Local Unfolding in a Destabilized, Pathogenic Variant of Superoxide Dismutase 1 Observed with H/D Exchange and Mass Spectrometry
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Journal of Biological Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 4.57).
07/2006; 281(26):18167-76. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M600623200
Hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry has been used to study the structural behavior of the pathogenic A4V variant of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the metal-free (apo) form. Mass spectrometric data revealed that in the disulfide-intact (S-S) form, the A4V variant is destabilized at residues 50-53, in the disulfide subloop of the dimer interface, but many other regions of the A4V protein exhibited hydrogen exchange properties identical to that of the wild type protein. Additionally, mass spectrometry revealed that A4V apoSOD1(S-S) undergoes slow localized unfolding in a large segment of the beta-barrel that included beta3, beta4, and loops II and III. In the disulfide-reduced form, A4V apoSOD1 exchanged like a "random coil" polypeptide at 20 degrees C and began to populate folded states at 4 degrees C. These local and global unfolding events could facilitate intermolecular protein-protein interactions that cause the aggregation or neurotoxicity of A4V SOD1.
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ABSTRACT: A full understanding of enzyme-substrate interactions requires a detailed knowledge of their structural basis at atomic resolution. Crystallographic and biochemical data have been analyzed with coupled computational and computer graphic approaches to characterize the molecular basis for recognition of the superoxide anion substrate by Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Detailed analysis of the bovine SOD structure aligned with SOD sequences from 15 species provides new results concerning the significance and molecular basis for sequence conservation. Specific roles have been assigned for all 23 invariant residues and additional residues exhibiting functional equivalence. Sequence invariance is dominated by 15 residues that form the active site stereochemistry, supporting a primary biological function of superoxide dismutation. Using data from crystallographic structures and site-directed mutants, we are testing the role of individual residues in the active site channel, including (in human SOD) Glu 132, Glu 133, Lys 136, Thr 137, and Arg 143. Electrostatic calculations incorporating molecular flexibility suggest that the region of positive electrostatic potential in and over the active site channel above the Cu ion sweeps through space during molecular motion to enhance the facilitated diffusion responsible for the enzyme's rapid catalytic rate.
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