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Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.
Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., 15, 1, 37-39 (2006)
(Brazil. J. Vet. Parasitol.)
RESUMO
O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficácia de extratos alcoó-
licos de capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus) no controle da
infestação natural de bovinos da raça Holandesa por Boophilus
microplus. Foram utilizados 12 animais, distribuídos em três gru-
pos de quatro animais/grupo. Grupo 1 foi tratado com amitraz a
0,025%, grupo 2 foi tratado com extrato de capim-cidreira a 1,36%
e grupo 3 foi tratado com a mesma planta a 2,72%. Para avalia-
ção, foram contadas fêmeas de carrapatos com comprimento
superior a 4,0 mm, antes (média dos dias -3, -2 e -1) e após a
aplicação dos produtos nos dias 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 14. Amitraz
apresentou eficácia de 97,93%. A solução contendo 2,72% de
capim-cidreira reduziu a infestação em 40,33; 46,56 e 41,46% nos
dias 3, 7 e 14 pós-tratamento, respectivamente.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cymbopogon citratus, Boophilus
microplus, amitraz, fitoterápico.
A infestação pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus
(Canestrini, 1887) é a parasitose mais importante em relação à
redução econômica em rebanhos de bovinos leiteiros do Bra-
sil (GRISI et al., 2002, GRAF et al., 2004). Na década de 80,
Hernández et al. (1987) relataram que o uso de produtos natu-
rais poderia minimizar, ou até, eliminar os efeitos deletérios de
algumas infecções/infestações parasitárias, mais especifica-
mente contra B. microplus. A busca por formas alternativas de
controle aumentou mais incisivamente a partir da década de
90. Dentre essas, o uso de fitoterápicos destaca-se devido à
grande variabilidade de espécies de plantas existentes, o bai-
xo custo e a fácil disponibilidade em determinadas regiões
(AVANCINI, 1994).
NOTA DE PESQUISA
EXTRATO ALCOÓLICO DE CAPIM-CIDREIRA (Cymbopogon citratus)
NO CONTROLE DO Boophilus microplus EM BOVINOS*
ARLI HEIMERDINGER
1
; CLAIR J. OLIVO
2
; MARCELO B. MOLENTO
3
*; CARLOS A. AGNOLIN
4
;
MAGNOS F. ZIECH
6
; LUCIENE FERNANDA B. SCARAVELLI
4
; FERNANDO R. SKONIESKI
4
;
JOSÉ F. BOTH
4
; PABLO S. CHARÃO
6
ABSTRACT:- HEIMERDINGER, A.; OLIVO, C.J.; MOLENTO, M.B.; AGNOLIM, C.A.; ZIECH, M.F.; SCARAVELLI,
L.F.B.; SKONIESKI, F.R.; BOTH, J.F.; CHARÃO, P.S. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on
the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle]. Extrato alcoólico de Capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus) no
controle do Boophilus microplus em bovinos. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1. p. 37-39,
2006. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Curitiba, PR. 80035-050, Brazil. E-mail:
molento@ufpr.br
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts
on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three
groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at
1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with
length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean
efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72 % reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day
3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.
KEY WORDS: Cymbopogon citratus, Boophilus microplus, amitraz, phytotherapic.
* Parte da dissertação de mestrado do primeiro autor. Sob os auspícios
da CAPES/MEC.
1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal
de Santa Maria, (UFSM).
2
Departamento de Zootecnia, UFSM.
3
Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Departamento de Medi-
cina Veterinária, Curitiba, PR. 80035-050. E-mail: molento@ufpr.br
4
Curso de Zootecnia, UFSM.
38 Heimerdinger et al.
Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., 15, 1, 37-39 (2006)
(Brazil. J. Vet. Parasitol.)
Entretanto, a falta de clareza em relação às condições de
produção, época de colheita e as quantidades e partes da
planta utilizadas na elaboração dos produtos, ilustra a falta de
informação específica. Este escasso volume de informação é
incorporado pelo inconsistente efeito in vivo e/ou in vitro da
concentração dos produtos obtidos para uso. Estudos com
destilados de folhas de capim-cidreira [Cymbopogon citratus
(DC.) Stapf] determinaram a morte de fêmeas adultas de carra-
patos (THOMAZINI, 2002). Esta atividade inseticida/acaricida
pode ser atribuída aos óleos voláteis a-citral, b-citral e mirceno
(RAJAPAKSE; VAN ENDEN, 1997).
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar duas concentrações
de extratos alcoólicos de capim-cidreira no controle do B.
microplus em bovinos da raça Holandesa naturalmente in-
festados. Foram utilizadas 12 animais em lactação, divididos
em três tratamentos (n=4), G1: amitraz a 0,025%
5
; G2: extrato
alcoólico de capim-cidreira a 1,36% e G3: extrato alcoólico de
capim-cidreira a 2,72%. As plantas utilizadas possuíam altu-
ra de 0,80 a 1,0 metro, com teor de matéria parcialmente seca
de 19,53%. Apresentavam 31% de lâmina foliar, 41,5% de
bainhas, 7,5% de colmos, 17,5% de rizomas e 2,5% de raízes.
Os extratos alcoólicos foram obtidos com a maceração de
150 gramas de raízes, rizomas, colmos e folhas para o grupo
G2 e 300 gramas para o grupo G3. Em cada macerado foi
adicionado um litro de álcool etílico a 92,8
o
GL, permanecen-
do em extração por 24 horas. Após este período, cada mistu-
ra foi coada em peneira de polietileno, adicionando-se 150
gramas de NaCl e dez litros de água destilada, constituindo,
aproximadamente 11 litros de solução. A concentração de
planta foi de 1,36% na solução de 150g (G2) e 2,72% na solu-
ção de 300g (G3). Todos os animais foram banhados indivi-
dualmente com cerca de 4 litros/tratamento. Como parâmetro
de controle do carrapato, considerou-se os ínstares com ta-
manho igual ou superior a quatro milímetros de comprimen-
to. Foram realizadas contagens em triplicatas, observando-
se o número de teleóginas presentes na metade direita do
corpo do animal, segundo metodologia de Wharton et al.
(1970), e o valor obtido foi multiplicado por dois. As conta-
gens foram realizadas nos dias -3, -2, -1 pré-tratamento e
diariamente até o sétimo dia e no 14º dia pós-tratamento. Os
resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao tes-
te de Tukey (SAS, 1997). Os dados foram transformados em
base logarítmica mais 1,5 utilizando o modelo matemático
descrito abaixo:
Y
ij
= µ + α
i
+ ε
ij
Onde: i = índice de tratamentos, j = índice de repetições, Y
ij
= observação da variável dependente, µ = média geral, α
i
=
efeito dos tratamentos, ε
ij
= erro aleatório associado às obser-
vações por tratamento “i”.
O número médio de teleóginas previamente a divisão dos
grupos foi de 570,3. Na tabela 1 está demonstrado o número e
a porcentagem média de redução na infestação de teleóginas.
Amitraz apresentou eficácia média de 97,93% nos níveis de
infestação. A solução contendo extrato de capim-cidreira a
1,36% (G2), apresentou efeito nulo na redução da infestação,
tendo o número de teleóginas aumentado pós-aplicação. De-
monstrou-se que o extrato alcoólico de capim-cidreira a 2,72%
(G3) obteve redução significativa (P<0,05) no número de
teleóginas quando comparado ao G2. Os animais banhados
com a solução apresentaram redução na infestação de 40,33;
46,56; e 41,46% nos dias 3, 7 e 14 pós-tratamento. Os resulta-
dos deste trabalho apresentam significativa similaridade aos
5
Bovitraz® - Bayer S.A.
Tab el a 1. Númer o (N) e por ce nta gem mé dia de red uç ão da i nfest aç ão (% ) de
teleóginas de Boophilus microplus em vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, an-
tes e após a aplicação de amitraz a 0,025% e soluções obtidas de 1,36% e 2,72%
de macerado de raízes, rizomas, colmos e folhas de capim-cidreira [Cymbopogon
citratus (DC.) Staph.] na forma de extratos alcoólicos em Santa Maria, RS.
Dias de avaliação Tratamentos
G1 - Amitraz G2 - Capim- G3 - Capim-
N
1
%
2
cidreira 1,36% cidreira 2,72%
N% N %
Pré-tratamento 926,0 - 150,6 - 634,3 -
dia pós-tratamento 83,0 91,03 194,0 0 674,0 0
dia pós-tratamento 17,5 98,11 268,0 0 544,0 14,24
dia pós-tratamento 0100 406,50 378,540,33
dia pós-tratamento 0100 300,50 459,327,59
dia pós-tratamento 0100 341,00 540,614,77
dia pós-tratamento 0,5 99,95 315,5 0 484,0 23,70
dia pós-tratamento 0,5 99,95 235,5 0 339,0 46,56
14º dia pós-tratamento 52,0 94,38 - - 371,3 41,46
Média após o tratamento* 19,2
b
97,93
A
294,4
a
0,0
C
473,8
a
25,30
B
* (P<0,05), na linha; (comparando entre letras minúsculas para dados de infestação e letras
maiúsculas para o porcentual de redução de teleóginas).
1
N: média de quatro animais; CV= 6,69%.
2
%: porcentagem de redução na infestação; CV= 5,11%.
39
Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., 15, 1, 37-39 (2006)
(Brazil. J. Vet. Parasitol.)
Extrato alcoólico de Capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus) no controle do Boophilus microplus em bovinos
obtidos por Chungsamarnyart e Jiwajinda (1992) com o efeito
de destilados de capim-cidreira no controle do B. microplus.
Ressalva-se, em função dos resultados obtidos, que as apli-
cações devem ser feitas em animais com baixa infestação, pois
como os níveis obtidos de eficácia foram da ordem de 40% até
a segunda semana pós-tratamento, bovinos com alta
infestação podem sofrer muita espoliação e perda do potenci-
al zootécnico.
Concluindo, foi determinado que a solução contendo ex-
trato alcoólico a 1,36% de macerado de raízes, rizomas, colmos
e folhas de capim-cidreira, adicionada de sal comum e água,
não apresenta efeito no controle de teleóginas do carrapato B.
microplus em animais da raça Holandesa em lactação apre-
sentando infecção natural. Enquanto a solução contendo 2,72%
de capim-cidreira reduziu em média 25,30% até 14 dias pós-
tratamento a contagem deste parasita.
Agradecimento: Os autores agradecem a Cecília José
Ve rí ssi mo, p or su a d is p on ibi lid ade e m c om par t il har i nfo rma -
ções importantes na efetivação deste experimento desenvol-
vido no Setor de Bovinocultura de Leite da Universidade Fe-
deral de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, RS.
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GRISI, L.; MASSARD, C.L.; BORJA, G.E.M.; PEREIRA, J.B.
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HERNÁNDEZ, L.E.; PARRA, D.G.; MARIN, A.C. Acción repe-
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Recebido em 26 de agosto de 2005.
Aceito para publicação em 06 e fevereiro de 2006.
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Ixodids (hard ticks), ectoparasitic arthropods that vector the causal agents of many serious diseases of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, have become increasingly difficult to control because of the development of resistance against commonly applied synthetic chemical-based acaricides. Resistance has prompted searches for alternative, nonconventional control tactics that can be used as part of integrated ixodid management strategies and for mitigating resistance to conventional acaricides. The quest for alternative control tactics has involved research on various techniques, each influenced by many factors, that have achieved different degrees of success. Alternative approaches include cultural practices, ingested and injected medications, biological control, animal- and plant-based substances, growth regulators, and inert desiccant dusts. Research on biological control of ixodids has mainly focused on predators, parasitoid wasps, infective nematodes, and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Studies on animal-based substances have been relatively limited, but research on botanicals has been extensive, including whole plant, extract, and essential oil effects on ixodid mortality, behavior, and reproduction. The inert dusts kaolin, silica gel, perlite, and diatomaceous earth are lethal to ixodids, and they are impervious to environmental degradation, unlike chemical-based toxins, remaining effective until physically removed.
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The warm season essential oil producing grass species including lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), palmarosa grass (C. martini), geranium grass (C. schoenanthus), vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides), and scented top grass (Capillipedium parviflorum) are used worldwide for their cosmetic and health properties. A discussion providing evidence from literature reviews about the potential uses of these grass species for antimicrobial and other health uses are presented. These species could be used as new therapies for treating microbial infections. The purpose of this study is to discuss in detail, evidence from literature reviews supporting potential health uses and to provide some discussion regarding some agronomic traits for these essential oil producing species.
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A study was carried out to evaluate the acaricidal activities of crude methanolic extract of leaves of six medicinal plants, namely, Vernonia amygdalina, Calpurnia aurea, Schinus molle, Ricinus communis, Croton macrostachyus, and Nicotiana tabacum, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using an in vitro adult immersion test. Five graded concentrations of the crude extracts, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml, were tested at different time intervals, and temporal changes in tick viability were recorded for 24 hours. Diazinon (0.1%) and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Standard procedures were applied to screen the phytochemical constituents of the tested plant parts. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of a condensed amount of tannins in all extracts. Starting from 30 min post exposure, the 100 mg/ml concentration of C. aurea and R. communis extracts has caused significantly higher mortality (P
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The development of new acaricides is a long and very expensive process. Worryingly, there is increasing resistance to available acaricides worldwide leading to the real possibility that our dwindling supply of effective acaricides will be exhausted unless action is taken to increase the number of new acaricidal products and reduce the rate of resistance development. In 1995, eight major animal health pharmaceutical companies formed the Veterinary Parasite Resistance Group (VPRG) to act as an expert consultative group to guide the FAO in resistance management and collaborate in the prudent use of acaricides. In this paper, members of the VPRG discuss the problems and processes in acaricide development, resistance in the field to commonly used acaricides and the different considerations when targeting the cattle and pet market, and give their view of the future for tick control from the perspective of the animal health industry.
A method for assessing the effect of acaricides on B. microplus is described based on counts of female ticks 4.5–8 mm in length on treated and untreated groups of naturally infested cattle. Ticks of this size engorge during the next night and drop from cattle the following morning. The counting method was used to compare the efficiency of different ways of applying acaricides. In comparison with untreated cattle, 0.025% coumaphos applied in summer by hand-spraying, plunge-dipping, or commercial spray race was estimated to kill respectively 99.5, 98, and 95% of female ticks which would have been present on days 1–21 after treatment. The lower efficiency of the spray races was due principally to survival of ticks on the ears and neck and most survivors were found 9–15 days after treatment. Cattle of all treated groups became reinfested with larvae 2–3 days after treatment. The relative inefficiency of spray race treatment was confirmed by spraying and plunge-dipping cattle in 0.075% ethion in early winter, when the mortality on days 1-21 after treatment was estimated to be respectively 90 and 98.5%. In the same experiment the counting method was compared with the stalling of cattle to collect engorged females after treatment with 0.025% coumaphos: estimates of 98.5 and 99.1% mortality were obtained by the counting and stalling methods respectively. The relative efficiency of different acaricides was also compared: coumaphos and ethion in plunge dips were estimated to kill 98.5%; chlorxylam, ethion, and DDT applied by spray race were estimated to kill 99.2, 90, and 88.2% respectively on days 1–21 after treatment. The number of days during which cattle were protected from infestation with larvae could not be determined precisely, but was about 8–9 days after treatment with coumaphos and 10–12 days after treatment with ethion, DDT, and chlorxylam. No difference was found in the effect of coumaphos against ticks on Hereford, Shorthorn, and Zebu x British cattle. In trials with the candidate acaricides chlorxylam, Dursban, bromophos ethyl, and SD8447 applied at a range of concentrations, distinct differences in the mortality of ticks 9–15 days after treatment were recorded at the different concentrations with most candidate acaricides, and their efficacy could be compared readily with a reference commercial acaricide.
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The possible use of ten botanicals and four vegetable oils in managing the bruchid beetles of legumes, Callosobruchus chinesis, C. maculatus and C. rhodesianus, was investigated. All four oils tested (corn, groundnut, sunflower and sesame) significantly reduced the oviposition of all three bruchid species at 10 ml/kg and also significantly reduced the longevity of adults of C. maculatus and C. chinensis at this dose. Only corn and sunflower oil caused a significant reduction of longevity of C. rhodesianus at 10 ml/kg. The number of eggs laid by all three bruchid species was significantly reduced in treatments to which powders of Cymbopogon citratus, Cinnamomum camphora, Derris inudata, Monodora myristica, Zingiber spectabile or A. zerumbet had been added.
Sanidade animal na agroecologia: atitudes ecológicas de sanidade animal e plantas medicinais em Medicina Veterinária. Porto Alegre: Fundação Gaia
  • C A M Avancini
AVANCINI, C.A.M. Sanidade animal na agroecologia: atitudes ecológicas de sanidade animal e plantas medicinais em Medicina Veterinária. Porto Alegre: Fundação Gaia, 1994. 46p.
Impacto econômico das principais ectoparasitoses em bovinos no Brasil. Hora Veterinária, v. 21, n. 125
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GRISI, L.; MASSARD, C.L.; BORJA, G.E.M.; PEREIRA, J.B. Impacto econômico das principais ectoparasitoses em bovinos no Brasil. Hora Veterinária, v. 21, n. 125, p. 8-10, 2002. HERNÁNDEZ, L.E.; PARRA, D.G.; MARIN, A.C. Acción repelente y acaricida del Melinis minutiflora sobre el Boophilus microplus. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico Farmacéuticas, v. 16, n. 1, p. 17-21, 1987.
Statistical Analysis System: User's Guide. Cary: SAS Institute
SAS, Statistical Analysis System: User's Guide. Cary: SAS Institute, 1997. 456p.
Criadores investem em medicina alternativa para produzir orgânicos. Revista da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu
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THOMAZINI, R. Criadores investem em medicina alternativa para produzir orgânicos. Revista da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu, v. 2, n. 8, p. 21-23, 2002.