A induces cell death by direct interaction with its cognate extracellular domain on APP (APP 597-624)

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., Mail Code 0691, La Jolla, California 92093-0691, USA.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.04). 07/2006; 20(8):1254-6. DOI: 10.1096/fj.05-5032fje
Source: PubMed


Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is postulated to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We recently proposed a pathway of Abeta-induced toxicity that is APP dependent and involves the facilitation of APP complex formation by Abeta. The APP-dependent component requires cleavage of APP at position 664 in the cytoplasmic domain, presumably by caspases or caspase-like proteases, with release of a potentially cytotoxic C31 peptide. In this study we show that Abeta interacted directly and specifically with membrane-bound APP to facilitate APP homo-oligomerization. Using chimeric APP molecules, this interaction was shown to take place between Abeta and its homologous sequence on APP. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that Abeta also facilitated the oligomerization of beta-secretase cleaved APP C-terminal fragment (C99). We found that the YENPTY domain in the APP cytoplasmic tail and contained within C31 is critical for this cell death pathway. Deletion or alanine- scanning mutagenesis through this domain significantly attenuated cell death apparently without affecting either APP dimerization or cleavage at position 664. This indicated that sequences within C31 are required after its release from APP. As the YENPTY domain has been shown to interact with a number of cytosolic adaptor molecules, it is possible that the interaction of APP, especially dimeric forms of APP, with these molecules contribute to cell death.

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    • "Moreover, addition of the 22c11 antibody raised against the APP66-81 region within the APP-GFLD increased the basal FRET (p < 0.01; Figure 6B) and prevented further FRET modulation by TTX and Ab40 (p > 0.4; Figure 6D). Next, we examined the importance of the Ab homologous sequence on APP, which has been suggested to directly bind Ab (Shaked et al., 2006), by replacing it with the cognate region from APLP2, the sequence of which is divergent from APP (APP- APLP2; Figure 6A). Both basal FRET (Figure 6B) and its regulation by TTX and Ab40 (Figure 6E) were preserved in the chimeric APP-APLP2 protein, thus ruling out the Ab homologous region in APP as essential for Ab-dependent modulation of APP-APP interactions . "
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), the proteolytic products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), induces a variety of synaptic dysfunctions ranging from hyperactivity to depression that are thought to cause cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. While depression of synaptic transmission has been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying synaptic hyperactivity remain unknown. Here, we show that Aβ40 monomers and dimers augment release probability through local fine-tuning of APP-APP interactions at excitatory hippocampal boutons. Aβ40 binds to the APP, increases the APP homodimer fraction at the plasma membrane, and promotes APP-APP interactions. The APP activation induces structural rearrangements in the APP/Gi/o-protein complex, boosting presynaptic calcium flux and vesicle release. The APP growth-factor-like domain (GFLD) mediates APP-APP conformational changes and presynaptic enhancement. Thus, the APP homodimer constitutes a presynaptic receptor that transduces signal from Aβ40 to glutamate release. Excessive APP activation may initiate a positive feedback loop, contributing to hippocampal hyperactivity in Alzheimer's disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Cell Reports
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    • "2. Lipoprotein induced aneuploidy is independent of APP. Previously we found that Aß-induced aneuploidy is dependent on endogenous APP, possibly as a cell surface receptor to aid APP endocytosis and generation of intracellular Aß peptide or for the uptake of extracellular Aß [23], [70], [71]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is a risk factor for both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Atherosclerosis (CVD), suggesting a common lipid-sensitive step in their pathogenesis. Previous results show that AD and CVD also share a cell cycle defect: chromosome instability and up to 30% aneuploidy-in neurons and other cells in AD and in smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques in CVD. Indeed, specific degeneration of aneuploid neurons accounts for 90% of neuronal loss in AD brain, indicating that aneuploidy underlies AD neurodegeneration. Cell/mouse models of AD develop similar aneuploidy through amyloid-beta (Aß) inhibition of specific microtubule motors and consequent disruption of mitotic spindles. Here we tested the hypothesis that, like upregulated Aß, elevated LDL/cholesterol and altered intracellular cholesterol homeostasis also causes chromosomal instability. Specifically we found that: 1) high dietary cholesterol induces aneuploidy in mice, satisfying the hypothesis' first prediction, 2) Niemann-Pick C1 patients accumulate aneuploid fibroblasts, neurons, and glia, demonstrating a similar aneugenic effect of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in humans 3) oxidized LDL, LDL, and cholesterol, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL), induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in cultured cells, including neuronal precursors, indicating that LDL/cholesterol directly affects the cell cycle, 4) LDL-induced aneuploidy requires the LDL receptor, but not Aß, showing that LDL works differently than Aß, with the same end result, 5) cholesterol treatment disrupts the structure of the mitotic spindle, providing a cell biological mechanism for its aneugenic activity, and 6) ethanol or calcium chelation attenuates lipoprotein-induced chromosome mis-segregation, providing molecular insights into cholesterol's aneugenic mechanism, specifically through its rigidifying effect on the cell membrane, and potentially explaining why ethanol consumption reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis or AD. These results suggest a novel, cell cycle mechanism by which aberrant cholesterol homeostasis promotes neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis by disrupting chromosome segregation and potentially other aspects of microtubule physiology.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In addition, binding of the multimeric APP to Aβ oligomers has recently been shown to promote the proteolytic processing of APP and increase the production of the toxic Aβ and C-31 peptides [15]. Thus, APP may mediate either trophic, anti-apoptotic events—when bound, for example, by netrin-1—or anti-trophic, pro-apoptotic events—when bound, for example, by Aβ [15], [16], [17]. Aβ-binding to APP is not well understood at the structural level. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the events associated with Alzheimer's disease is the dysregulation of α- versus β-cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The product of α-cleavage (sAPPα) has neuroprotective properties, while Aβ1-42 peptide, a product of β-cleavage, is neurotoxic. Dimerization of APP has been shown to influence the relative rate of α- and β- cleavage of APP. Thus finding compounds that interfere with dimerization of the APP ectodomain and increase the α-cleavage of APP could lead to the development of new therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Examining the intrinsic fluorescence of a fragment of the ectodomain of APP, which dimerizes through the E2 and Aβ-cognate domains, revealed significant changes in the fluorescence of the fragment upon binding of Aβ oligomers--which bind to dimers of the ectodomain--and Aβ fragments--which destabilize dimers of the ectodomain. This technique was extended to show that RERMS-containing peptides (APP(695) 328-332), disulfiram, and sulfiram also inhibit dimerization of the ectodomain fragment. This activity was confirmed with small angle x-ray scattering. Analysis of the activity of disulfiram and sulfiram in an AlphaLISA assay indicated that both compounds significantly enhance the production of sAPPα by 7W-CHO and B103 neuroblastoma cells. These observations demonstrate that there is a class of compounds that modulates the conformation of the APP ectodomain and influences the ratio of α- to β-cleavage of APP. These compounds provide a rationale for the development of a new class of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · PLoS ONE
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