the mean age 48.3 years (range: 13-92). The overall age-standardized (world population) incidence rates over the two 5-year periods 1990-1994 and 1995-1999 increased from 7.4 per 100,000 to 10.1 per 100,000 in females, from 2.3 per 100,000 to 3.6 per 100,000 in males. Only 3 patients were children or adolescents (1%), the majority of the patients (50%) were between 45 and 69 years of age. The percentage of microcarcinomas (<1 cm) was A: 46.4%, (115/248); B: 13.3%, (6/45); C: 27.3%, (3/11). The unexpected increase of TCs in 1997 was mainly due to the rise in the number of microcarcinomas. The observed 5-year survival rates for both genders were A: 96.0+/-2%; B: 88.9%; C: 90.9%; D: 0%. Prognosis was good in younger patients, worse in males and elderly, and extremely poor for undifferentiated TCs.
The increasing incidence rates of TC, especially of the papillary type, seem mainly due to a rise in diagnosed microcarcinomas due to some extent to a change in histologic criteria and to more efficient diagnostic tools. This rise appears to be independent of the number of surgical treatments, the immigration rate, and the Chernobyl fallout as the incidence of TC in children remained stable.

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Available from: Marc Keipes, Jul 03, 2014
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    • "This rate is markedly lower than classically reported [8] [12] [13]. However, such findings are in agreement with recent studies that reported a significant decrease in FTC incidence [39] [40] [41]. Several explanations may be offered for this occurrence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Follicular thyroid carcinoma classically accounts for 10–32% of thyroid malignancies. We determined the incidence and the behaviour of follicular thyroid carcinoma in an endemic goitre area. A comparative analysis between minimally invasive and widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma was performed. The medical records of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy from October 1998 to April 2012 for thyroid malignancies were reviewed. Those who had a histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma were included. Among 5203 patients, 130 (2.5%) were included. Distant metastases at presentation were observed in four patients. Sixty-six patients had a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and 64 a widely invasive follicular carcinoma. In 63 patients an oxyphilic variant was registered. Minimally/widely invasive ratio was 41/26 for usual follicular carcinoma and 25/38 for oxyphilic variant (P < 0.05). Patients with widely invasive tumors had larger tumors (P < 0.001) and more frequently oxyphilic variant (P < 0.05) than those with minimally invasive tumours. No significant difference was found between widely invasive and minimally invasive tumors and between usual follicular carcinoma and oxyphilic variant regarding the recurrence rate (P = NS). The incidence of follicular thyroid carcinoma is much lower than classically retained. Aggressive treatment, including total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, should be proposed to all patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
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    • "Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent malignancy of the thyroid gland [1], and a rise in incidence has been reported in several countries [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]. In the US a 2.4 fold increase was observed between 1973 and 2002 according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology , and End Results program (SEER) [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A rise in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in several countries, and the increase is only seen in the papillary type. Increased detection due to higher resolution ultrasound and fine needle aspiration has been proposed as the explanation, recent registry studies however question this assumption. Methods: National, unselected, prospective cohort study of 1350 papillary thyroid cancer patients in Denmark from 1996 to 2008. Objective: To analyze changes in incidence by time and to identify factors which might influence detection rate. Results: A rise in incidence is seen with age standardized ratios increasing from 1.43 per 100.000 per year in 1996 to 2.16 per 100.000 per year in 2008. The median age at presentation was 46 years and median tumor size was 18mm. Male/female ratio was 1/2.9. By dichotomizing the material in a time period before and after the 30th of June 2001, no significant change in the proportion of diagnosed tumors smaller than 1 or 2cm was found, and 42.8% of the rise in incidence was explained by tumors larger than 2cm. No significant change in diagnostic use of ultrasound or fine needle aspiration was found, and a significant change toward more extensive thyroid surgery could not be confirmed. Conclusion: This study shows a significant rise in incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in Denmark from 1996 to 2008, which is not explained by increased use of preoperative diagnostic modalities. Other reasons need to be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    • "Most of the people were young. Scheiden et al. [24] have observed similar data in Luxemburg (1990–1999); 310 subjects had a mean age of 48.3 years old, with a PC increase from 1997 due to an early diagnosis in opinion of the authors. Our association between age and survival was nearly statistically significant. "
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    ABSTRACT: . Navarra has the highest incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in Spain. The aim of this study was to review its management carried out by the Navarra's multidisciplinary Thyroid Disease Unit, from 1987 to 2003. Material and Methods . 325 patients were studied to find the incidence, prevalence, and prognostic factors. Statistical analysis comprised univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models for survival and tumor recurrence. Results . The average annual incidence was 3.6 per 100,000 inhabitants, with a final prevalence of 82.4 per 100,000. Regarding survival and recurrence, statistical significance was observed for stage IV, follicular carcinoma, capsular and prethyroid muscles invasion, and T4 group. Only survival was related to tumour size larger than 40 mm. Only recurrence was related to lymph node metastases and radioiodine dose higher than 100 mCi. Conclusions . Attendance of patients in a functional unit setting has allowed us to classify them into three risk groups.
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