ArticleLiterature Review

Cutting boards in Salmonella cross-contamination

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Abstract

Cutting boards are commonly perceived as important fomites in cross-contamination of foods with agents such as Salmonella spp., despite the lack of supporting epidemiological data. A variety of woods and plastics have been used to make work surfaces for cutting. In general, wood is said to dull knives less than plastic, and plastic is seen as less porous than wood. Research to model the hypothetical cross-contamination has been done in a variety of ways and has yielded a variety of results. At least some of the work with knife-scarred plastic indicates that the surface is very difficult to clean and disinfect, although this may vary among the polymers used. High-density polyethylene, which is most used in commercial applications, has been shown to delaminate in response to knife scarring. Wood is intrinsically porous, which allows food juices and bacteria to enter the body of the wood unless a highly hydrophobic residue covers the surface. The moisture is drawn in by capillary action until there is no more free fluid on the surface, at which point immigration ceases. Bacteria in the wood pores are not killed instantly, but neither do they return to the surface. Destructive sampling reveals infectious bacteria for hours, but resurrection of these bacteria via knife edges has not been demonstrated. Small plastic cutting boards can be cleaned in a dishwasher (as can some specially treated wooden boards), but the dishwasher may distribute the bacteria onto other food-contact surfaces. Most small wooden boards (i.e., those with no metal joiners in them) can be sterilized in a microwave oven, but this should be unnecessary if accumulation of food residues is prevented. However, 2 epidemiological studies seem to show that cutting board cleaning habits have little influence on the incidence of sporadic salmonellosis. Further, one of these studies indicated that use of plastic cutting boards in home kitchens is hazardous, whereas use of wooden cutting boards is not.

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... As wood is a porous material with a very complex distribution of porosity (Plötze and Niemz 2011), the recovery of total microbial content is difficult (Cliver 2006;Ismail et al. 2013). Even the transfer of microbes from the wooden contact surface to food is lower as compared to other surfaces (Welker et al. 1997); for example, (Ismail et al. 2017) reported that the transfer rates of L. monocytogenes from wood (0.6%) to cheese were lower than perforated plastics (1.1%) and glass (3%). ...
... Wood is intrinsically porous, which allows organic debris and bacteria to descend into the pores of wood unless a highly hydrophobic residue covers the surface (Cliver 2006;Kotradyova et al. 2019). It is highly likely that the porous structure of wood provides valleys and holes in which microbes are protected from any swabbing action (Filip et al. 2012). ...
... The cross-contamination risk of the bacteria deeply descended inside pores was not studied in this experiment, however, it is expected to be negligible. However, it is up to hygienists if they consider the persistence of dormant or live bacteria inside the porous surface as a hygienic risk because if the bacteria are stuck inside the complex structures they are not expected to cross-contaminate, as shown in previous studies (Cliver 2006;Moore et al. 2007;Tang et al. 2011;Soares et al. 2012;Ismail et al. 2015 When observing the cross-section of the LT plane of wood discs, the mCherry bacteria were mainly localized on the first 30 µm into wood structure (6.14). These results are in accordance with those obtained from the surface of un-sectioned wood discs (Figure 6.12B), ...
Thesis
The wood material provides a nature-based theme to construction because of its natural appearance, ecofriendly nature and biophilic effects on humans. However, its organic and porous nature is questioned when using it in hygienically important places such as hospitals. Studies have shown that wood has antimicrobial properties against some pathogens; work is still needed, however, to demonstrate this antimicrobial action and its relation to wood and microbiological variables. This research gathers and generates information to guide stakeholders of hospital hygiene on the hygienic safety of wood materials. First, a simple and direct method was developed to study the antibacterial and antifungal activity of solid wood, which also identified the role of wood and microbial variables on antimicrobial behavior. Further, an elution based bacterial recovery method was investigated which showed that the most common nosocomial bacteria did not survive as well on wood as compared to smooth surfaces such as aluminum, steel and polycarbonate. Meanwhile, an innovative tool was developed, involving the use of fluorescent probes to study the bacterial distribution on and inside wood using confocal spectral laser microscopy. These experiments produced the information that will help the decision makers regarding the choice of wood material in the healthcare buildings. It not only enhances our understanding of hygienic safety of wood in healthcare buildings but also provides the basis for future research on the prevalence of pathogens in the wooden healthcare institutes and the perception of the occupants those buildings.
... According to Tiruneh and Yesuwork, [25] and Ramaswamy and Sharma,[22] domestic animals that were most affected were ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) and dogs. Further research findings have also indicated that reusable plastic bags posed serious human health problems [26][27][28]. The studies showed that reusable plastic bags can become habitats for pathogenic microorganism. ...
... The sex distribution of Males and females are 62,783 (48%) and 68, 767 (52%) respectively. The total household numbers of the municipal stands at 26,706.There are about 213 communities in the Municipality. The settlement pattern is predominantly rural (about 95%) with dispersed buildings. ...
... It is not impacts on only animal that have been well established but impacts on humans as well. In a report reuse of plastic bags can cause contamination of food by microorganism [26][27][28]. ...
... On-the-other-hand, wood is intrinsically-porous, which allows food-juices and bacteria, to-penetrate the-body of the-wood; the-moisture is drawn inside, in by-the-capillary-action, until there is no more free-fluid on the-surface, at which-point immigration ceases. Bacteria, in the-wood-pores, are not killed instantly, but neither do they return to the-surface (Cliver, 2006;Abrishami et al., 1994). Hard-woods, with tightlygrained-wood and small-pores, are best for wooden-cutting-boards, which help to-reduce absorption of liquid and dirt, into-the-surface. ...
... Most-HDPE-boards are specifically-designed not to-dull the-edge of a-knife. High-density-polyethylene, which is the-most-used in commercial-applications, has been shown to-delaminate, in-response-to knife-scarring (Gkana et al., 2016;Cliver, 2006). ...
... Numerous-materials can be used, to-produce chopping-boards; each has its-advantages and limitations. For-example, wood, in-general, is said, to-dull knives, less-than plastic, and plastic is seen as-less-porous, than wood (Cliver, 2006); the-wooden-boards, however, should be-regularly oiled, by edible-mineral-oil, to-avoid warping and splitting. Besides, wooden-cutting-boards do not get cuts, as-deep-as plastic. ...
Article
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This-study is focused on a-conceptual-design of a-kitchen-appliances/utensils-set, comprising of five-color-coded food-chopping-boards and five-matching-color-coded-knifes, to-reduce cross-contamination at private-homes, as-well-as at food-establishments. Selected-relevant-Patents, as-well-as products, available locally and internationally, were analyzed. The-Joseph-Joseph Index™ Color-Coded Chopping-Boards set (of four), was chosen as a-point of reference for the-current-design; its-seven-identified-limitations have-directed the-scope of the-current-design. Target-specifications/objectives, of the-set, were formulated from the-document-analysis, while Pair-wise-Comparison-Charts were-used, to-rank the-importance of the-objectives, in the-different-levels. The-best-ranked-design (out of the-four-alternatives made) was chosen, via standard Engineering-Design Weighted-Decision-Matrix (EDWDM) and 'Drop and Re-vote' (D&R) method. 2D-drawings, of the-best-design-alternative, were created via computer-aided-design (CAD) AutoCAD-software 2018, while 3D-modeling, of the-set and all-its-components, was produced by Autodesk-Inventor-Version: 2016 (Build 200138000, 138). Designed-labels (positioned on each-board and each-knife, as-well-as on the-set itself, as an-inclined-panel) were introduced, to-cater for the-people with color-blindness (according to-the-fundamental-principles of the-Universal-design), and also to-avoid-confusion (as a-reminder which board is which) for all-users. The-study adopted 'analysis' method of materials-selection. The-main objectives, of the-intended-set, was used as a-guide, in-preliminary-materials-selection. This-concise-study has focused on conceptual-design only; and, hence, it-is further-recommends to: (i) carry-out a-detailed-design; (ii) select a-specific-material (out of the-group, identified by this-study); (iii) choose a-mode of fabrication of the-set; (iv) examine the-possibility of incorporating of anti-microbial-agent(s) and/or coating(s); (v) fabricate the-prototype(s); (vi) conduct explorative-use-ability-trials; and (vii) analyze the-marketing-aspect of the-final-set. This-work is potentially-beneficial-to engineering-product-design students and faculty, as-well-as to-households and food-establishments (subject-to successful-implementation).
... A risk factor for cutting boards is pores on the boards because bacterial cells in the pores may not be destroyed instantly (Cliver, 2006). Small plastic cutting boards can be cleaned in a dishwasher, but the dishwasher may distribute the bacteria onto other food contact surfaces (Cliver, 2006). ...
... A risk factor for cutting boards is pores on the boards because bacterial cells in the pores may not be destroyed instantly (Cliver, 2006). Small plastic cutting boards can be cleaned in a dishwasher, but the dishwasher may distribute the bacteria onto other food contact surfaces (Cliver, 2006). Frequent cutting board changes are recommended due to bacterial recovery . ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microbial profile of food contact surfaces (FCS) in foodservice industry of Serbia. Design/methodology/approach The research covered 21,485 samples collected from 1,085 foodservice establishments during a period of 43 months. Results were deployed in terms of food contact materials, types of FCS and types of foodservice establishments. Findings Highest share of results=2 log 10 CFU/cm ² were present on plastic surfaces during Autumn, while on ceramic and stainless steel surfaces highest share were observed during the Summer season. Take-away food establishments had the highest share of results=2 log 10 CFU/cm ² for both stainless steel and plastic surfaces. Highest share of stainless steel surfaces with microbial load=2 log 10 CFU/cm ² were cutlery, dishes and knives. Plastic dishes had the highest share of results=2 log 10 CFU/cm ² while cutting boards had the majority of results between 1 log 10 CFU/cm ² and 2 log 10 CFU/cm ² . Research limitations/implications Limitations of the research stem from the discussion of the nature of the FCS like porosity and other physical characteristics. Practical implications This research has a practical application in terms of establishing process hygiene levels depending on types of food contact materials and types of FCS and seasonal variations. Originality/value The findings of this study are worthy, in respect to possible correlation between seasonal variation and process hygiene requirements and can facilitate a better understanding of microbial risks associated with food preparation.
... This practice can cause serious health problems since some carcinogenic agents could be generated during the chemical reactions that take place in plastic materials (for example, colouring agents) and the food items due to temperature variations (Narayan, 2001). In recent reports, it has been mentioned that reuse of plastic bags can cause cross contamination of foods by microorganisms (Gerba et al., 2009;Cliver, 2006;Maule, 2000). Moreover, plastic bags are also used for disposing of human and other domestic wastes which makes human health more risky as compared to "open" disposal of these wastes (Njeru, 2006;Subramanian, 2000). ...
... This suggests lack of public awareness about the direct and long-term impacts of these wastes on human health. Recent research findings also indicated that reusable plastic bags posed serious human health problems (Cliver, 2006;Maule, 2000;Gerba, 2010). The studies showed that reusable plastic bags can become habitats for pathogenic microorganism. ...
Article
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Plastic bag wastes pose serious environmental pollutions and health problems in humans and animals. The situation is worsened in economically disadvantaged countries like Ethiopia. The objective of this survey was to assess usage of plastic bags and their environmental impacts in Jimma City of Ethiopia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 230 randomly selected respondents. The results indicated that the larger proportion (176, 76.52%) of the respondents used plastic bags more frequently than any other plastic products regardless of their age, occupation, and economic and educational status. Low price (159, 69.13%) and easy availability (152, 66.08%) were the main reasons for the widespread utilization of these products. Among the practices used for disposal of plastic bag wastes, open dumping to surrounding areas (137, 59.56%) was a practice widely used by almost all the residents of the city. Some of the major problems were animal death (167, 72.60%), blockage of sewage lines (162, 70.43%), deterioration of natural beauty of an environment (144, 62.60%) and human health problems (119, 51.73%). The findings of the present study also indicated that the trend of utilization of plastic bags is increasing from time to time in spite of a good deal of awareness of the residents about the adverse effects of these products. In order to reduce the problems associated with plastic bag wastes, it is recommended to educate the public (1) not to use plastic bags, and (2) to use eco-friendly alternative materials (bags) made from clothes, natural fibers and paper. City level legislation is also highly recommended against indiscriminate use and disposal of plastic bag wastes as well as to end free distribution of plastic bags by retailers.
... Scott and Bloomfield (1993) observed that when the cloths were impregnated with quaternary ammonium disinfectant, the contamination of the cloth as well as the contamination of food preparation surfaces was reduced. Christison Cliver (2006), the pores on the cutting boards are a risk factor for contamination as the bacterial cells in the pores are difficult to destroy. Thus the bacterial cells on cutting boards and in the pores of cutting boards can be transmitted to the hands of the food handlers, to the food or to food service personnel, utensils, clothing, and consumers. ...
... Thus the bacterial cells on cutting boards and in the pores of cutting boards can be transmitted to the hands of the food handlers, to the food or to food service personnel, utensils, clothing, and consumers. To destroy bacterial cells on cutting boards pores, a microwave oven could be used (Cliver, 2006) 1959; Bound and Atkinson, 1966; Newsom, 1972; Gerba and others, 1975). When billions of microorganisms are flushed down the toilet they not only contaminate the bowl water but also porcelain surfaces within the toilet bowl (Barker and Jones, 2005). ...
... This practice can cause serious health problems since some carcinogenic agents could be generated during the chemical reactions that take place in plastic materials (for example, coloring agents) and the food items due to temperature variations (Narayan 2001). In recent reports, it has been mentioned that reuse of plastic bags can cause cross contamination of foods by microorganisms (Cliver 2006; Gerba et al. 2009; Maule 2000). Moreover, plastic bags are also used for disposing of human and other domestic wastes which makes human health more risky as compared to " open " disposal of these wastes (Njeru 2006; Subramanian 2000). ...
... Furthermore, in several poor and developing countries like Ethiopia, plastic bags are frequently used to carry food items and plastic water bottles as storage of different beverages like " Tella " , " Teg " , water, and soft drinks; food items like oil, milk, honey and other local food items and petroleum products such as benzene, Kerosene and naphtha. This practice can cause serious health problems due to some carcinogenic agents and cross contamination by microorganisms (Cliver 2006; Gerba et al. 2009; Kontominas et al. 2006; Lin et al. 2009). Moreover, it is common to use plastic bags for disposing of human and other domestic wastes which makes human health more risky as compared to " open " disposal of these wastes (Njeru 2006). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT In many developing countries such as Ethiopia, most people show little regard for the environment resulting people to reuse the non biodegradable plastic water bottles and bags. Poor mechanism cause environment worse and encircled living organisms at risk. Reusing plastic materials with poor cleaning system result leaching of chemical pollutants, such as bisphenol A, phthalates and antimony that causes serious toxicolog humans and reduce the aesthetic values of the environment. Annually, over 23 million plastic water bottles and bags are consumed in Tigray. Most plastic materials are reused and end up in the solid waste stream. Now, plastic materials const challenge to solid waste management in Mekelle, the capital of Tigray and home to more than 215 thousand people. Poor handling, reusing and disposal of plastic waste, which are major causes of environmental pollution, becomes grounds for pathogenic organisms, the spread of infectious diseases and loss of environmental aesthetics. This study examines the adverse impacts of reusing plastic water bottles and bags on people and the environment; and initiates the municipalities at a regional and national level plastic materials in line with their sustainable waste management’s. Creating awareness through education among communities coupled with improving acc waste management will help to achieve sound public and environmental health in Mekelle, Tigray.
... As wood is a porous material with a very complex distribution of porosity [88], the recovery of total microbial content is difficult [86,89]. Even the transfer of microbes from the wooden contact surface to food is lower as compared to other surfaces [73]; for example, [10] reported that the transfer rates of Listeria monocytogenes from wood (0.55%) to cheese was lower than perforated plastics (1.09%) and glass (3%). ...
... Wood is intrinsically porous, which allows organic debris and bacteria to descend into the pores of wood unless a highly hydrophobic residue covers the surface [2,89]. It is highly likely that the porous structure of wood provides valleys and holes in which microbes are protected from any swabbing action [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Some wood species have antimicrobial properties, making them a better choice over inert surfaces in certain circumstances. However, the organic and porous nature of wood raises questions regarding the use of this material in hygienically important places. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate the microbial survival and the antimicrobial potential of wood via a variety of methods. Based on the available literature, this review classifies previously used methods into two broad categories: one category tests wood material by direct bacterial contact, and the other tests the action of molecules previously extracted from wood on bacteria and fungi. This article discusses the suitability of these methods to wood materials and exposes knowledge gaps that can be used to guide future research. This information is intended to help the researchers and field experts to select suitable methods for testing the hygienic safety and antimicrobial properties of wood materials.
... En la Tabla 1 se muestra las características de las cuidadoras, encontrándose que son del sexo femenino y sus edades están entre los 15 y 54 años, con una media = 30 años y ± DE 8.78 años, la relación o parentesco del cuidador con el niño es ser la madre, el grado de escolaridad se reparte entre secundaria incompleta y completa, y más del 60% de las madres son amas de casa. El análisis exploratorio se inició con las 31 variables que quedaron después de la calificación de los jueces, y se eliminaron 12 preguntas por tener poca variabilidad, esas preguntas tuvieron respuesta "si" del 100% de las madres o cuidadora, por lo tanto no fueron un factor influyente (13,14,15,16,20,24,26,27,28,29,30,31). El análisis para medir la dimensionalidad de la escala, se realizó a través del Análisis de Factores 17,18, con el método de extracción de Componentes Principales [13]. ...
... La escala quedó con 10 ítems y tres dominios (prácticas de limpieza) [20,21,22] prácticas de almacenaje y la contaminación del niño por alimentos [19,23,24] que evalúan la autoeficacia materna para prevenir la contaminación de los alimentos que consumirán los niños, esto contribuye a la planificación de las intervenciones en el aspecto de contaminación de alimentos en el hogar. ...
Article
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Este artículo esta disponible en: www.archivosdemedicina.com Validación de una escala para evaluar contaminación de alimentos en el hogar, estudio en la zona rural de Perú Resumen Objetivos: validar una escala para evaluar la contaminación de alimen-tos en el hogar y, medir la validez y confiabilidad. Métodos: se encuestaron madres o cuidadoras con niños menores a 5 años, en San Juan de Lurigancho en Lima Perú. La escala fue pre-viamente sometida a una calificación de jueces expertos. Se realizó el análisis de factores con componentes principales, la consistencia interna fue medida con Kuder–Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) y la validez de la prueba con el coeficiente Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) y el test de esfericidad de Barlet. Resultados: la muestra tuvo 194 cuidadoras. Se definieron tres com-ponentes (prácticas de limpieza, prácticas de almacenaje y contamina-ción del niño) con un total de 10 ítems. El ítem Prácticas de limpieza tuvo un KR-20=0.722 prácticas de almacenaje y contaminación de alimentos 0.518 y 0.5 respectivamente. La validez de la prueba tuvo un KMO = 0.549 y un test de Barlet 591.678 , gl =136, (p<0.05).
... Cutting board is an important fomite in foodborne pathogen transmission. Wooden cutting boards are porous and suitable habitat for diverse bacteria (Cliver, 2006). The Malaysian Ministry of Health has banned the use of wooden cutting boards. ...
... Furthermore, we observed that some table cleaning cloths were left on the cutting board after use. Therefore, sanitising cutting board is essential as proper sanitation of cutting boards can effectively decrease the rate of food borne illnesses (Cliver, 2006). ISSN About 41% of the S. aureus were resistant towards penicillin. ...
Article
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Aims: Although several major food poisoning outbreaks caused by Staphylococcus aureus have been reported, monitoring of this pathogen is often neglected. The objectives of this study were to assess the contamination level of S. aureus and characterize the S. aureus isolated in ready-to-eat (RTE), food handlers, food contact surfaces, and table cleaning cloths (TCC). Methodology and results: A total of 150 RTE foods, 59 food contact surfaces (FCS) and 34 table cleaning cloths (TCC) from food premises were examined. The contamination level of S. aureus in RTE foods was at acceptable level. However, more than 10% of the FCS and TCC were contaminated with high levels of S. aureus (>1.0 Log CFU/cm 2 , >2.7 Log CFU/piece). Eighty-one isolated S. aureus including those isolated from hands of food handlers were further characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulotyping and PFGE. Out of 81 isolates, only three were multidrug resistant. More than 96% (n = 78) of the S. aureus harboured at least one virulence gene. Almost half of the isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin in which SEC was the most common enterotoxin detected. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The PFGE analysis showed that the S. aureus could be disseminated via the FCS, TCC and the hands of food handlers. Therefore, this study reiterates the importance of proper hand washing, sanitation of FCS and TCC, as well as continuous monitoring on S. aureus in food and the food handlers.
... coloring agents) and food products due to temperature variations (Narayan, 2001). Modern reports indicate that the reuse of plastic bags can cause crosscontamination of food products by microorganisms (Gerba et al., 2009;Cliver, 2006;Maule, 2000). Plastic bags are also used to dispose of human and other domestic waste, which makes human health more hazardous as compared to the "open" removal of such waste materials (Njeru, 2006;Subramanian, 2000). ...
... Cross-contamination of bacteria such as Campylobacter and Salmonella during food preparation in the kitchen is considered a risk factor in human exposure to these foodborne pathogens, an important route of contamination being transfer of bacteria from poultry carcasses via cutting boards or other unwashed surfaces to salad vegetables and ready-toeat foods [61,[82][83][84][85][86][87][88]. To reduce or eliminate this risk it is important to improve kitchen hygiene, for example by promptly washing contaminated surfaces with solutions which quickly and effectively kill the foodborne pathogens. ...
Article
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of natural fatty acids and have been used for cleaning for thousands of years. They are surface acting agents and their cleaning activity depends on their amphiphilic nature which makes it possible for soapy water to remove dirt, such as oil, grease and water-insoluble proteins, from soiled surfaces. In the process, various types of bacteria are physically removed from the surface together with the dirt which serves as medium for bacterial growth. In the last decade of the 19th century and first decades of the 20th century numerous studies were done on the killing of pathogenic bacteria by various natural soaps. In this pre-antibiotic era soaps were considered useful to fight bacterial infections. During and after the Second World War various types of inexpensive and easily manufactured synthetic detergents were developed which gradually replaced natural soaps as general cleaners. Similar to natural soaps, some of the synthetic detergents killed microbes. However, in many cases commercial detergents, for example soaps used to wash the hands, contain antimicrobial chemicals as additives. More recently, it has been attempted to use certain fatty acids and monoglycerides as disinfectants of foodborne bacteria on meat and vegetables. Glycerol monocaprate (monocaprin), a 1- monoglyceride of the 10-carbon saturated capric acid, has proved particularly active in killing Campylobacter, and also Salmonella and Escherichia coli at low pH. Monocaprin emulsions have been found to retain their antimicrobial activity after addition to liquid soaps, such as washing-up liquids. They could therefore be used as antibacterial additives to synthetic soaps and used as sanitizing cleaners in the home, and in various settings. Compared with other compounds which have been used as sanitizers or disinfectants, monocaprin, either in emulsions in water or in liquid soaps, may be an attractive choice because it is derived from natural sources and is both environmentally safe and harmless to the body in concentrations which kill bacteria.
... Salad is prone to contamination because it includes raw ingredients, is served cold, and its preparation requires equipment and several handling steps [16]. A common cause of bacterial cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods is poor hygiene practices allowing pathogens from raw meat to contaminate hands, knives and cutting boards and hence be transferred to other food [17,25,26]. Unfortunately, food hygiene often receives insufficient attention since Cambodian consumers are more concerned about chemicals than microbes [27]. ...
Article
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Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are common foodborne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis and other illnesses in people. This is the first study to assess the transfer of Salmonella enterica from raw chicken carcasses to ready-to-eat chicken salad in Cambodia. Twelve focus group discussions in four Cambodian provinces collected information on typical household ways of preparing salad. The results informed four laboratory experiments that mimicked household practices, using chicken carcasses inoculated with Salmonella. We developed four scenarios encompassing the range of practices, varying by order of washing (chicken or vegetables first) and change of chopping utensils (same utensils or different). Even though raw carcasses were washed twice, Salmonella was isolated from 32 out of 36 chicken samples (88.9%, 95% CI: 73.0-96.4) and two out of 18 vegetable samples (11.1%, 95% CI: 1.9-36.1). Salmonella was detected on cutting boards (66.7%), knives (50.0%) and hands (22.2%) after one wash; cross-contamination was significantly higher on cutting boards than on knives or hands (p-value < 0.05). The ready-to-eat chicken salad was contaminated in scenario 1 (wash vegetables first, use same utensils), 2 (wash vegetables first, use different utensils) and 3 (wash chicken first, use same utensils) but not 4 (wash chicken first, use different utensils) (77.8%, 11.1%, 22.2% and 0%, respectively). There was significantly higher Salmonella cross-contamination in scenario 1 (wash vegetables first, use same utensils) than in the other three scenarios. These results show how different hygiene practices influence the risk of pathogens contaminating chicken salad. This information could decrease the risk of foodborne disease in Cambodia and provides inputs to a quantitative risk assessment model.
... It is generally accepted that even microscopic nicks and cuts on surfaces can harbor microbial contaminants. Therefore, although new surface materials did not appear to directly influence sanitizer efficacy, care should be taken to select materials that can withstand the daily wear and tear associated with manually boning beef and that do not chip or feather easily, as rough or scratched surfaces are increasingly difficult to clean and sanitize successfully (6,12). ...
Article
This study evaluated the efficacy of various sanitizers against Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in biofilms formed on surface materials used in beef fabrication facilities. Coupons (2 × 5 cm) of stainless steel, acetal, and high-density polyethylene were inoculated (3–4 log CFU/cm2) with rifampicin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (6-strain mixture) and incubated at 15°C in an unsterilized beef fat-lean tissue homogenate (pH 5.66). After 3 days of incubation, attached cells were challenged (for 1 or 10 min) by submerging coupons in minimum and maximum recommended concentrations of each of seven sanitizing solutions or distilled water (control). Sanitizer treatments reduced E. coli O157:H7 on coupons by 0.0 to 2.2 log CFU/cm2, and treatment efficacy decreased in the order acidified sodium chlorite > peroxyacetic acid > potassium peroxymonosulfate/sodium chloride = peroxyacetic acid/octanoic acid mixture (PA/OA) > cetylpyridinium chloride > quaternary ammonium chloride compound mixture (QACC) = sodium hypochlorite (SH) = water control. Pathogen reductions generally increased as sanitizer concentration and exposure time increased. The influence of biofilm age (0, 3 and 7 days incubation at 15°C) on sanitizer (SH, QACC and PA/OA) efficacy was evaluated in a separate experiment; results showed that E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells became less sensitive to most sanitizer treatments as biofilm age increased. Surface material did not (P ≥ 0.05) influence the fate of biofilm cells during sanitizing treatments. While no sanitizer consistently reduced pathogen populations by more than 2.2 log cycles on soiled surfaces, approved concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite and peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizers may be more effective than other sanitizers against E. coli O157:H7 on inadequately cleaned surfaces.
... While plastic cutting boards can be cleaned in a dishwasher (as well as some specially treated wooden boards), this operation may distribute the pathogen onto other food contact surfaces; in contrast, most small wooden boards can be sterilized in a microwave oven. Cliver (2006) stated that epidemiological studies seem to show that cutting board cleaning habits have a slight influence on the incidence of salmonellosis. Therefore, the use of wooden cutting boards is still controversial. ...
... This fact may explain the low counts obtained during the recovery of the pathogen from the surfaces analyzed. However, some studies report the use of alginate swabs, which were used in our study, is the best and most sensitive method of surface sampling (Cliver, 2006). ...
Article
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis to different cutting boards (wood, triclosan-treated plastic, glass, and stainless steel) from contaminated poultry skin (5 log CFU/g) and then to tomatoes and to analyze the effect of different protocols used to clean these surfaces to control contamination. The following procedures were simulated: (1) no cleaning after handling contaminated poultry skin; (2) rinsing in running water; (3) cleaning with dish soap and mechanical scrubbing; and (4) cleaning with dish soap and mechanical scrubbing, followed by disinfection with hypochlorite. The pathogen was recovered from all surfaces following procedure 1, with counts ranging from 1.90 to 2.80 log, as well as from the tomatoes handled on it. Reduced numbers of S. Enteritidis were recovered using the other procedures, both from the surfaces and from the tomatoes. Counts were undetectable after procedure 4. From all surfaces evaluated, wood was the most difficult to clean, and stainless steel was the easiest. The use of hypochlorite as a disinfecting agent helped to reduce cross-contamination.
... A substantial proportion of foodborne disease has been linked to poor food preparation and hygienic practices in the home (Redmond and Griffith, 2003). Cutting boards are recognized as possible sources of cross contamination with pathogens as well as spoilage bacteria (Carpentier, 1997;Cliver, 2006). Bacteria may grow or survive for a long time on cutting boards, which may subsequently be a source for contamination of ready-to-eat foods (Todd et al., 2009). ...
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Several studies have shown that consumers may not clean cutting boards properly between preparation of raw and cooked meat. Cutting boards may therefore act as sources for contamination of cooked meat or other ready-to-eat foods with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The aim of the work was to investigate if cutting boards containing the antimicrobial compound triclosan can reduce the viability of bacteria, thus acting as a hygiene barrier. Survival and growth of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria on two cutting boards without antimicrobials and a commercial cutting board containing triclosan were tested. No difference in bacterial counts on cutting boards without and with triclosan was found after exposure to naturally contaminated chicken filets for one hour. Pathogenic and spoilage bacteria were inoculated on coupons (6.7–7 log per coupon) of cutting boards and incubated at 25 °C at controlled relative humidity for 24 and 72 h. At a relative humidity of 100%, growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and Serrratia spp. was observed and no antibacterial effect of the triclosan-containing board was found except for against Listeria monocytogenes. At lower humidity (70% RH) less growth was found on the triclosan-containing cutting board than untreated boards after 24 h. After 72 h of incubation, cell counts were reduced on triclosan-containing boards, with the most pronounced antibacterial effects observed against Salmonella, S. aureus and CNS. For S. aureus and Salmonella it was found that when a lower initial cell count was applied (3.5 log per coupon), the triclosan-containing board had an antibacterial effect under humid conditions, as well as a more pronounced antibacterial effect under dry conditions.
... Plastic (or polyethylene) cutting boards were introduced in 1970s to replace traditional wooden cutting board. Cutting boards used for food preparation in domestic kitchens, had always been recognized as possible vehicles for cross-contamination (Cliver, 2006). Different cutting boards must be used for cutting raw materials and cooked food as pathogens on the surface of cutting boards can easily be transmitted to cooked food. ...
... The microbial ecosystems present on wooden food-contact surfaces were also found to contribute to the acidification, diversity and protection of raw milk cheeses, such as pressed cooked Ragusano cheeses (Di Grigoli et al., 2015;Lortal et al., 2009) and pressed non-cooked cheeses (Mariani et al., 2011). Several studies, mostly on cutting boards with appropriate bacterial models, have investigated secondary transfer events in cross-contamination scenario from wood to food, for instance Cliver (2006). However, to our knowledge, the first transfer phenomena from wooden surfaces to food products have not yet been described in the literature except in the study of Montibus et al. (2016). ...
Article
Food contact surfaces are subject to contamination by pathogens, which can lead to cross-contamination by transfer to other food products. However, the European regulation specifies that materials intended for safe food contact must not interfere with foodstuff characteristics. Considered a traditional and natural material, wooden boards are used as a “technological tool” during the cheese-ripening process. In France, wood is authorized for food-contact.
... Many other factors were suggested to influence pathogens transmissions between surfaces such as the topography of different kind of cutting boards (Goh et al., 2014) and temperature of food (Goh et al., 2014;Tang et al., 2011). Nonetheless, we believe that the survival of S. Typhimurium for prolonged time (24 h) has been probably sustained by remaining substrates from parsley juice within knives-scars and fissures on the plastic boards surfaces which have been shown to be very difficult to clean and disinfect, although this may vary among the types of plastic cutting boards (Cliver, 2006). It was evident in this study that the density of bacteria can remain constant up to 24 h supported by nutrients abundance (Dawson et al., 2007). ...
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In many Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries, leafy green parsley is typically eaten raw and prepared by fine chopping several batches. This study aimed to quantify the transfer rate of S. Typhimurium (Tr) across all chopped batches in scenarios that resemble normally occurring operations in restaurants and home kitchens. Fresh parsley leaves were inoculated at concentrations of 6 and 3 log CFU/g and chopped on a polyethylene cutting board (CB). Uninoculated parsleys were sequentially chopped in individual batches on the same cutting surface, 1) instantly (CB Instant), 2) after washing in water and holding at 30 °C 24 h (CBWW), 3) after washing in soapy water, sponge scrubbing and holding at 30 °C 24 h (CB SW). Using the high inoculum levels, the mean Tr was 0.012 ± 0.04, 0.014 ± 0.02 and 0.010 ± 0.008, via CB Instant, WW and SW, respectively. Comparatively, the Tr mean values were significantly higher with the low inoculum levels, 0.60 ± 0.65 and 0.64 ± 0.46, via CB Instant and CB WW respectively, and transmissions of S. Typhimurium significantly decreased across consecutively chopped batches on both washed CBs (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated continuous transfer of Salmonella cells, from contaminated parsley to cutting boards and subsequently re-contaminating up to 6 batches of parsley chopped consecutively on the same surface. A greater cross-contamination rate was recorded during the initial phases of chopping and remained at 24 h at 30 °C. Vigilant cleaning and sanitation procedures on cutting surfaces should be a fundamental requirement after use with fresh produce, particularly if there is a likelihood of insufficient food safety measures at harvest and post-harvest stages.
... Although washing cutting boards was a common practice in the studied areas, this experiment showed that bacteria can remain and be a source of cross-contamination. This finding has been reported in previous studies [47,48]. Therefore, future food safety intervention programs in Vietnam should focus on the risk of cross-contamination from cutting boards in home kitchens. ...
Article
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Pork is the most commonly consumed meat in Vietnam, and Salmonella enterica is a common contaminant. This study aimed to assess potential S. enterica cross-contamination between raw and cooked pork in Vietnamese households. Different scenarios for cross-contamination were constructed based on a household survey of pork handling practices (416 households). Overall, 71% of people used the same knife and cutting board for both raw and cooked pork; however, all washed their hands and utensils between handling raw and cooked pork. The different scenarios were experimentally tested. First, S. enterica was inoculated on raw pork and surfaces (hands, knives and cutting boards); next, water used for washing and pork were sampled to identify the presence and concentration of S. enterica during different scenarios of food preparation. Bootstrapping techniques were applied to simulate transfer rates of S. enterica cross-contamination. No cross-contamination to cooked pork was observed in the scenario of using the same hands with new cutting boards and knives. The probability of re-contamination in the scenarios involving re-using the cutting board after washing was significantly higher compared to the scenarios which used a new cutting board. Stochastic simulation found a high risk of cross-contamination from raw to cooked pork when the same hands, knives and cutting boards were used for handling raw and cooked pork (78%); when the same cutting board but a different knife was used, cross-contamination was still high (67%). Cross-contamination between was not seen when different cutting boards and knives were used for cutting raw and cooked pork. This study provided an insight into cross-contamination of S. enterica, given common food handling practices in Vietnamese households and can be used for risk assessment of pork consumption.
... Handling practices, time, and temperature can significantly increase the risk of Salmonella contamination in pork during slaughtering, transport to market, and sale at markets (41). Traces of pork on cutting boards may allow bacterial biofilm formation, which can be an important source of cross-contamination (14,18,44). Rodents, which have been reported in wet markets in Thailand (59), and workers (67) can serve as reservoirs and transmitters of Salmonella in these locations. ...
Article
Salmonella causes foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide and raises concerns about public health and economic losses. To determine prevalence, serovar, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in a cross-sectional study, 418 total samples from feces and carcasses (from three slaughterhouses) and pork and cutting boards (from four markets) were collected in a central Thailand province in 2017 and 2018. Of the 418 samples, 272 (65.1%) were positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples from markets (158 of 178; 88.8%) was significantly higher than that among samples from slaughterhouses (114 of 240; 47.5%) (P < 0.05). A total of 1,030 isolates were identified; 409 were assigned to 45 serovars, with Salmonella Rissen the most common (82 of 409; 20%). Two serovars, Salmonella Cannstatt and Salmonella Braubach, were identified for the first time in Thailand in market and slaughterhouse samples, respectively. Among 180 isolates representing 19 serovars, 133 (73.9%) exhibited multidrug resistance. Screening for ESBL production revealed that 41 (10.3%) of 399 isolates were ESBL positive. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was significantly higher among the market isolates (31 of 41; 75.6%) than among the slaughterhouse isolates in (10 of 41; 24.4%) (P < 0.05). In market samples, 24 (77.4%) of 31 isolates were recovered from pork and 7 (22.6%) were recovered from cutting boards. Nine ESBL-producing isolates carried single ESBL genes, either blaTEM (4 of 41 isolates; 9.8%) or blaCTX-M (5 of 41 isolates; 12.2%), whereas 11 (26.8%) carried both blaTEM and blaCTX-M. No ESBL-producing Salmonella isolate carried the blaSHV gene. These results suggest that pigs, their flesh, and cutting boards used for processing pork could be reservoirs for widespread ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates with multidrug resistance and outbreak potential across the food chain. HIGHLIGHTS
... Therefore, cleaning the wood surface should be more intensive on RT. On the other hand, the persistence of dormant or live bacteria inside porous RT wood could represent a hygienic risk excepted if it is considered that bacteria are stuck inside the complex structures without the possibility of cross-contamination [31][32][33][34][35] . Regarding the existence of porosity on wood material, it is important to mention that during the usage life of wood inside healthcare buildings, the pores are covered by organic debris and bacterial descending deep into wood may diminish 1 . ...
Article
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Methods to test the safety of wood material for hygienically sensitive places are indirect, destructive and limited to incomplete microbial recovery via swabbing, brushing and elution-based techniques. Therefore, we chose mCherry Staphylococcus aureus as a model bacterium for solid and porous surface contamination. Confocal spectral laser microscope (CSLM) was employed to characterize and use the autofluorescence of Sessile oak (Quercus petraea), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and poplar (Populus euramericana alba L.) wood discs cut into transversal (RT) and tangential (LT) planes. The red fluorescent area occupied by bacteria was differentiated from that of wood, which represented the bacterial quantification, survival and bio-distribution on surfaces from one hour to one week after inoculation. More bacteria were present near the surface on LT face wood as compared to RT and they persisted throughout the study period. Furthermore, this innovative methodology identified that S. aureus formed a dense biofilm on melamine but not on oak wood in similar inoculation and growth conditions. Conclusively, the endogenous fluorescence of materials and the model bacterium permitted direct quantification of surface contamination by using CSLM and it is a promising tool for hygienic safety evaluation.
... This practice at several rural slabs was happening concurrently alongside efforts in urban wards to ban the use of wooden chopping boards in butcheries for reasons of hygiene. There is a lack of scientific consensus on the superiority of plastic chopping surfaces vis a vis wooden ones(58). ...
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Through a social scientific lens, this paper considers the risk perceptions and “risk-based decision-making” of two key groups in a northern Tanzanian context: (1) frontline government meat inspectors and health officers charged with ensuring that red meat sold commercially is safe for people to consume, and (2) the workers who slaughter and process cattle and red meat prior to its sale in rural butcheries. In contrast to techno-scientific understandings of disease risk and “rational” approaches to its management, this paper foregrounds the role of social, economic and institutional context in shaping the perceptions and practices around meat safety of these actors whose daily, close proximity to meat means they play a significant role in mitigating potential meat-borne disease. We show how limited resources, and a combination of scientific and local knowledge and norms result in “situated expertise” and particular forms of risk perception and practice which both enhance and compromise meat safety in different ways. Actors' shared concerns with what is visible, ensures that visibly unsafe or abnormal meat is excluded from sale, and that infrastructure and meat is kept “clean” and free of certain visible contaminants such as soil or, on occasion, feces. While such contaminants serve as a good proxy for pathogen presence, meat inspectors and especially slaughter workers were much less aware of or concerned with invisible pathogens that may compromise meat safety. The role of process and meat handling did not figure very strongly in their concerns. Microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter, which can easily be transferred onto meat and persist in slaughter and meat sale environments, went unacknowledged. Although health officers expressed more concern with hygiene and meat handling, their influence over slaughter process and butchery operations was unclear. Ultimately, recognizing the perceptions and practices of frontline actors who engage with meat, and the ways in which social, material and institutional realities shape these, is important for understanding how decisions about risk and meat safety are made in the complexity and context of everyday life, and thus for finding effective ways to support them to further enhance their work.
... It is true that wood surface retains bacteria but it does not strictly mean that bacteria are then, necessarily, transferred to something which is in contact with wood [24]. For instance, for Soares et al., 2012, the wood pine absorbs inoculum more rapidly as compared to other smooth materials [25] and the difficulty to recover microbes from wood surfaces means that these organisms are stuck inside wood structures [26]. Thus, it can be assumed that these bacteria do not contaminate the contact objects like food or hands [3] [5] [27]. ...
Article
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Wood, as a contact surface, has been used for centuries but is usually questioned because of its porosity and organic composition. It has natural antimicrobial properties and, hygienically, can stand the comparison with other materials such as plastic, glass and steel. In this review, we focused on potential microbe-inhibiting properties of wooden surfaces being used in hygienically important places like health institutes and food industries. This article addresses the questionable properties of untreated wood like hygroscopicity, porosity, roughness and chemical composition, and their relation to the hygienic and antimicrobial nature of this material. The other factors linked to the hygienic properties of wood, such as age, species and type of wood, have also been discussed. Our analysis of literature will create better understanding for acceptance of wood as a safety renewable resource. It also provides an outline for future research considering wood material in critical healthcare or food industries.
... Obviously, non-gloved chefs might carry dirt and dust particles which include the higher number of microbes that can contaminate the salads while preparing. Wide fluctuation in the prevalence of Salmonella in salads can be observed in the cleaning trend of chopping board and knife [28]. More isolates of Salmonella (44.4%) was found in salads cut in the chopping boards and knives which are regularly washed by soaps and detergents (p ≤ 0.05). ...
Article
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Objective: Antimicrobial resistance among the bacteria present in ready-to-eat foods like vegetable salads is an emerging concern today. The current study was undertaken to investigate the presence of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli and Salmonella spp. in raw vegetable salads served at hotels and restaurants in Bharatpur. A total of 216 salad samples were collected from three different grades of hotels and restaurants and examined for the presence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in Microbiology laboratory of Birendra Multiple Campus by conventional microbiological techniques. Results: Out of 216 samples, 66 samples (35.2%) showed the presence of Salmonella spp. whereas E. coli was recovered from 29 (13.4%) samples of which 3 samples harbored E. coli O157: H7. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that 9 (13.6%) Salmonella and 4 (13.8%) E. coli isolates were detected as multi-drug resistant. Total ESBL producers reported were 5 (7.57%) Salmonella and 4 (13.8%) E. coli. The study also assessed a significant association between occurrence of E. coli and Salmonella with different grades of hotels and restaurants, personal hygiene and literacy rate of chefs and with the type of cleaning materials used to wash knives and chopping boards (p < 0.05). The findings suggest an immediate need of attention by the concerned authorities to prevent the emergence and transmission of food-borne pathogens and infections antimicrobial resistance among them. Keywords: Salads, E. coli O157: H7, Antibiograms, Multi-drug resistant, ESBL, Hotels and restaurants
... Previous studies have also suggested that crosscontamination of ready-to-eat foods by raw ingredients and utensils are the important risk factors for the dissemination of foodborne diseases (Chai et al., 2008;Cogan, Slader, Bloomfield, & Humphrey, 2002;Gorman, Bloomfield, & Adley, 2002). Beumer and Kusumaningrum (2003) and Cliver (2006) found that cutting boards and utensils used for food preparation in the domestic kitchen are the possible reservoirs and disseminators of foodborne pathogens. Moreover, foodborne pathogens may spread to the wash water where they can re-contaminate the fresh produce during washing (King & Moorman, 2016). ...
Article
Epidemiological data indicates that a large number of foodborne illnesses are attributed to cross-contamination during food preparation in the domestic kitchen. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of household washing practices in removing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis on artificially contaminated lettuce and to determine the transfer rate of these three foodborne pathogens from contaminated lettuce to wash water, tomato, cabbage, and cutting boards during washing and cutting processes. Washing under the running tap water with scrubbing for 60 s was the most effective method in reducing pathogen populations by 1.86 to 2.60 log10 CFU/g. Also, final rinsing and scrubbing practices were found to enhance the efficiency of washing treatment. In this study, the transfer rates of S. Enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes from cutting board to cabbage and tomato via cutting process (17.5 to 31.7%) were higher (P<0.05) than from wash water to cabbage and tomato (0.8 to 23.0%) during washing treatment. Overall, our findings suggest that wash water and cutting board can be potential vehicles in the dissemination of foodborne pathogens. Therefore, there is a need to promote consumer awareness for proper handling practices in the kitchen to minimise the risk of foodborne infection.
... For small establishments with limited space or personnel, the complete segregation of raw and cooked products may be difficult to implement, which indicates an increased possibility of cross-contamination. Pathogens originating in raw meat may be transferred to a finished product indirectly, through contact between surfaces that may have dual contact such as stainless steel, wood, synthetics and food workers (Cliver, 2006;Kusumaningrum, Riboldi, Hazeleger, & Beumer, 2003). The scenario simulations in these experiments were designed based on observation of operational personnel during manufacture of jerky product as well as our experiences in pilot-scale jerky production. ...
Article
Meat jerky is a popular dried snack food that is typically considered shelf-stable and ready-to-eat. Many jerky processes incorporate post-lethality handling that represents opportunities for contamination through contact with worker hands and gloves. The objective was to identify transfer rates of Salmonella enterica from gloves to dried jerky after handling with three types of single-use gloves (Nitrile, PVC, and PE) and one type of single-use PE-coated sleeve cover. Six Salmonella enterica serovars were mixed and diluted to 7-8 log10 CFU/mL and 2-3 log10 CFU/mL for quantitative and qualitative transfer rate analyses, respectively. For quantitative analysis, high dose inoculum was applied evenly to the palm of the glove and the gloved hands were used to touch three jerky slices successively, simulating a major glove-jerky contact. A total of six inoculations were performed per material (n=18). For qualitative analysis, low dose inoculum was applied evenly to the palm of the glove and the gloved hands were used to touch the jerky (n=40) using two contact scenarios (contact with fingers only or fingers and palm) simulating activities associated with hand sorting and packaging. Salmonella were enumerated by plating onto XLT4 following serial dilution or after 24h enrichment. Salmonella transfer to jerky was significantly greater (P<0.05) from PE gloves (5.52±0.24 log10 CFU/sample) and sleeves (6.16±0.49 log10 CFU/sample) compared to Nitrile (4.47±0.47 log10 CFU/sample) and PVC gloves (4.66±0.58 log10 CFU/sample). In qualitative analysis, finger-only contact resulted in Salmonella transfer to 10/40 jerky slices from PE gloves and 1/40 slices from Nitrile gloves. However, when the palm of the glove was involved in the contact, Salmonella was detected on all 80 jerky slices, regardless of material type. Selection of materials associated with reduced transfer may be an important strategy for reducing bacterial cross-contamination in jerky production facilities.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether domestic dishwashers used in small establishments that generate a low volume of utensils per day are capable of staying within the prescribed limit of no more than 100 bacterial colonies per utensil (Ontario Regulation 562 − Food Premises). A questionnaire was used to capture the characteristics and operating parameters of 103 domestic dishwashers across Ontario. Two temperature data loggers were placed inside the dishwasher to monitor the temperature during the entire operation of the dishwasher, one on the top and one on the bottom rack. After completion of the whole cycle, utensils were swabbed and analyzed for bacteria using the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method. This field study illustrated that 83% of the domestic dishwashers evaluated were able to stay within the prescribed limit. This is consistent with the results of a similar Ontario study involving commercial dishwashers. Dishwashers that used chlorinated detergents or those that contained utensils classified as somewhat soiled or very soiled before washing were significantly more likely to fail to stay with the prescribed limit (P < 0.05). With increasing maximum rinse temperature, dishwashers were found to be significantly less likely to fail (P < 0.05).
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Paper deals with features important for creating healthy microclimate in health care and therapeutic facilities. It presents basic facts about visual, tactile, behavioural, somatic, acoustic and socio-cultural comfort particularly important for spatial design of these facilities.It focuses especially on choice of materials and their surfaces for built-in elements and furnishings which plays crucial role for well-being - comfort. It sets hypotheses that using wood as phenomena by humanisation of microenvironment, it is possible to reach high level of complex comfort.It also shows main disadvantages of using wood in the healthcare and wellness facilities, where belongs particularly more demanding maintenance to keep the surfaces clean and disinfected and water resistant. To prevent these problems, the high resistant chemical /artificial finishing is needed. But with chemical finishing there are lost many positive effects of wood on healthy microclimate.Despite of it there are two hypotheses that are contributing to the statements that wood is suitable for the healthcare facilities. First is that natural wood without additional chemical finishing has antibacterial (antimicrobial) effect. And second is that it is possible to provide a surface modification with the aim to reach the state that wood can be hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic and thus easy to maintain such as adjustment by plasma or by finings based on nanotechnologies and biomimetic. The paper presents examples and own tests supporting these hypotheses.
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Pallets play an important role in food transportation but are seldom in direct contact with food and are not intended to be used in contact with food. We have surveyed information relevant to the possible influence of wood versus plastic pallets on food safety. Wood absorbs bacteria, which cannot later be recovered alive at its surface. Bacteria do not penetrate below the surface of new plastic and can be transferred to other surfaces. Scars on used plastic tend to harbor bacteria, which persist in a viable state. The choice of wood versus plastic pallets seems likely to have only a slight effect on food safety, but bacteria appear to be less easily transferred from wood than from plastic.
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This-study is a part of a larger-research on potential-environment-friendly-alternatives to polyethylene shoppingbags. At a general-level, the whole-research can be regarded as an explanatory-case-study of social-perception on plastic-menace-problem in Rift Valley Province, Kenya. The-survey was mainly aimed at understanding consumers’ perceptions on plastic-bags, through consumption-habits, the degree of awareness of environmentalimpacts and the willingness to reduce their-consumption. In order to most-accurately reflect the socialperceptions of the Kenyan-population, regarding single-use-plastic-bags consumption, a questionnaire was selected as the most-suitable-method, which was pre-tested to ensure its validity and reliability. A crossstratification- technique was used, to determine the subject-sample-size of 384 respondents from three-towns, in total. Discrete-Choice-Experiment-technique, which originated from mathematical-psychology for investigating individual-preferences, was employed. The data-analysis was conducted using Epi-Info 7 (version 3.5.1), Minitab, and, Microsoft Excel, software. The Statistical-Package for Social-Sciences (SPPS-17, version 22)- computer software-program was used to compute the Cronbach’s alpha co-efficient. To check, whether there is an association between the variables, cross-tabulations was performed, while Chi-squared-test was used to test significance of the relationships. Cronbach's-alpha-test of internal-consistency was performed and demonstrated high inter-item-consistency (Cronbach's a > 0.9). The survey-results indicated that regardless of sex, educational-level, age-group and occupation, majority (80%) of the towns’-populace widely-used plastic-bags on a daily-basis in their-life-activities. Cheapness or free-distribution of these-bags, by retailers or supermarketowners, are believed to be the main-reasons for the widespread-usage of polyethylene-single-use-shopping-bags, and, for the associated with their-disposal, problems. To combat these-problems, plastic Waste Management initiatives were highlighted, in conjunction with relevant-recommendations. The findings and recommendations of this-study will, expectantly, contribute (in its small-way) resolving the environmental- problems, associated with plastic-bags and their-disposal. This-research may also be valuable for Government-authorities, non-profit organizations, private-bodies or individuals, in order to develop adequate-and tailored-strategies and take actions, according to the actual-consumer-attitudes and perceptions. Keywords: polyethylene, shopping, bags, perception.
Chapter
Essential oils are composed largely of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and their related alcohols. The number of components varies from approximately 10-100, although frequently the major portion of the oil is composed of only a few components. The composition and physico-chemical properties of oils are greatly influenced by extraction, packaging and storage processes which can in turn affect the biological properties of the oils. The medical and scientific literature is awash with reports of the antimicrobial activity of individual essential oils and the inherent in vitro activity of many essential oils is indisputable. However, the widespread exploitation of this antimicrobial activity in products is at a nascent stage. Other than over-the-counter preparations, a limited number of commercially available products rely largely on essential oils or their components for pharmaceutical antimicrobial properties. Similarly, essential oils or their components are rarely used as the sole or primary preservative system in foods. In addition to antimicrobial activity, essential oils also possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, analgesic properties and although less well-characterised, anti-cancer activity. Essential oils have a long history of apparently safe use and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U. S. FDA. The challenge remains to further explore the range of their biological effects and their potential applications.
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Listeria monocytogenes is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the developed world. This chapter reviews cross-contaminatiocpn with L. monocytogenes at retail points, drawing upon what has been learned during two decades of research in food processing settings where appropriate. In particular, insights derived from a quantitative microbial risk assessment of L. monocytogenes in US retail delicatessens are reviewed, and the efficacy of selected mitigation options predicted by this risk assessment is highlighted. In addition, relevant guidance documents are summarized, and data gaps and areas for future research are identified.
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Clean food contact surfaces are important in reducing the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to assess and compare baseline cleanliness of food contact and environmental surfaces in retail food establishments by using ATP bioluminescence (ATP-B), visual assessment, and surface contact plates. Four hundred eighty-nine surface samples were collected from three food service establishments at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minneapolis) and analyzed for either ATP (252) or total aerobic plate count bacteria (237). ATP levels ranged from a minimum of 4 relative light units (RLU; 0.60 log RLU) on a clean slicer to a maximum of 506,618 RLU (5.77 log RLU) on a dirty cutting board. The overall mean was 1,950 RLU (3.29 log RLU). Cutting boards had the highest ATP levels (mean, 5,495 RLU or 3.74 log RLU; median, 6,761 RLU or 3.83 log RLU). Of the 128 samples judged visually clean at the time of sampling, 70.3 % failed ATP-B testing. Sixty-one (26 % ) of the 237 total aerobic plate count samples yielded counts of over 125 CFU/50 cm(2) (failed), and of those that failed, 40 % were assessed as visually clean before sampling. The highest average counts in CFU/50 cm(2) were found on slicers (104) and cutting boards (87). The results of this study suggest that the current practice of evaluating food contact surface cleanliness by sight and touch to meet regulatory requirements might be inadequate. ATP-B testing may be an efficient tool to facilitate creation, implementation, and validation of more effective food contact surface cleaning in food establishments.
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There is a long-term controversy on the safety of using hardwood cutting boards in food preparation. This study was designed to compare three types of cutting boards (maple, beech wood, polyethylene) in the laboratory and in a small gastronomic unit. Samples for microbiological analysis were collected by a swabbing method from the boards' surfaces that had been contaminated with a defined meat-egg-mixture and subsequently cleaned according to manufacturers' instructions. Our study did not show significant differences between the microbiological status of the three types of cutting boards tested, all of them being overall acceptable. Use of the maple board in a small gastronomic unit for 2 months did not result in problems in cleanability.
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Foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella can easily transfer from food to food contact surfaces. Methods for rapid detection of these pathogenic bacteria are important in order to avoid contamination of food. Here, we describe the detection and quantification of bacterial pathogens on contaminated surfaces by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and culture methods using a single enrichment medium. Surfaces of wood, polypropylene, and stainless steel were inoculated with a mixed culture of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enterica. Surfaces were sampled after an initial contact time of 10 min and after 16 h. Results indicated that after a short contact time, RT-PCR gave results similar to standard microbiological counts for each pathogen tested. However, after being left for 16 h on surfaces, the detection of these pathogens at low inoculation levels was always possible with RT-PCR, while microbiological methods failed to detect them in many cases. In conclusion, RT-PCR is more sensitive and rapid than are standard microbiological methods for the detection of bacterial pathogens on food contact surfaces.
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This study evaluated microbial food safety in school foodservices. Five school foodservices were randomly selected, and samples from water, cooking utensils, tableware, foodservice surroundings, and linen were collected in summer and winter (N=420). Tap and drinking water samples were collected, samples of food contact surfaces were collected by swab-kit, and samples for foodservice workers' hands and gloves were prepared by glove juice method. Aerobic plate count (APC) and coliform bacterial populations were enumerated on plate count agar (PCA) and desoxycholate lactose agar, respectively. The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus was also examined by biochemical identification tests. In addition, PCA agar for APCs and Baird-Parker agar for S. aureus were used to enumerate airborne microorganisms. Higher APCs (< 0 to 5.1 log CFU/mL) than acceptable level were generally observed in water samples, while low coliform counts were found in the samples. High APCs were enumerated in cooking utensils, foodservice workers, tableware, and food-service surroundings, and coliforms were also found in the samples for both seasons. The presence of Salmonella was found from only 10% of plastic glove samples (summer), and the presence of L. monocytogenes was not observed in all samples. S. aureus was detected in some of water, cooking utensils, tableware, employees, and foodservice surroundings, and E. coli was observed in cooking utensils (10% to 20%; summer). No obvious airborne bacteria were detected. These results showed that sanitation practice in school foodservices should be improved, and the results may be useful in microbial assessment of school foodservices.
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The results of a survey of the bacterial flora in many sites in 21 homes are discussed. In all areas both wet and dry, coagulase negative, Gram positive cocci and Bacillus spp. were found. Wet areas such as kitchen sinks and drains contained large numbers of Escherichia coli and sometimes Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter and Enterobacter spp. In toilet areas, little evidence was found of contamination with organisms of faecal origin. Of 47 samples taken from teacloths and towels 22 were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus although the actual numbers of this organism were low. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from several sites in one home only.
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There is no official scheme for testing disinfectants and detergent/disinfectants for use in the retail food trade and few recommended procedures have been given for the cleaning of equipment with these agents. Therefore, field trials were carried out in a large self-service store. Comparisons were made of the various cleaning efficiencies, as determined by bacterial plate counts, of detergent and disinfectant solutions and machine cleaning oils applied with either clean cloths or disposable paper towels to items of equipment. The most satisfactory results were always obtained when anionic detergent (0·75 % w/v) and hypochlorite (200 p.p.m. available chlorine) solutions were applied in a ‘two-step’ procedure. Tests were made to compare the calcium alginate swab-rinse and the agar sausage (Agaroid) techniques for the enumeration of bacteria on stainless steel, plastic, formica and wooden surfaces before and after a cleaning process. Although recovery rates were always greater by the swab-rinse technique, the agar sausage technique was considered to be a useful routine control method for surface sampling.
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A rapid and simple method is described for the bacteriological examination of contaminated surfaces. It uses an imprint process with ‘agar sausages’ sterilized in polyamide casings.
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Campylobacter jejuni cells, when stressed by aeration of the liquid culture medium, were protected from death when a block of wood was present in the broth, especially at 30 degrees C. Sealing the wood inside a porous membrane showed that access to its physical structure was necessary for the protection of cells and that soluble free-radical scavengers from the wood were not responsible for the protection seen. Insoluble free-radical scavengers associated with the wood were not a significant factor since other porous materials offered protection when their pores were sufficiently small (around 16 micron); and the wood itself needed to be at least 4 mm thick for the effect to be evident. Deeply scored plastic blocks did not enhance the survival of cells in aerated broths. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size of the openings within the wood in relation to the size of the bacterial cells. Thus it was established that the physical structure of the wood, rather than its chemistry, was responsible for its protective effect. The consequences of this findings for the use of wooden cutting boards in food handling are discussed.
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To study the potential of three bacterial pathogens to cross-contaminate orange juice during extraction, normal operation conditions during juice preparation at food service establishments were simulated. The spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated oranges to work surfaces and to the final product was determined. The transference of these three bacterial pathogens to orange juice made from uninoculated oranges with the use of contaminated utensils was also studied. Fresh oranges were inoculated with a marker strain of rifampicin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, or L. monocytogenes. Final pathogen levels in juice were compared as a function of the use of electric or mechanical juice extractors to squeeze orange juice from inoculated oranges. Pathogen populations on different contact surfaces during orange juice extraction were determined on sulfite-phenol red-rifampicin plates for Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 and on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.1 g of rifampicin per liter for L. monocytogenes. After inoculation, the average pathogen counts for the orange rind surface were 2.3 log10 CFU/cm2 for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.6 log10 CFU/cm2 for E. coli O157:H7, and 4.4 log10 CFU/cm2 for L. monocytogenes. This contamination was spread over all utensils used in orange juice squeezing. Mean pathogen counts for the cutting board, the knife, and the extractor ranged from -0.3 to 2.1 log10 CFU/cm2, and the juice contained 1.0 log10 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium per ml, 2.3 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per ml, and 2.7 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes per ml. Contact with contaminated surfaces resulted in the presence of all pathogens in orange juice made from uninoculated oranges. These results give emphasis to the importance of fresh oranges as a source of pathogens in orange juice.
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Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting surfaces during the preparation of broiler chickens. The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 10(6) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards. The concentrations of the organisms were then assessed in triplicate on each type of cutting board over a 3-h period using standard microbiological methods for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In 87% of food establishments, the same work area was used for preparation of raw and cooked chicken, and in 68% of these establishments the same cutting boards were used for raw and cooked chicken. None of the establishments applied disinfectants or sanitizers when washing contact surfaces. Campylobacter spp. survived on wooden and plastic but not on metal cutting boards after 3 h of exposure. The handling practices in food preparation areas, therefore, provide an opportunity for cross-contamination of Campylobacter spp. to ready-to-eat foods.