Article

Effects of aqueous extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes on reproductive competence of male rats

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) on male sexual competence and fertility, using a hot water extract (HWE) and rats. Different doses of HWE (150, 250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated to male rats and their sexual behaviour was monitored (for 15 min) 3 h later using receptive females. Fertility was determined in a separate group (with the highest dose) using a noncompetitive copulation test. In the sexual behaviour study, the HWE impaired the number of rats ejaculating and markedly prolonged the latency for ejaculation. Further, the number of rats mounting and intromitting, and the latencies for mounting and intromission were inhibited. Collectively, these observations indicate a strong aphrodisiac action. The other parameters remained unchanged indicating non-impairment in libido, sexual arousability, sexual vigour and sexual performance or penile erectile ability. However, a slight impairment was evident in sexual motivation (with the highest dose) in a partner preference test. In the fertility test, HWE induced profound oligozoospermia but fertility was uninhibited. The highest dose of HWE also elevated the serum testosterone level and the number of spontaneous penile erections rapidly and markedly. Further, the HWE was nontoxic. It is concluded that A. calcarata rhizomes possess a strong and safe oral aphrodisiac activity.

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... [2,5,6] Research has shown antibacterial, anthelmintic, antifungal, antinociceptive, antioxidant, gastroprotective, aphrodisiac and antidiabetic effects of both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. calcarata rhizomes. [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] This herb is also used as traditional medicine for fever, stomachache and rheumatism. [16] Very recently the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of A. calcarata hot ethanol extract and hot water extract have been reported by Arawwawala et al., [17] Cytotoxic properties of A. calcarata rhizome alcoholic extract has been investigated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice. ...
... [36] Reproductive competence Aphrodisiac action of A. calcarata rhizome was investigated in a sexual competence study. [14] The study examined the effects of A. calcarata rhizomes on male rats for fertility and sexual competence with a hot water extract. Three doses of hot water extract (150, 250 and 500 mg/kg bw) were orally administrated to male rats and 3 h later using receptive females their sexual behavior was monitored for 15 min. ...
... These observations collectively noticed a strong aphrodisiac action of A. calcarata. [14] The other indexes remained unchanged indicating sexual arousability, non-impairment in libido, sexual performance, sexual vigor or penile erection. However, a high dose of hot water extract slightly impaired the sexual motivation in a partner preference test. ...
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Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated.
... In the present study Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), a rhizomatous perennial herb, is used. Scientists have formerly reported that the rhizomes possess antibacterial and antifungal activity, among other properties because of the potent phytochemicals like diterpenoids, flavonoids and phenols present in them [17]. Remarkably, plant and dietary phytochemicals appear to be effective in preventing skin cancer and they have the advantages of being inexpensive, widely available, and well tolerated [18]. ...
... It has been previously reported that phytochemicals have ideal properties blocking initiation or reversing the promotion stage of multistep carcinogenesis [27]. It is also demonstrated that the presence of compounds like alkaloids, steroids, coumarins, reducing sugars and flavonoids in the water and ethanolic extracts of A. Calcarata may contribute in choking off the tumor growth [17]. In a similar way, certain phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins in Eugenia caryophyllus play a potential role as antioxidant and antibacterial agents [22]. ...
Article
The skin, being the human organ most exposed to the polluted environment, is susceptible to the worst effects of different biological, physical and chemical hazards that give rise to infections and skin cancer, among others. Besides, conventional treatments often have a number of undesirable side effects so nanotechnology is emerging as an ideal alternative. In particular, green synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) ensure proper permeation and sus-tained release with great physicochemical stability. On the other hand, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are endowed with rich medicinal properties which along with nano form of zinc oxide can produce synergistic effects in treatments of skin based ailments. In the current research work, zinc oxide NPs (ZnONPs) were synthesized from the extract of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata and their biotherapeutic properties were characterized. These ZnONPs were widely characterized using UV–Vis spectrophotometer, SEM, EDAX, PXRD and FTIR to assess their morphology and metallic nature. The presence of ZnONPs was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry since it exhibits a peak at 350 nm. Morphology of the ZnONPs was irregular and their diameter varies in the range 70–80 nm as examined through SEM. Our results demonstrate that ZnONPs reveal a great biocidal activity against E. coli and C. albicans, among other microorganisms. Treatment with ZnONPs showed a dose-dependent reduction in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell viability by MTT assay and distinct morphological changes related with apoptosis by AO/EB staining. According to our results, A. calcarata ZnONPs can serve as a multifaceted agent for various skin based ailments.
... The dosage recommended for administration to an adult is a half a cup (120 mL) two times per day. Experimentally, A. calcarata rhizomes of Sri Lankan origin have shown to posses antinociceptive (Arambewela et al., 2004), antioxidant (Arambewela and Arawwawala, 2005b), aphrodisiac (Ratnasooriya and Jayakody, 2006), gastroprotective (Arambewela et al., 2005c and2009a) and antidiabetic (Arambewela et al., 2009b) activities of hot water extract (HWE) and hot ethanolic extract (HEE) of A. calcarata rhizomes. However, no extensive safety studies have been conducted on extracts of A. calcarata rhizomes to date. ...
... In our previous investigations we have used doses ranging from 100 -1000 mg/kg from HWE and HEE of A. calcarata to investigate antinociceptive (Arambewela et al., 2004), aphrodisiac (Ratnasooriya and Jayakody, 2006), gastroprotective (Arambewela et al., 2005c and2009a) and antidiabetic (Arambewela et al., 2009b) activities in vivo. Therefore, in the present study, tested dose level is 2 to 6 fold higher than that have been used in investigation of biological activities. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) rhizomes have any toxic effects in rats. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model and orally administered hot water extract (HWE) and hot ethanolic extract (HEE) of A. calcarata rhizomes at a dose of 1500 mg/kg respectively for 42 consecutive days. Administration of the HWE or HEE to rats did not result in any chronic toxic effects as evident from their effects on (a) liver function (b) kidney function, (c) hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration (d) external morphology and wet weights of selected organs. Further, the HWE and the HEE did not appear to mediate any unacceptable effects on food and water intake, % weight gain, consistency of faeces and color of urine. In conclusion, the results of this study have revealed that the HWE and the HEE of A. calcarata at the doses tested do not produce any serious toxic side effects in rats.
... The PEI is considered as a marker of sexual performance or copulation 41 . It is a valuable evaluation marker for maleness, libido and the rate of recuperation from fatigue following the first series of mating 42 . ...
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A feasible and cost effective reverse-phase high-performance thin layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC) based method was developed for the quantification of sildenafil (SLD) using eco-friendly EtOH:H 2 O (9.5:0.5 v / v ) as mobile phase. SLD was subjected to stress conditions according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The drug undergoes significant structural changes under oxidative stress condition to the N-oxide derivative. The oxidation product Sildenafil N-oxide (SDL N-oxide) designated in the European Pharmacopeia (EP) as impurity B was characterized utilizing 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as High Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy. The aphrodisiac potency of SDL N-oxide in comparison with SLD was evaluated in vivo using rats as experimental animal model. The evaluation based on the following parameters: mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies (ML, IL and EL, respectively), mounting and intromission frequencies (MF and IF, respectively), and postejaculatory interval (PEI). SLD N-oxide expressed similar aphrodisiac effect to SLD but with less potency. Molecular docking of SDL N-oxide along with the parent drug SLD, indicated a strong binding affinity and similar binding pattern within the active site of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). However, the docking score of SLD N-oxide was slightly lower as compared to SLD in agreement with the biological study findings.
... Steroidal saponins, alkaloids, amides and sulphur containing compounds have been reported from the seeds of this plant [16] . [15,16] 3 [17] 4 ...
Article
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The history of sexual medicine and management of male sexual dysfunction (MSD) is as old as human civilization. The modern life styles and environmental conditions have increased prevalence of MSD with age. To address this problem a number of therapeutic strategies including the use of medicinal plants have been advocated for management of MSD. Large numbers of research papers regarding aphrodisiac activity of medicinal plants have been published in past few years. This review compiles data on the potential aphrodisiac activity of medicinal plants possessing effective dose of less than equal to 200 mg/kgbw or equivalent. The toxicity studies and phytochemical data available for the active extract or active plant part have also been incorporated in this review. Data regarding plant part, dose, animal model, compounds isolated and mechanism of aphrodiasic activity was tabulated. Medicinal plants possess an untapped source of aphrodisiac molecules. The review identified that Bryonia laciniosa, Caesalpinia benthamiana, Ferula harmonis, Montanoa tementosa, Syzygium aromaticum, Turnera aphrodisiaca, Spilanthes acmella, Turnera aphrodisiaca, Turnera diffusa, and Tribulus terrestris plants possess potential aphrodisiac activity. The safety in long term usage and low cost may be added advantage associated with use of herbal aphrodisiacs.
... In Sri Lankan, rhizomes of A. calcarata, are recommended as an aphrodisiac, and the decoction is widely used in the treatment of bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetics, asthma, and arthritis 2,25,45 . Research has shown antibacterial 21 , anthelmintic 27 , antifungal 43 , antinociceptive 3 , antioxidant 4 , gastroprotective 4,5 , aphrodisiac 44 and antidiabetic 6 activities in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. calcarata rhizomes. Rhizomes, roots and leaves of A. Calcarata have been studied and revealed the presence of 1,8-cineole, protocatechinic acid, quercetin, 4-Omethyl-syringic acid, β-pinene, vanillic acid methyl cinnamate and several diterpenes 7,29,35,51 . ...
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Essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Rosc. rhizome was studied for anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in animal models. Anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in carrageenan-induced paw edema model in Albino rat with the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW. Anti-nociceptive effect was measured in acetic acid-induced pain, formalin-induced pain and thermal pain (hot plate test) models in Albino mice with the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg BW. Significant (pth min of treatment in hot plate model. Results evidenced that essential oil from Alpinia calcarata could be processed to use as an alternative source of inflammatory and nociceptive treatment.
... Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is normally defined as persistent inability of a man to achieve an erection which is adequate in terms of hardness and duration for satisfactory sexual intercourse (Ratnasooriya and Jayakody, 2006;Suresh et al., 2000;Wannanon et al., 2012). Aphrodisiacs on the other hand are medications that are used to arouse sexual desires or stimulate sexual excitement and enhance sexual performance while Libido Science Publications AJPT refers to the sexual urge or the intensity of sexual desires as may be experienced by both sexes (Tajuddin et al., 2005;Ratnasooriya and Dharmasiri, 2000). ...
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Allium sativum is cultivated in the northern part of Ghana and has gained widespread use as chemoprotective, in curing hypertension, impotence and erectile dysfunction. The multipurpose use together with its aphrodisiac activity has resulted in the widespread use of this plant medicine both in meals and as herbal medications. Safety assessment of this plant however is rare. The present study is designed to evaluate the toxic effect of the aqueous extract of Allium sativa on the prostate, heart, liver kidney and haematological parameters after a shorterm administration in male-sprague-dawley rats. The following doses were used in different groups of male Sprague-Dawley Rats: 5000, 3000 and 1000 mg kg-1. The following parameters were monitored: Clinical Chemistry, Gross and Histopathology (Heart, kidney, liver and prostate). No death was recorded at the highest dose of 5000 mg kg-1. ASE reduced levels of urea and creatinine but increased levels of liver enzymes ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels as compared to the controls. There was a statistically significant increase in WBC count (p<0.005) in all the doses except the median dose. There were no significant change in Red Blood Cell count (RBC) (p<0.003), Haemoglobin (HGB) (p<0.03), Haematocrit (HCT) p<0.0001), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) Other parameters remained relatively unchanged. Gross pathology did not reveal any abnormality. Histopathological analysis showed that the extract did not have any adverse effect on the integrity of these organs. The results were within histopathological limits and did not reveal any abnormality in the examined organs namely: The prostate, kidney, liver and heart which maintained their integrity after the dose administration. Observations were within histopathological limits. ASE is reasonably safe when administered by the oral route within dosages of 1000-5000 mg kg-1 in Sprague dawley rats. This research has provided the safety implications as to the use of this plant.
... Moreover, the EL and IL were reduced, indicating a strong aphrodisiac action. At 500 mg/kg, p.o., it elevates the serum testosterone level and was found non toxic [61] . ...
Article
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Aphrodisiac is the word derived from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.
... The hot water extract of A. calcarata rhizome (HWT) induced profound oligozoospermia, without inhibiting fertility. HWT (500 mg/kg, orally) rapidly and markedly elevated the serum testosterone level and the number of spontaneous penile erections in rats [19]. The hot ethanolic extract of A. calcarata rhizomes produced significant antinociceptive activity in rats. ...
Article
Analysis of the essential oil from the rhizome of Alpinia calcarata Rose. (ACREO) by a combination of GC and GC-MS revealed the presence of 1, 8-cineole (42.2%), endo-fenchyl acetate (14.7%), camphene (7.6%), β-pinene (6.9%), α-terpineol (5.3%) and camphor (5.0%). Twenty-three compounds were identified in the oil. ACREO showed dose dependent myorelaxant activity in rat duodenum. The dose response curves of acetylcholine (ACh) and CaCl2 were shifted by ACREO to the right with increases in EC50 values and decreases in Vmax. These findings suggest that ACREO is a non-competitive antagonist of ACh and calcium.
... Moreover, the EL and IL were reduced, indicating a strong aphrodisiac action. At 500 mg/kg, p.o., it elevates the serum testosterone level and was found nontoxic [10] . ...
Article
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Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called “aphrodisiac”. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria, Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.
... The 1,8-cineole has been found to be the major constituent of the rhizome oil, flower oil and leaf oil, whereas the α-fenchyl acetate the major constituent in root oil (Raj et al. 2013). A. calcarata was reported to possess antibacterial (George & Pandalai 1949), antifungal (Pushpangadan & Atal 1984), anthelmintic (Kaleysa 1975), antinociceptive (Arambewela 2004), antioxidant (Arambewela & Arawwawala 2005), aphrodisiac (Ratnasooriya & Jayakody 2006) and gastro-protective activities. ...
Article
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several infections in humans. The infections caused by this bacterial strain are difficult to treat due to the resistance of MRSA to clinically used antibiotics. Several medicinal plants extracts and their phytoconstituents have been reported to possess modulation and efflux pump inhibitory (EPI) activity against MRSA strains. Alpinia calcarata rhizomes have been reported to be used in Ayurveda for several ailments including fungal infections. Based on this information and in continuation with our efforts to discover EPIs from Indian medicinal plants, we describe EPI activity of flavonoids isolated from A. calcarata. Galangin and kaempferol showed ≥ 32-fold modulation in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethidium bromide (EtBr) as well as norfloxacin in NorA-overexpressed S. aureus (SA-1199B) strain. Pinocembrin showed 32-fold modulation of EtBr MIC in SA-1199 strain, but not in SA-1199B and K1758 strains. A significant diference was not observed in the modulation of norfloxacin MIC by galangin in SA-1199 and SA-1199B strains, which may be due to non-specific nature of galangin as modulator or EPI. However, kaempferol modulated the MIC of EtBr as well as norfloxacin 64-fold and 32-fold, respectively. Also, the best modulatory effect of kaempferol was observed only in SA-1199B strain compared to two other strains. The EPI activity of kaempferol and galangin were found to be competitive with respect to verapamil. In dose-response assay, kaempferol at 31.25 μg/mL concentration was found to be better EPI by inhibiting NorA pump in SA-1199B strain and also demonstrated further confocal microscopy. © 2016 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.
... Moreover, the EL and IL were reduced, indicating a strong aphrodisiac action. At 500 mg/kg, p.o., it elevates the serum testosterone level and was found non toxic [61] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction treatment. Both in vitro and in vivo models have been developed in the past years to study the aphrodisiac agents. Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (mount frequency, mount latency, intromission frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, post-ejaculatory interval, couplatory rate, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter), pendiculation study, orientation behavior, determination of hesitation time & attraction towards female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, histopathology, sperm count, Fructose content in seminal vesicles, sperm preservation, organ weight, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase, In vitro nitric oxide release & androgen receptor protein. This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of aphrodisiac agents.
... This was marked by numerous lickings following the removal of the penis after prolonged intromission. This observation suggests that the aqueous extract of A. daniellii dry seeds induced sexual appetite, which was reflected by the decrease in latency [33] as reported above. To further understand the mechanism of action of the observed potential sexual effects, the chemical profile of the extract was gotten from literature review revealed in the genus of Afromomum, the presence of variable secondary metabolites [19,20]. ...
Article
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This work was undertaken to evaluate the biological activity of the aqueous extract of the dry seeds of Aframomum daniellii seeds on the copulatory performance of rats with testicular deficiency. Hypogonadal adult male rats (30) were divided into 6 groups: group I received distilled water (10 ml/kg), group II received sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg), group III received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate (3. 6 mg/kg), group IV, V, and VI received the aqueous extract of A. daniellii at the respective doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/po/day for 14 days. The copulatory performance of the animals were assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 through the following copulation parameters: Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latency (ML, IL, and EL) and frequency (MF, IF and EF), average interval of copulation (AIC) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI)). We noticed a significant decrease of ML (p < 0.05), IL (p < 0.01), EL (p < 0.001) and the increase of MF, IF and EF (p < 0.01) particularly at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg when compared to group I and II. In addition, we noticed a significant increase of AIC from day 7 (p < 0.05) to day 14 (p < 0.001) at the same two doses while the PEI significantly decreased from the 1st (p < 0.01) to the 14th day (p < 0.001) when compared to group I and II. These findings demonstrated that A. daniellii aqueous extract of seeds enhanced pro-sexual potential and pro-sexual desire in male rats with testicular deficiency.
... Rhizome, the most important part of this plant, is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . A Several studies have been conducted with ethanolic extract of this part and found to have antifungal, antihelminthic, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . Previously our group has reported the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice [18] . ...
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To explore antimicrobial and insecticidal effects of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome and its different fractions. Antibacterial activity test was carried out by disc diffusion method against six different pathogenic bacteria whereas insecticidal activity was evaluated by surface film activity test against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) insect. At a concentration of 800 µg/disc, the zones of inhibition produced by the crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and residual fractions were ranged from 6-13 mm, whereas water fraction showed no antibacterial activity. The crude ethanol extract and water soluble fraction showed a prominent insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum adults after 48 h of exposure with the LD50 values of 0.709 and 0.633 mg/cm 2 , respectively. The residual and petroleum ether fraction did not exhibit any toxicity to Tribolium castaneum. It can be concluded that the ethanol extract of Alpinia calcarata is a potent resource to develop antimicrobial and insecticidal drugs.
... Rhizome is the most important part of this plant and is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . Several studies conducted on this part have reported important biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . A study previously conducted by our group using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice has disclosed the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome [18] . ...
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Alpinia calcarata belonging to the family of Zingiberaceae is commonly found in Bangladesh and has been conventionally used in medicine systems for the prevention of many diseased conditions. The present study was conducted to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome (EEACR). EEACR was studied for the quantitative estimation of phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and flavonol compounds. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using several in vitro standard methods. EEACR was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify its phytoconstituents. EEACR contained a good amount of phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and flavonol. The IC50 value of the ethanol extract in the DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferrous chelating assay were 6.044, 5.266, 25.13, 21.88, and 63.33µg/ml, respectively. EEACR also showed remarkable ferric reducing and total antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EEACR were positively correlated (p<0.05) with DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferrous chelating assay. In addition, the active compound present in the ethanol extract was identified as α-asarone by GC-MS analysis. In summary, our results suggest that ethanol extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome possess a wide range of pharmacologically important phytochemicals which exhibited strong antioxidant activity.
... Experimentally, rhizomes are shown to possess antibacterial [4], antifungal [5], anthelmintic, antinociceptive [6], antioxidant [7], aphrodisiac [8], antidiabetic activities [9], rheumatism, fever and anticancer activity. It is also widely used to relieve colds and reducing swellings [10,11]. ...
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Objective: The present study is designed to develop a new simple, precise, rapid and selective high‐performance thin‐layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the determination of stigmasterol in methanolic rhizomes extract of Alpinia calcarata.Methods: As per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines we have applied different concentrations of stigmasterol as standard on HPTLC plates for the quantification of stigmasterol from the Alpinia calcarata rhizomes. The concentration of standard stigmasterol is 1 mg/ml.Results: The retention factor of stigmasterol was 0.58. Linearity was obtained in the range of 50 ng‐250 ng for stigmasterol. The developed and validated HPTLC method was employed for stigmasterol in methanolic rhizomes extract of Alpinia calcarata for standardization of the content of the marker. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r=0.99977 for stigmasterol, respectively Satisfactory recoveries of 99.77 % were obtained for stigmasterol.Conclusion: The results obtained in validation assays indicate the accuracy and reliability of the developed HPTLC method for the quantification of stigmasterol in methanolic rhizomes extract of Alpinia calcarata
... Rhizome is the most important part of this plant and is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . Several studies conducted on this part have reported important biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . A study previously conducted by our group using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice has disclosed the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome [1] . ...
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Alpinia calcarata, a member of Zingiberaceae family, is commonly found in Bangladesh and has been used for many years in traditional medicine systems for the prevention of various disease conditions and EEACR showed antiproliferative activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells [1]. In the present study, EEACR induced Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell death in a dose dependent manner (at a range of concentration 6.25-100µg/mL). EEACR induced nuclear condensation and fragmentation which are notable features of apoptosis as observed by fluorescence microscopy after staining EAC cells with Hoechst 33342. In addition, GC-MS analysis of EEACR confirmed the presence of carotol, 3a(1H)-azulenol, 2,3,4,5,8,8a-hexahydro-6,8a-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethyl) (2.305%), hexadecanoic acid or palmitic acid (11.448%), oleic acid (7.603%), arachidic acid (3.199%), palmitic acid 2-(tetradecayloxy)ethyl ester (1..696%), 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (18.477%) and phthalic acid, 6-ethyloct-3-yl 2ethylhexyl ester (55.271%). The overall findings of this study suggest that EEACR may provide a natural source of antineoplastic activity.
... The rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are known to possess antibacterial, anthelmintic, antifungal [6], antioxidant [7]. Aphrodisiac [8], gastroprotective [9], antidiabetic and anticancer activity. Researchers reported that the rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata used to treat high blood pressure, Diuretic, stomach problems, analgesic [10], anticandidal, antiplatelet, antispasmodic [11] antiulcerous hypotensive [12] insecticidal, muscle relaxant and uterine stimulant [13]. ...
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Objective: The present study was to determine in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga.Methods: The phytochemical screening of rhizome of aqueous extract of Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga was performed using standard procedures. The total phenolic and flavanoid content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and Aluminium chloride reagents. The various antioxidant assays and cytotoxic assays (MTT) for Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga was performed using standard methods (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, Reducing power assay, Phosphomolybdenum reduction assay) Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, terpenoids, carbohydrates and proteins. The phenolic content of aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata was 454.05 μg/mg and Alpinia galanga was 480.13 μg/mg and were expressed as gallic acid equivalent. The flavanoid content of aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata was 36.34 μg/mg and Alpinia galanga was 67.68 μg/mg and were expressed as quercetin equivalent. In DPPH assay, Alpinia galanga showed 95.36% where as Alpinia calcarata showed 54.54% at 120 μg/ml. The maximum NO• radical scavenging activity was 59.44% for Alpinia calcarata and was 73.10% for Alpinia galanga at 120 µg/ml concentration. The maximum reducing property was found at the 120 μg/ml of aqueous extract of rhizomes of Alpinia galanga which was higher than the Alpinia calcarata. In Phosphomolybdenum assay, the aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga were 55.47% and 78.38% respectively. The results of present investigation indicated that rhizome of aqueous extract of Alpinia galanga showed the highest antioxidant activity in all the assays than Alpinia galanga. The cytotoxicity assay results indicated that rhizome of aqueous extract of Alpinia galanga showed 88.36% cell viability whereas Alpinia calcarata showed 73.59% cell viability.Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study indicate that rhizome of Alpinia galanga are abundant in phenols and flavanoids which may be useful for the development of anticancer drug.
... [40] The prolongation ejaculation time, the decrease of mount and intromission latency among other sexual behaviors parameters are generally seen as positive signs of aphrodisiac effect. [41] In addition, the effect on potency was assessed by testing the action of LAE extract of P-VIRIL ® on the frequency of penile reflexes such as penile erection (PE), quick flip (QF), long flip (LF) and total reflex (TR). ...
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In the present study, it was examined the aphrodisiac activity of P-VIRIL® ® , a phytomedicine based lyophilized aqueous extract (LAE) from Penianthus longifolia or P. longifolius root bark on sexual behaviors in male Wistar rats. Results showed that the extract possesses aphrodisiac properties by its oral administration at respective doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight characterized by significant increase of mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculation frequency, copulatory efficiency, number of intromission and penile trusting, and serum testosterone as well as significant decrease of of mount frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, mount latency and inter-intromission interval. In addition, the extract provoked the increase of the number of spermatozoa and their mobility, the level of testosterone and spontaneous penile erection at all administered oral doses at different extents. LAE extract of P-VIRIL ® also showed good increase in potency parameters such as Kanyanga et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences erection, quick flip, long fi-lip and total reflex. All these effects of LAE extract of P-VIRIL ® on evaluated sexual behaviors confirm its aphrodisiac properties. The oral dose of 200 mg/kg was found to be more effective than other administered doses. The extract did not show toxic effects and its LD 50 was estimated to be greater than 10 g/kg body weight. It was concluded that the phytomedicine P-VIRIL ® based lyophilized aqueous extract of P. longifolia root bark functions as a quick acting and aphrodisiac agent. The results support and justify the use the phytomedicine P-VIRIL ® as well as the plant part acclaimed aphrodisiac agent and for the management of young, adult men and women sexual disorders.
... Rhizome is the most important part of this plant and is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . Several studies conducted on this part have reported important biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . A study previously conducted by our group using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice has disclosed the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome [18] . ...
... Anecdotal use of this plant against pain and inflammation was scientifically proven by the findings of potent antinociceptive effect in mice model; also, neurological effects were simultaneously performed and observed dose-dependent effect (Arambewela et al., 2009a(Arambewela et al., , b, 2004. Researchers also showed that rhizomes of A. calcarata possess antifungal, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antioxidant, gastroprotective and antidiabetic activities (Arambewela and Arawwawala, 2005;Arambewela et al., 2010Arambewela et al., , 2009aRatnasooriya and Jayakody, 2006). Extensive chemical analyses of different parts of A. calcarata and diverse groups of phytochemicals were reported. ...
... Copulatory efficiency and inter-copulatory intervals are indicators of sexual vigor, while penile thrusting is an indicator of penile erection. [8,11,14,15] Our results showed that the libido index was significantly reduced in the 10 mg/day zinc saulphate treated group. In the same group, majority of the animals (62%) failed to complete their sexual behavioral cycle within the observed period. ...
Article
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Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P < 0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28) vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17), P < 0.05, compared to controls. The same group had elevated prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) levels compared to controls at the end of treatment period; PRL- 7.22 ng/dl (SEM 3.68) vs. 2.90 ng/dl (SEM 0.34) and T- 8.21 ng/ml (SEM 6.09) vs. 2.39 ng/ml (SEM 1.79), P < 0.05. In contrast, reduction of libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.
... A.calaratarhizomes are branched and dense with a lightto dark brown colour and known to possess a broad spectrum ofmedicinal properties. This is a very good source of pinocembrin, which induces mitochondrial apotopsis in colon cancer cells [3].Experimentally, rhizomes are shown to possess antibacterial [4],antifungal [5], anthelmintic, antinociceptive [6], antioxidant [7],aphrodisiac [8], antidiabetic 561 | P a g e activities [9], rheumatism, fever andanticancer activity. It is also widely used to relieve colds andreducing swellings [10,11]. ...
... Zingiberaceae ----Hot water extract 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg The extracts possessed strong aphrodisiac action as evident by significant reduction in mounting and intromitting latencies; it markedly prolonged the latency for ejaculation, nonimpairment in libido, sexual arousability, sexual vigour and sexual performance or penile erectile ability. The authors concluded that A. calcarata rhizomes possess a strong and safe oral aphrodisiac activity [125] Arctum lappa L [126] ...
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Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a disorder of sexual behavior and sexual sensation that appears as an abnormality or absence of sexual psychology and physiological reaction. It is a general term for many different symptoms includes several aspects, erectile dysfunction (ED), failure of sexual intercourse and loss of libido/desire. According to statistics, 52% of 40˜70 year old men suffer from varying degrees of SD. And these diseases caused by a variety of biological and psychological factors. In world about 15% of couples are affected by sexual disharmony among these 40 to 50% are because of male factors. Considering the sensitivity of male reproduction system, it is being easily affected by multiple risk factors, such as chronic diseases, environmental contaminants, drug toxicity and unhealthy lifestyle and so on. In the last few years, significant progress have been made toward understanding the various forms of male SD and the possible potential pathological mechanisms. However, for the time being, the exact cause of SD is not fully understood from the literature. What is also significant about there are quite limited treatments in reproductive medicine being directed against these lesions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current findings of pathogenic factors of SD in clinical or animal studies, to elaborate the underlying mechanisms of these diseases from studies in vivo and in vitro, to analyses the risk factors, and to describe the management strategies traditionally recommended of male sexual dysfunction. The review findings elucidate a systematic strategies for effectively preventing these diseases.
... [40] The prolongation ejaculation time, the decrease of mount and intromission latency among other sexual behaviors parameters are generally seen as positive signs of aphrodisiac effect. [41] In addition, the effect on potency was assessed by testing the action of LAE extract of P-VIRIL ® on the frequency of penile reflexes such as penile erection (PE), quick flip (QF), long flip (LF) and total reflex (TR). ...
... Rhizome, the most important part of this plant, is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . A Several studies have been conducted with ethanolic extract of this part and found to have antifungal, antihelminthic, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . Previously our group has reported the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice [18] . ...
Article
To explore antimicrobial and insecticidal effects of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome and its different fractions. Antibacterial activity test was carried out by disc diffusion method against six different pathogenic bacteria whereas insecticidal activity was evaluated by surface film activity test against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) insect. At a concentration of 800 µg/disc, the zones of inhibition produced by the crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and residual fractions were ranged from 6-13 mm, whereas water fraction showed no antibacterial activity. The crude ethanol extract and water soluble fraction showed a prominent insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum adults after 48 h of exposure with the LD50 values of 0.709 and 0.633 mg/cm 2 , respectively. The residual and petroleum ether fraction did not exhibit any toxicity to Tribolium castaneum. It can be concluded that the ethanol extract of Alpinia calcarata is a potent resource to develop antimicrobial and insecticidal drugs.
... The leaf of the plant is simple, alternative, 25–32 cm long and 2.5–5 cm broad.[45] A. calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia.[5] Experimentally, rhizomes of A. calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial,[6] antifungal,[7] anthelmintic,[8] antinociceptive,[9] antioxidant,[10] aphrodisiac,[11] gastroprotective,[1213] and antidiabetic activities.[14] According to Arambewela and co-workers,[15] the major constituents in the essential oils of rhizome, root, and leaves of A. calcarata grown in Sri Lanka are different from that of Indian cultivars. ...
Article
Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the traditional medicinal systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the rhizomes of A. calcarata by (a) screening for phytochemicals (b) determination of physico-chemical parameters and (c) development of a Densitogram. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in A. calcarata rhizomes. The percentages of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol extractable matter and water extractable matter were of 5.5 - 6.8, 8.3 - 8.8, 0.036 - 0.040, 7.2 - 7.8, 22.6 - 24.8 and 18.6 - 20.5 respectively. The results obtained from this study can be used to standardize rhizomes of A. calcarata grown in Sri Lanka.
... Rhizome is the most important part of this plant and is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . Several studies conducted on this part have reported important biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . A study previously conducted by our group using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice has disclosed the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome [1] . ...
Article
Alpinia calcarata, a member of Zingiberaceae family, is commonly found in Bangladesh and has been used for many years in traditional medicine systems for the prevention of various disease conditions and EEACR showed antiproliferative activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells [1]. In the present study, EEACR induced Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell death in a dose dependent manner (at a range of concentration 6.25-100µg/mL). EEACR induced nuclear condensation and fragmentation which are notable features of apoptosis as observed by fluorescence microscopy after staining EAC cells with Hoechst 33342. In addition, GC-MS analysis of EEACR confirmed the presence of carotol, 3a(1H)-azulenol, 2,3,4,5,8,8a-hexahydro-6,8a-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethyl) (2.305%), hexadecanoic acid or palmitic acid (11.448%), oleic acid (7.603%), arachidic acid (3.199%), palmitic acid 2-(tetradecayloxy)ethyl ester (1..696%), 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (18.477%) and phthalic acid, 6-ethyloct-3-yl 2ethylhexyl ester (55.271%). The overall findings of this study suggest that EEACR may provide a natural source of antineoplastic activity.
... Rhizome is the most important part of this plant and is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . Several studies conducted on this part have reported important biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . A study previously conducted by our group using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice has disclosed the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome [18] . ...
Article
Alpinia calcarata belonging to the family of Zingiberaceae is commonly found in Bangladesh and has been conventionally used in medicine systems for the prevention of many diseased conditions. The present study was conducted to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome (EEACR). EEACR was studied for the quantitative estimation of phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and flavonol compounds. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using several in vitro standard methods. EEACR was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify its phytoconstituents. EEACR contained a good amount of phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and flavonol. The IC50 value of the ethanol extract in the DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferrous chelating assay were 6.044, 5.266, 25.13, 21.88, and 63.33µg/ml, respectively. EEACR also showed remarkable ferric reducing and total antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EEACR were positively correlated (p<0.05) with DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferrous chelating assay. In addition, the active compound present in the ethanol extract was identified as α-asarone by GC-MS analysis. In summary, our results suggest that ethanol extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome possess a wide range of pharmacologically important phytochemicals which exhibited strong antioxidant activity.
... Rhizome is the most important part of this plant and is used to treat cough, respiratory ailments, bronchitis asthma, arthritis and diabetes [6][7][8][9] . Several studies conducted on this part have reported important biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . A study previously conducted by our group using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing Swiss Albino mice has disclosed the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizome [18] . ...
... Apart from 1,8-cineol, ∝-pinene (3.1%), camphene (4.1%), β-pinene (9.3%), p-cymene (1.4%), and limonene (4.0%) are also present. [5] Research has shown antibacterial, [6] anthelmintic, [7] antifung al, [8] antinocice ptive, [9] antioxidant, [10] gastroprotective, [11,12] aphrodisiac, [13] and antidiabetic [14] activities in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. calcarata rhizomes. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the bioactivities of their EO. ...
Article
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Antioxidant and antifungal activity were determined for the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes. Its antioxidant properties were investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and vitamin E served as positive controls. Antifungal activities were investigated against crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. using the agar plate method. Fifty percent effective concentration (EC(50)) and % antioxidant index of the essential oil were 45 ± 0.4 and 16.1 ± 0.2 for DPPH and TBARS assays, respectively. The degree of, the essential oil's inhibition of the growth of crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. varied with time period its effects were higher than greater than for the positive control, daconil. In conclusion, the essential oil of A. calcarata rhizomes possess moderate antioxidant property and promising antifungal activity.
... Steroidal saponins, alkaloids, amides and sulphur containing compounds have been reported from the seeds of this plant [16] . [15,16] 3 [17] 4 ...
Article
The history of sexual medicine and management of male sexual dysfunction (MSD) is as old as human civilization. The modern life styles and environmental conditions have increased prevalence of MSD with age. To address this problem a number of therapeutic strategies including the use of medicinal plants have been advocated for management of MSD. Large numbers of research papers regarding aphrodisiac activity of medicinal plants have been published in past few years. This review compiles data on the potential aphrodisiac activity of medicinal plants possessing effective dose of less than equal to 200 mg/kgbw or equivalent. The toxicity studies and phytochemical data available for the active extract or active plant part have also been incorporated in this review. Data regarding plant part, dose, animal model, compounds isolated and mechanism of aphrodiasic activity was tabulated. Medicinal plants possess an untapped source of aphrodisiac molecules. The review identified that Bryonia laciniosa, Caesalpinia benthamiana, Ferula harmonis, Montanoa tementosa, Syzygium aromaticum, Turnera aphrodisiaca, Spilanthes acmella, Turnera aphrodisiaca, Turnera diffusa, and Tribulus terrestris plants possess potential aphrodisiac activity. The safety in long term usage and low cost may be added advantage associated with use of herbal aphrodisiacs.
Article
Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) rhizomes are often used in Sri Lankan traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetics, asthma and arthritis. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties. However, validity of the antiinflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antiinflammatory potential of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes using hot water extract (AWE) and hot ethanolic extract (AEE). The antiinflammatory activity of Alpinia calcarata was evaluated by use of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats. In addition, the mechanism/s by which Alpinia calcarata is mediated the antinflammatory activity was assessed by determining its effects on (a) membrane stabilizing, (b) antihistamine and (c) prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity. All the tested doses of AWE and AEE (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant (P≤0.05) inhibition of the inflammation, most pronounced at 4h after the injection of carrageenan. The antiinflammatory effect induced by 500 mg/kg of AEE was superior than the reference drug, indomethacin at 4h. Inhibition of histamine and prostaglandin synthesis production is probable mechanisms by which Alpinia calcarata mediates its antiinflammatory action. These findings rationalize the traditional usage of Alpinia calcarata as an antiinflammatory agent for the first time.
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The area of natural product research is rapidly progressing from traditional medicine to modern medicine having proper scientific basis of its usage. However, identifying the active constituent or the basis of its mechanism holds the key to synthesis of these drugs in the laboratory. Traditional Indian literature such as Ayurveda has listed several plant and animal based resources for treatment of almost every ailment. Erectile dysfunction and male sexual debilities are among the most explored areas in traditional medicine. A number of natural products, mostly plant based, have been claimed to cure erectile dysfunction and related male sexual debilities. These products often are aphrodisiac and have multi-fold effects on male reproductive system. This review aims at compiling the animal and plant based resources which bear promise of treating loss of libido and erectile dysfunction. A special emphasis is paid to find out scientific basis of their usage. The identification of potential resources could help undertake further studies to establish their possible mechanism of action; opening the doors to proper clinical trials for human use.
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Male sexual dysfunction is a common disorder that appears to be a consequence of a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Due to mental stress, insufficient physical exercise and various aetiological factors, human being's life is becoming less pleasant, which leads to incapability to have sexual pleasure. The allopathic drugs used for sexual dysfunction are believed to produce a variety of side effects and affect other physiological processes and, ultimately, general health. Therefore, the search for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified probably because of less side effects availability and affordability. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants traditionally used as aphrodisiacs but only few of them are scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. This article has summarised the medicinal plants traditionally recommended and scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction.
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The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.
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Rhizomes of certain Ginger like species, viz. Alpinia officinarum Hance, A. galanga Willd., A.zerumbet (Pers.) Burn & RM Smith (syn. A. speciosa K. Schum.), A. calcarata Rose, and Kaempferia galanga Linn, have high medicinal value belonging to family Zingiberaceae. These rhizomes have a good nutritive value also (350.9 Cal per 100 g) and are quite rich in protein and carbohydrate, but low in fat Rhizomes of A. officinarum, A. zerumbet and A. calcarata have high iron content with a moderate and balanced content of carbohydrate, protein, fat and crude fibre. Rhizomes of A. galanga are lowest in fat content but richest in carbohydrate. A. calcarata is lowest in Mn, Ni and K but richest in Ca and Na. Study shows the biologically important metals Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca and Na to be sufficient in rhizomes of K. galanga. All these studied materials have a moderate to good antimicrobial activity.
Article
Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) is a common medicinal plant cultivated in Asian countries including Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of A. calcarata which are not investigated so far. This was tested in normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats using oral administration of the hot water extract (HWE) and the hot ethanolic extract (HEE). In normoglycemic rats both HWE and HEE significantly lowered the blood glucose levels in a dose - dependent manner. Further, both HWE and HEE markedly improved the oral glucose tolerance in rats. The hypoglycemic activity of the HEE was generally higher than that of the HWE. However, the HWE or the HEE failed to reduce blood glucose levels of STZ - induced diabetic rats. Further, the HEE significantly inhibited the glucose absorption from the small intestine and increased the glycogen accumulation in both liver and skeletal muscle. It is concluded that A. calcarata rhizomes possess strong hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities.
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Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. This plant is cultivated in tropical countries including Sri Lanka, India and Malaysia. A. calcarata is recommended as an aphrodisiac and a decoction is widely used in the treatment of bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetes, asthma and arthritis. To best of our knowledge, constituents of the inflorescence of A. calcarata grown in any part of the world were not investigated yet. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was taken to investigate the constituents of inflorescence of A. calcarata grown in Sri Lanka. Air dried inflorescences of A. calcarata were hydrodistilled for 6 h using Clavenger type apparatus to obtained the essential oil. Further, hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol extracts were prepared separately by cold maceration process. Analysis was carried out using a Thermo Fisher Scientific Trace 1300 GC-MS equipped with a RTX WAX capillary column. The compounds with percentage (%) higher than 0.50 (0.50%), higher similarity index (SI) and reverse similarity index (RSI) were only considered for identification. Such compounds were identified using NIST 11 library. Results revealed that 26, 11, 14 and 5 volatile constituents were identified from essential oil, hexane, dichoromethane and ethanol extracts respectively. The major volatile constituent found in essential oil was eicosane (12.17%) and followed by carotol (8.92%) and caryophyllene (7.29%). Though α –pinene was one of the minor volatile components in the essential oil of A. calcarata inflorescence, it was the major constituent in the hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol extracts. Moreover, highest percentage of α–pinene (53.75%) was reported in the ethanol extract. In addition, volatile constituents such as caryophyllene, trans-methyl cinnamate, 2-methylnonadecane and 2-methyloctadecane were common in hexane, dichoromethane and ethanol extracts. Among them caryophyllene also present in the essential oil of A. calcarata inflorescence. In conclusion, this is the first scientific study on the chemical composition of A. calcarata inflorescence.
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Infertility is a big problem in present scenario as around 8–12% of couples are experiencing infertility worldwide. A nationwide survey of Indian council of Medical Research projected infertility rate around 15–18%. Statistical data suggest that all over world 40% infertility is due to male factor. More than 90% of male infertility problems occur due to poor sperm counts, poor sperm quality, or both. The remaining cases of male infertility can be caused by a variety of conditions involving anatomical problems, hormonal imbalances, and genetic defects. The objective of this review is to focus about 70 most popular natural aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing herbs and plants, effective in improving sexual behavior and can be further formulated for the drug development. Approximately 70 herbal plants that met the selection criteria, published in various journals included in this review. The articles were analyzed under key points: plant taxonomy, dose level, duration of the experiment, effects on fertility with their medicinal uses. This review enlightens about the uses of natural aphrodisiac for fertility enhancement in a male with their possible mechanisms of action. Usually, the available medical treatments and drugs have limited efficacy and obnoxious side effects, on the other-hand, these plant remedies acts as a better fertility enhancer without any nasty side effects.
Article
Infertility refers to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception over the course of one year. Male infertility refers to a male’s incapability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility and among them 40–50% cases are attributed to male infertility. Male infertility is mainly categorized into Azoospermia (AS) and Coital infertility (CI). Many studies have supported that different factors such as varicocele, testicular failure, endocrine dysfunction, genital tract infection, testicular disturbances, testicular cancer, hormonal disturbances, retrograde ejaculation, prolonged exposure to heat, obesity, older age, smoking, alcohol, heavy metals, pesticides, oxidative stress, genetic factors and different environmental and nutritional factors reversibly or irreversibly influence male fertility. Male infertility can be diagnosed by different tools. Diagnosing male infertility problems usually involves physical examination, semen analysis, hormone tests, testicular biopsy, urine test etc. There are different pharmacological, non-pharmacological, combination and ethno-pharmacological treatment options for male infertility. The infertility of known etiology has considerable treatment success rate. However, genetic or idiopathic male infertility has optimized and empirical approach. This review summarizes classification, causes, diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. The article is based on English peer-reviewed articles located on Scopus, Pubmed, ScienceDirect etc.
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The effects of aqueous extract of Brysocarpus coccineus roots (AEBCR) were studied on sexual behaviour and testicular function of paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction (SD) in male rats. Ninety, sexually matured male rats (150.88 ± 5.53 g) were assigned into two groups: A and B. Fifteen SD animals from group B were each allotted to B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 and received distilled water (DW), Powmax M (7.14 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w of AEBCR, respectively, for 7 days while the non-SD animals (group A) received DW. Eleven secondary metabolites were present in AEBCR. The lowered (p < .05) ejaculation frequency, penile erection index and penile grooming, higher mount and intromission frequencies, prolonged (p < .05) latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation, and post-ejaculatory interval, reduced (p < .05) serum luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, nitric oxide and testicular function indices, degenerated seminiferous tubules and low luminal spermatozoa contents by paroxetine were significantly (p < .05) attenuated and/or reinstated by AEBCR and Powmax M. The restoration of androgen-dependent sexual and testicular functions in SD male rats by AEBCR validates its folkloric use as aphrodisiac. Clinical studies are desirable to ascertain the efficacy of AEBCR in SD.
Article
Aphrodisiacs, libido or erection-enhancing supplements are widely available on the internet. The beneficial effects are controversial. Forensic toxicologists should be aware of the potential toxicities of these products because they could be given in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault. This article presents a case report in which the defendant claimed to have administered an aphrodisiac to several women who showed strong symptoms of intoxication after consumption in an alcoholic drink. A literature research was carried out for potential substances sold in these aphrodisiac products. Synthetic substances as well as products of herbal or animal origin can be the ingredients. The main products that could cause intensive side effects and intoxication are phosphodiesterase V inhibitors (declared or undeclared on packaging), yohimbine, steroid hormones, flibanserin, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, Tribulus terrestris, Bufo Toad, Spanish fly or Horny Goat Weed. All other products used as aphrodisiacs and described herein show less potential side effects or no studies on side effects in humans were carried out.
Article
In Sri Lankan traditional medicine black tea brew (BTB) of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) is claimed to have male sexual stimulant activity. As this claim is not scientifically tested and proven, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of BTB on male sexual competence. Different doses of BTB made from Sri Lankan high grown dust grade no 1 tea (84, 167 and 501 mg/ml) or water were orally administered to separate groups of rats (n=9 per group) and 3h later their sexual behaviour were monitored (for 15 min) using receptive females. The overall results showed that BTB possesses marked aphrodisiac activity (in terms of prolongation of latency of ejaculation shortening of mount- and intromission latencies and elevation of serum testosterone level). The aphrodisiac action had a rapid onset and appears to be mediated via inhibition of anxiety and elevation of serum testosterone level. Further, this aphrodisiac action was not associated with impairment of other sexual parameters like libido, sexual motivation, sexual arousal, sexual vigour or penile erection. BTB was also nontoxic (in terms of overt signs, liver and renal toxicity). It is concluded that BTB can function as a quick acting, safe, oral aphrodisiac which may also be useful in certain forms of sexual inadequacies such as premature ejaculation and impaired libido and other sexual functions.
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This paper offers a reexamination of some long-held beliefs relating to the physiology of erectile function and dysfunction, including the idea that there is a singular physiology of erection. Rather, there appear to be plural neural, neurochemical, and endocrine mechanisms whose participation in erectile function depends on the behavioral context in which erection occurs. The best examples of this context-dependent physiology come from research on rats. For example, the medial amygdala is essential for noncontact erection in response to inaccessible estrous females, but not for erection during copulation. Also, androgen is necessary for touch-based and noncontact erection, but not for erection during copulation. Even the specific dopamine receptors important to erection may differ, depending on the context. If there is not a singular physiology of erection, then it follows that the physiology of erectile dysfunction may also vary from context to context. Thus, some disorders of the central nervous system may not be manifested in sleep-related erection, and therefore may be misinterpreted as "psychogenic" erectile dysfunction. This term belies the axiom that all psychological processes have a somatic basis; therefore, there can be no psychogenic dysfunction that does not involve organic processes which may respond to pharmacotherapy. A revised classification of erectile dysfunction based on this premise is offered. Finally, closer attention to erectile context may also illuminate male "sexual arousal" and its relation to "sexual motivation". The former term has so many meanings in current usage as to impede research, especially into the physiology of sexual arousal, which depends on comparisons between animals and humans. It is proposed that attention be given to two variables: whether or not erection occurs and whether or not the context is sexual. The occurrence of penile erection within a sexual context is viewed as the only case in which sexual arousal may be inferred unambiguously.
Article
Aim: To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Terminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Methods: Male rats were orally treated with 1500 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. Results: The 1500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. Conclusion: The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a water extract of mature leaves of Piper belle on male sexual behaviour of rats. 1.0 mL of either the undiluted extract (500 g of leaves extracted into l L of distilled water) or 1:1 diluted extract or 1:3 diluted extract or distilled water (vehicle) was orally administered to four groups of rats (n = 6-7) three times a day (9.00, 12.00 and 15.00h) on a single day (day 1 of treatment). Parameters of male sexual behaviour (% mounted, % intromitted, % ejaculated, number of mounts and intromission, latencies of mounts, intromission and ejaculations, copulatory efficiency and intercopulatory interval) were monitored and computed Ih post treatment with all groups and on day 3, 7, 14, 28 or 35 with the group treated with the highest dose, by pairing each male individually with a hormonally primed receptive female. The lower dose did not significantly alter any of the sexual behaviour parameters evaluated. The mid-dose significantly prolonged the latencies of mounting, intromission and ejaculation and intercopulatory interval. On the other hand, the highest dose completely abolished mountings, intromissions and ejaculations of all treated rats. These altered parameters became normal or near normal between days 3 and 35. Moreover, the extract-induced sexual behavioural effects were dose-dependent. The highest dose also produced mild but significant hypotensive action Ih post treatment. However, this dose of extract had no significant effect on heart rate or possessed significant analgesic activity (by tail flick and hot plate techniques) or sedative action (by rat hole-board technique). The highest dose also had no significant effect on serum prolactin level (on day 3) and the wet weight of sexual accessory glands (on day 7). Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that mature Piper belle leaves possess potent male antisexual behavioural activity.
Article
The specificity of myorelaxant-like effect of baclofen injected to the nucleus accumbens septi was studied in rats pretreated locally with GABA-B receptor antagonist, δ-amino-n-valeric acid (AVA), in behavioural tests. It was found that local injection of AVA (50 and 100 μg) completely antagonized the influence of intra-accumbens injections of baclofen (2.5 and 5 μg per site). AVA was inactive when given alone in the same dose-range. The present data confirm the myorelaxant-like effect of intra-accumbens injections of baclofen, and suggest the involvement of accumbens GABA-B receptors in the action of muscle relaxant drugs. Our study demonstrates important role of GABAergic innervation of the limbic nucleus in the action of muscle relaxant drug.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects an aqueous extract of small unripe arecanut seeds, Areca catechu (Linn), on the sperm output of rats, using a dose regimen (500 g/l three times a day for three consecutive days orally) previously shown to inhibit male sexual behaviour. This was done by pairing each treated male rat individually with a receptive female and determining the vaginal sperm count (as a measure of ejaculated sperm numbers), at different points in the treatment schedule. The extract caused the production of hyperzoospermic ejaculates without teratozoospermia on days 1 and 3 of treatment. This effect was accompanied by spermatorrhoea and alteration of the sperm distribution in vas deferens (increased numbers) and epididymidies (reduced numbers). The ejaculates became normospermic by day 4 post-treatment. Further, the extract induced rhythmic contractions in isolated cauda epididymaltubules (which were abolished by atropine) and augmented both phases of nerve-mediated contraction of isolated vasa deferentia (doses tested were: epididymis; 2, 4 and 6 ng/ml and vas deferens; 3, 6, and 9 ng/ml). We conclude that the extract-induced hyperzoospermia was due to augmentation of the orgasmic contraction of vas and epididymis at ejaculation.
Article
In Sri Lanka, in the Ayurvedic medicine, seeds of Mucuna prurita (both with seed coats and without seed coats) are recommended to be used as an aphrodisiac. However, the validity of this claim is not established. The aim of this study was to test the aphrodisiac potential of M. prurita seeds using a powdered suspension in 1% methyl cellulose. Male rats were treated orally with different doses of whole powdered seed suspension (WPSS) [1500 mg/kg (n = 12) once a day; 1500 mg/kg (n = 12) twice a day or 1500 mg/kg (n = 12) three times a day] or decoated powdered seed suspension (DPSS) [1500 mg/kg (n = 12) twice a day and 1500 mg/kg (n = 6) three times a day] or vehicle. The male sexual behaviour of these rats was monitored 2 h later. The DPSS had no effect whatsoever on male sexual behaviour. In contrast, mid and high doses of the WPSS caused a marked reduction in pre-coital sexual behaviour (in terms of chasing, genital grooming, anogenital sniffing), failure of rats to mount, intromit or ejaculate and prolongations of latencies to mount and intromit. In addition, the mid dose of WPSS caused a prolongation of intercopulatory interval. These impairments of sexual behaviour were reversible. The mid dose also had marked sedative (in terms of impairment of numbers of rear, head dips, locomotory activity) and analgesic (marked prolongation of reaction time in both tail flick and hot plate test) effects. This dose inhibited neither muscle strength (assessed by a bar holding test) nor muscle co-ordination (Bridge test). We conclude that the WPSS of M. prurita seeds inhibited libido, sexual arousal/motivation and penile tactile sensitivity without disrupting sexual performance.
Article
The essential oils of Alpinia calcarata Rosc. rhizomes, roots and leaves were analyzed for their chemical composition by capillary GC and GC/MS. Around 18 compounds were identified. The major compound in the rhizome and leaf oils was 1,8-cineole (33.3% and 24.7%, respectively), whereas in the root oil it was α-fenchyl acetate (39.8%).
Article
Excerpt Spontaneous seminal discharges are known to occur in many mammals, including rats (Orbach, 1961; Kihlström, 1966), hamsters (Beach & Eaton, 1969) and guinea-pigs (Martan, 1968). After such ejaculations the semen rapidly coagulates and if the animals are prevented from grooming the genital area it is possible to collect all the ejaculates delivered. It is known that there is a diurnal variation in spontaneous seminal discharge (Kihlström, 1966), and that there is a sharp decline in frequency of seminal emission following sexual activity in the rat (van Dis & Larsson, 1970; Beach, 1975). The presence of spermatozoa in spontaneous ejaculates has been confirmed by Orbach (1961) but there are no observations as to the number of spermatozoa in the spontaneous ejaculates, probably because of the difficulty of counting spermatozoa in the coagulated ejacula. Using a modification of the method of Freund (1958) for dissolving coagulated rat semen I have counted spermatozoa in the spontaneous ejaculates from Sprague–Dawley and Wistar rats.
Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.
Article
It has been suggested that increased prolactin levels may contribute to decreased libido in aging male primates. To test this hypothesis, the association of sexual performance and serum prolactin levels was determined in young (10 year) and old (25.7 year) male rhesus macaques. Old males displayed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior than young males but their serum prolactin levels were not significantly higher. The correlation between prolactin levels and different measures of sexual behavior also were not significant for either old or young males. These data suggest that elevations in prolactin levels do not significantly contribute to the age-related decline in sexual performance in rhesus males.
Article
Control and bilaterally bulbectomized male rats were tested in an arena where the male could choose to spend time with (and mate with) a sexually receptive female, a nonreceptive female, or be in a neutral compartment. Control males mated with, and showed a strong preference for, sexually receptive females. Bulbectomy virtually eliminated mating. In addition, bulbectomized males showed no preference for a receptive female over a nonreceptive female, and spent their time equally between the receptive female, the nonreceptive female, and the neutral compartment. Effects of bulbectomy on preference and copulation could be consequences of a severely impaired ability to smell--the perception of odors may be essential for sexual arousal, or the absence of preference and copulation after bulbectomy might reflect a deficit in the male's ability to make odor-dependent classification of conspecifics as appropriate sexual partners. Or the behavioral effects of bulbectomy might reflect a disruption of tonic input to the forebrain that has little or nothing to do with the sensory impairment that follows bulb removal. But whatever the reason, in partner-preference tests bulbectomized males show a striking indifference to the sexual status of females, and it seems likely that the failure to mate is causally linked to this effect of surgery.
Article
By calculating the number of spermatozoa produced by the mouse testis after vasectomy, and actually counting the number of spermatozoa present in the epididymides and vasa deferentia, the number of spermatozoa resorbed at different times was quantified. The contributions of sperm phagocytosis and intraluminal dissolution of spermatozoa (separate sperm heads and tails) in sperm disposal were examined. Sperm resorption was clearly demonstrated, with about 100 X 10(6) spermatozoa and 426 X 10(6) spermatozoa having been resorbed by 6 weeks and 6 months after vasectomy, respectively. A characteristic of the vasectomized tract was the high proportion of degenerating spermatozoa, and small lymphocytes, but very few intraluminal phagocytes were observed. The results suggest that spermatozoa are resorbed after vasectomy and that intraluminal sperm dissolution, rather than phagocytosis, is a prominent mechanism of sperm disposal in the tract of the vasectomized mouse.
Article
Ethno-medico-botanical investigations of seven primitive tribals, Cholanaikken, Pathinaikken, Paniyan, Kuruman, Irular, Adiyan and Kurichan, living in the densely forested high-lands of western ghats in Kerala were carried out. One of the tribes, Cholanaikken, is the most primitive tribe known in the Indian subcontinent. Ethnically they appear close to the Australian aboriginals. All other tribes of Kerala have mixed features of Veddoids, Negroids, Australian aboriginals and Dravidian races suggesting the mixing of these races at various periods of Kerala's historical past. All the tribals investigated practice their own traditional system of medicine. The medical treatment of diseases of most of these tribals involves mysticism, magical incantations, sacrificial practices and divining. They also utilize a wide variety of herbs in treating the physical symptoms. These medicinal herbs were collected, identified and some of the interesting plants for which new medicinal uses were claimed by the tribals are described here.
Article
Theoretical models of animal and human sexual behavior have evolved from two very different literatures, yet they contain many common behavioral components that may reflect the action of similar neuroendocrine and neurochemical systems. The study of animal sexual behavior has been largely concerned with mechanisms that underlie the pattern of consummatory behaviors observed during copulation, behaviors that tend to be highly stereotyped, sexually differentiated, and species-specific. There are important species differences in the behavioral topography, endocrine control, and neural substrates of consummatory behaviors, which tend to be extreme when comparing animals and humans. Although this has led to an increased interest in comparative animal behavior, it has also helped to foster a general perception that animals and humans are fundamentally different. In contrast to consummatory behaviors, appetitive behaviors (which serve to bring animals and humans into contact with sexual incentives) are more flexible, less sexually differentiated, and less species-specific and span a variety of situations other than sexual interactions. Appetitive behaviors are thus viewed as "sexually specific" when they are displayed under sexual circumstances and reinforced by sexual incentives. Interestingly, an appetitive/consummatory dichotomy has emerged in the human literature which distinguishes measures of sexual desire or arousal from "performance" measures of masturbation or copulation. In fact, sexual desire, which reflects fantasy and behavioral excitement, has been further differentiated from sexual arousal, which reflects genital blood flow. The present analysis attempts to pull together these seemingly disparate literatures into a coherent theoretical framework that emphasizes similarities and differences in the structure of sexual behavior across rats and humans.
Article
In the adult sexually experienced male rat, the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of pinacidil, a KATP channel opener, at the dose of 100-150-300 micrograms/rat worsened the copulatory performance in the presence of a receptive female, whereas the administration of glibenclamide, a KATP channel blocker, at the dose of 0.5 and 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) had an improving effect. These data indicate that KATP channels in target neurons may play an important role in the physiology of male sexual behavior.
Article
This review examines the most common male sexual dysfunction, premature ejaculation (PE). The prevalence, classification, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and psychological studies that offer evidence useful for understanding and clinically evaluating PE are reviewed. It is proposed that there are two basic kinds of PE: biogenic and psychogenic. Studies reporting pharmacological aspects of ejaculation offer some suggestions regarding the mechanisms of ejaculation as well as possible pharmacologic aid for some premature ejaculators. The traditional assumption among sex therapists that PE is almost universally caused by psychological features, and easily treated with sex therapy behavioral techniques, is drawn into question. Based on the limited available results from systematic investigations, behavioral treatments for PE remain beneficial to only a minority of men three years after treatment ends, suggesting that this male dysfunction is difficult to treat effectively. The mediocre results reported in treatment outcome studies may be due, in part, to reports on heterogeneous groups of premature ejaculators, for whom treatment has been generalized rather than targeted to the specific type of PE. We propose a biological and psychological etiology. With more discriminating assessment and more specific diagnosis of PE, and with treatment designed to address the particular type of PE, long-term outcome should improve for this common sexual dysfunction.
Article
High concentrations of diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) have been detected in brain areas containing dopaminergic cell bodies and nerve terminals. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of a proteolytic fragment of DBI, the octadecaneuropeptide ODN, on apomorphine-induced yawning in Sprague-Dawley rats. Injection of graded doses of ODN (12.5 to 100 ng i.c.v.) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of apomorphine-induced yawning and penile erections. At a dose of 100 ng, intracerebroventricularly administered ODN was able to inhibit, during more than 3 h, the apomorphine-evoked yawning. ODN also inhibited pilocarpine-induced yawning. Apomorphine induces a bell-shaped dose-dependent effect on yawning with a maximum response at the dose of 100 microg/kg and a much lower effect at a dose of 200 microg/kg. Injection (i.c.v.) of 100 ng ODN markedly attenuated the number of yawns induced by 100 microg/kg apomorphine but partially restored the yawning behavior in rats treated with a 200 microg/kg dose of apomorphine. At doses of 0.5 or 5 mg/kg s.c., diazepam did not modify the inhibitory effect of ODN on the apomorphine-induced yawning. Taken together, the present data suggest that ODN inhibits yawning downstream dopaminergic as well as cholinergic synapses involved in yawning. In addition, the effect of ODN cannot be ascribed to an inverse agonistic activity on central-type benzodiazepine receptors.
Article
Methodological shortcomings present in elicitation of male sexual reflexes in anesthetized animals. The present study has demonstrated, however, that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), an indirect serotonin (5-HT) agonist, elicited simultaneously both penile erection and ejaculation in anesthetized rats. PCA (2.5-10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) caused an intermittent cluster of genital responses consisting of penile erection, glans erections, and penile cups, which closely resembles the response observed during the ex copula tests in unanesthetized rats. Measurements of intracavernous penile pressure showed that rhythmic changes in penile pressure were produced by PCA, together with glans erections and penile cups. PCA also caused a frequent ejaculations and the weighing of ejaculate accumulated over 0.5 hr was increased in a bell-shaped pattern, and the maximum effect was observed at 5.0 mg/kg. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, a serotonin (5-HT)-synthesis inhibitor, significantly inhibited the expression of PCA-induced penile erection and ejaculation, while acute spinal transection at thoracic level did not affect the sexual responses. These results indicate that PCA-induced penile erection and ejaculation in anesthetized rats are mainly produced by the release of 5-HT, which is limited to the lower spinal cord and/or the peripheral sites. Furthermore, the sexual responses can be easily and reliably elicited by administration of PCA, which may be useful for the study of the mechanisms underlying male sexual functions.
Article
The prolongation of life expectancy and the drastic reduction of fertility rate are the primary cause of an aging world. It is projected that the elderly (above 65) will increase within the next 25 years by 82%, whereas the new born only by 3%. Despite the enormous medical progress during the past few decades, the last years of life are still accompanied by increasing ill health and disability. The ability to maintain active and independent living for as long as possible is a crucial factor for aging in health and dignity. Therefore, the promotion of healthy aging and the prevention of disability in men, must assume a central role in medical research and medical practice as well as in the formulation of national health and social policies. Effective programs promoting health and aging will ensure a more efficient use of health and social services and improve the quality of life in older persons by enabling them to remain independent and productive. The most important and drastic gender differences in aging are related to organs and or systems dependant or influenced by reproductive hormones. In distinction to the course of reproductive aging in women, with the rapid decline in sex hormones and expressed by the cessation of menses, aging men experience a slow and continuous decline of hormones. This decline in endocrine function involves: A decrease of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAQ), oestrogens, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and melatonin. This decrease is concomitant with an increase of LH and FSH. In addition sex hormone binding globulin's (SHBG) increase with age resulting in further lowering the concentrations of free biologically active androgens. Interventions such as hormone replacement therapy may prevent, delay or alleviate the debilitating conditions which may result from secondary partial endocrine deficiency. Primary and secondary preventive strategies such as the promotion of a safe environment, healthy lifestyle including proper nutrition, appropriate exercise, avoidance of smoking, avoidance of drug and alcohol abuses, if done effectively, should result in a significant reduction of the health and social costs, reduce pain and suffering, increase the quality of life of the elderly and enable them to remain productive and contribute to the well-being of society. In light of this, public awareness of medical knowledge needs to be increased and basic, clinical, socio-economic and epidemiological research intensified.
Article
According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.
Article
Reviews and studies on individual compounds were analyzed as to the suitability of different study designs and endpoints for detecting adverse effects of chemicals on male reproduction in animal species. Of the endpoints investigated, the most sensitive proved to be histopathology of the testes. Using refined histopathology, effects could be detected with a high degree of sensitivity as early as 4 weeks after treatment. Other sensitive endpoints were the weights of reproductive organs, including accessory glands, i.e., testis, epididymis, prostate, and of the seminal vesicle, as well as sperm parameters such as sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. Sperm motility was found to be in some cases more sensitive than histopathology. The above parameters showed a higher sensitivity than fertility parameters. In fact, in most cases, not only one but several endpoints were affected. Continuous breeding studies and 90-day studies with additional measurements of sperm parameters were similarly effective in detecting compounds which affect male fertility. Interspecies extrapolation factors (IEFs) have been derived for the most sensitive endpoints in laboratory animals. If the calculation is based on caloric demand and a sensitive endpoint of reproductive toxicity, many IEFs tend to be about 1, indicating that humans are generally not more susceptible to reproductive toxicants than laboratory animals. With respect to hazard identification, it is possible to detect adverse effects on male reproduction in a standard subacute study with concentrations that produce significant general toxicity. If effects are found, for the risk assessment the NOAEL has to be determined by testing specific sensitive parameters as specified above.
Article
Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) posses several bio-activities and are used in traditional medicine of Sri Lanka. However, their antinociceptive activity has not been investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to examine the antinociceptive activity of hot water extract (HWE) and hot ethanol extract (HEE) of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes using rats and three models of nociception (tail flick, hot plate and formalin tests). Different concentrations of HWE (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/kg) and HEE (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/kg) were made and orally administrated to rats and the reaction times determined. The results showed that the extracts have marked dose-dependent antinociceptive activity, when evaluated in the hot plate and the formalin tests but not in the tail flick test. The antinociceptive effect was slightly higher in HEE than that of HWE. The antinociceptive effect was mediated via opioid mechanisms.
Male fertility and subfertility: etiology and treatment considerations
  • M. Koeman