This study examined the effects of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) on male sexual competence and fertility, using a hot water extract (HWE) and rats. Different doses of HWE (150, 250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated to male rats and their sexual behaviour was monitored (for 15 min) 3 h later using receptive females. Fertility was determined in a separate group (with the highest dose) using a noncompetitive copulation test. In the sexual behaviour study, the HWE impaired the number of rats ejaculating and markedly prolonged the latency for ejaculation. Further, the number of rats mounting and intromitting, and the latencies for mounting and intromission were inhibited. Collectively, these observations indicate a strong aphrodisiac action. The other parameters remained unchanged indicating non-impairment in libido, sexual arousability, sexual vigour and sexual performance or penile erectile ability. However, a slight impairment was evident in sexual motivation (with the highest dose) in a partner preference test. In the fertility test, HWE induced profound oligozoospermia but fertility was uninhibited. The highest dose of HWE also elevated the serum testosterone level and the number of spontaneous penile erections rapidly and markedly. Further, the HWE was nontoxic. It is concluded that A. calcarata rhizomes possess a strong and safe oral aphrodisiac activity.