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Mealtime talk that supports literacy development

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Abstract

Participation in dinner table conversations offers children opportunities to acquire vocabulary, practice producing and understanding stories and explanations, acquire general knowledge, and learn how to talk in culturally appropriate ways.

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... Birlikte yenilen akşam yemekleri sırasında çocuğun gün içinde yaptıklarını anlattığı veya ebeveynlerin bir planı açıkladıkları sohbetler çocukların farklı ve detaylandırılmış anlatılara maruz kalmalarını sağlayan fırsatlardır (Snow, 1993;Snow ve Beals, 2006). Dahası yemek zamanındaki etkileşimler kültürel kökenleri ve ailesel süreçleri yansıtması ve kendiliğinden meydana gelmesi nedeniyle diğer çocuk odaklı ve kısıtlandırılmış süreçlerden farklılaşmaktadır (Pan, Perlmann ve Snow, 2000). ...
... Yemek sürecinin niteliğinin, çocuklara olan etkileri de araştırmalara konu olmaktadır. Bu çalışmalarda aile içindeki nitelikli etkileşimlerin, çocukların; dil (Beals, 1997;Beals ve De Temple, 1992;Snow ve Beals, 2006), erken okuryazarlık (Busch, 2016;Snow ve Beals, 2006) ve bilişsel (Beals ve De Temple, 1992) becerileriyle olan ilişkileri ortaya konmuştur. Annelerin kullandığı ifadelerin çocukları desteklediği gibi çocuklar da annelerin kullandığı ifadeleri yordamaktadır. ...
... Yemek sürecinin niteliğinin, çocuklara olan etkileri de araştırmalara konu olmaktadır. Bu çalışmalarda aile içindeki nitelikli etkileşimlerin, çocukların; dil (Beals, 1997;Beals ve De Temple, 1992;Snow ve Beals, 2006), erken okuryazarlık (Busch, 2016;Snow ve Beals, 2006) ve bilişsel (Beals ve De Temple, 1992) becerileriyle olan ilişkileri ortaya konmuştur. Annelerin kullandığı ifadelerin çocukları desteklediği gibi çocuklar da annelerin kullandığı ifadeleri yordamaktadır. ...
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Bu araştırmada, 4-6 yaşlarındaki çocuklar ve ebeveynlerinin yemek sırasındaki etkileşimlerinin derinlemesine incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda ebeveynlerin çocuklarıyla yemek sırasındaki etkileşimleri, ifadelerin türü ve içeriği, ebeveynlerin etkileşimlere dair görüşleri ve çocukların yemek sırasında teknolojik aletlerle etkileşim kurma durumu incelenmiştir. Nitel durum çalışması desenindeki araştırmanın çalışma grubunu kolay ulaşılabilir durum örneklemesiyle ulaşılan 17 çocuk ve ebeveynleri oluşturmuştur. Gözlem ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmelerle toplanan verilerin analizinde içerik analizi tekniğine başvurulmuştur. Bulgular (1) Akşam yemeklerine genel bakış ve (2) Yemek sohbetleri olarak adlandırılan iki temada sunulmuştur. Sonuç olarak; ailelerin genellikle birlikte yemek yedikleri ancak yemekteki etkileşimlerinin sınırlı olduğu saptanmıştır. Ebeveynlerin genellikle çocuklarına emir bildiren ifadeler yönelterek yemeğini bitirmeye yönlendirdiği; çocukların ise yemek dışındaki konulara da yoğunlaşarak sohbet etme eğiliminde oldukları görülmüştür. Genel etkileşimler sınırlı olmasına rağmen yemek sırasında öğrenme fırsatlarının yakalandığı da dikkat çekmiştir. Son olarak teknolojik aletlerle kurulan etkileşimin hem doğrudan hem de arka planda gerçekleşebildiği ve az sayıda çocuğun ekrana maruz kaldığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
... Research suggests that dinner table talk constructs multiple interactive contexts where the richness and complexity of conversational language would increase, and this is viewed as a significant language learning context for children (Bohanek et al., 2009;Fruh et al., 2011;Hu et al., 2019b). Research finds that certain genres of parent-child mealtime talk including explanatory, narrative, and justification discourse that relate to decontextualized topics positively associated with children's expressive language and social-cognitive skills (Aukrust, 2002;Brumark, 2006;Snow and Beals, 2006;Bova, 2011;Rowe, 2013;Bova and Arcidiacono, 2014). Reasoning talk as a type of language explaining causal relationships is frequently used in these genres for explaining or justifying speakers' opinions on various topics. ...
... Dinner table talk is a supportive context for the use of language including rare words and complex syntax which potentially create extensive language learning opportunities for children (Snow and Beals, 2006;Sheng et al., 2021). The pedagogical functions embedded in dinner table talk could be more than toy play or even shared reading (Weizman and Snow, 2001). ...
... The pedagogical functions embedded in dinner table talk could be more than toy play or even shared reading (Weizman and Snow, 2001). Snow and Beals (2006) analyzed different types of language that parents produced during mealtime and identified the pedagogical values of parents' language. The frequency of parents' use of extended discourses (explanatory or narrative talk) and rare words at the dinner table is positively associated with children's vocabulary and language expression skills. ...
Article
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This study examines the feature of reasoning talk used by 37 Chinese families at the dinner table across three generations with the background of co-parenting and in consideration of different communicative contexts. Drawing upon Hasan’s semantic framework, reasons were mainly coded as logical or social types. We categorize the communicative context of reasoning talk into contextualized (meal-related) and decontextualized topics. When the proportion of social reasoning was found slightly higher than that of logical reasoning, the families’ reasoning talk account for only 3.85% of the total language. Specifically, the count of mothers’ total reasoning talk was significantly above other family members, while there were no significant differences among the other participants. The effect of the communicative contexts on family members’ social reasoning was found. The reasoning talk grounded on local rules (family-made rules) and coercive power occurred significantly more frequently in contextualized than decontextualized context. A higher rate of local-rule grounded reasoning talk of all family members appeared in contextualized than decontextualized context, and this gap was particularly obvious among mothers. These findings reveal the significant role of mothers in family communications and confirm the pedagogical values of decontextualized communicative context for promoting children’s learning opportunities at the dinner table.
... This study also extends the work on parents' sophisticated vocabulary input beyond the typical contexts, which have included mealtime, book reading, play, or naturalistic observations (Crain-Thoreson et al., 2001;Rowe, 2012;Tabors et al., 2001;Weizman & Snow, 2001). Although the mealtimes and naturalistic observations did contain some past event talk (Rowe, 2012;Snow & Beals, 2006), only Crain- Thoreson et al. (2001) examined reminiscing specifically but found that parents' rare words during reminiscing were unrelated to children's PPVT scores. However, reminiscing involved only 5 min of discussion and the sample size was small (N = 17). ...
... Researchers have discussed the relation between mothers' rare words and children's receptive vocabulary in the context of emergent literacy (Rowe, 2012;Snow & Beals, 2006) given the strong relation between vocabulary and success in reading (Anderson & Freebody, 1981;Swart et al., 2017). However, researchers have not examined parents' sophisticated vocabulary in relation to children's story comprehension. ...
... This particular example raises the question of whether it is only parents with resources to travel to such places who use more sophisticated language and have children with greater language skills. It is important to note, however, that similar relations have been found in the Home-School Study, which focused on lowincome families (Beals, 1997;Beals & Tabors, 1995;Snow & Beals, 2006;Tabors et al., 2001;Weizman & Snow, 2001). This example also raises the question of whether reminiscing about more unique events offers different opportunities for parents to use sophisticated vocabulary compared to more everyday events and thus show different relations to children's story comprehension. ...
Article
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine mothers’ sophisticated vocabulary while reminiscing with their preschool-aged children, and its relation to children’s story comprehension. The study used a cross-lagged panel design in which all assessments were collected twice, 6 months apart. We also compared two methods of examining sophisticated vocabulary – rare words (i.e., words not on the Dale-Chall list) and word tiers (i.e., Tier 2 and Tier 3 words). We found that mothers’ rare words predicted children’s later story comprehension controlling for children’s age, mothers’ education, and children’s receptive vocabulary. Mothers’ Tier 3 words were related concurrently to children’s story comprehension at time 2. Children’s story comprehension did not predict mothers’ later sophisticated vocabulary suggesting that this is not a bidirectional relation. Reasons for why mothers’ sophisticated vocabulary input in the context of reminiscing might matter to children’s story comprehension are discussed. Practice or Policy: These results suggest that researchers and educators may wish to examine the impact of vocabulary instruction on story comprehension in pre-readers in addition to vocabulary outcomes given the importance of early narrative comprehension to later reading comprehension.
... Indeed, mealtimes provide the opportunity for talk that children are not exposed to elsewhere (Weizman & Snow, 2001). Furthermore, an infant-led approach to participate in family meals provides opportunities for modelling language and vocabulary to children, which may be related to improved literacy skills (Snow & Beals, 2006). Aukrust and Snow (1998) note that mealtimes offer the opportunity for children to be exposed to a wide range of 'narratives and explanations ' (pp. ...
... Indeed, previous research has already highlighted the positive impact that family mealtime interactions can have in terms of eating behaviour and other aspects of cognitive and social development (Skinner et al., 1998). It appears that these mealtimes may also play an important role in supporting language development through exposure and modelling of the unique language that this family experience provides (Snow & Beals, 2006;Weizman & Snow, 2001). ...
Article
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The timing and strategy with which parents first introduce their infants to solid foods may be an important predictor of subsequent developmental outcomes. Recent years have seen a decline in the prevalence of traditional parent-led feeding of soft, puréed food and a rise in the prevalence of infant-led complementary feeding. Although there has been some research espousing the benefits of infant-led complementary feeding for improving food fussiness and self-regulation, there has been little exploration of this approach that may impact on other developmental outcomes in children. The current study explores whether aspects of the infant-led approach, specifically the child eating unaided and consuming finger foods and eating with the family, are related to child language outcomes. One hundred thirty one parents of children aged 8–24 months completed questionnaires about their approach to complementary feeding, their current feeding practices, their child's experiences with family foods and child language comprehension/production. The findings suggest that an approach to complementary feeding which promotes infant autonomy in feeding (i.e., eating finger foods rather than puréed foods) and consuming more family foods is related to more advanced child language production and comprehension. Specifically, the prevalence of eating family foods mediated the relationship between eating unaided at the onset of the complementary feeding period and later language outcomes. This study is the first to find a significant relationship between different approaches to introducing solid foods and child language outcomes and these findings highlight the potential for different complementary feeding approaches to influence behaviour beyond mealtimes.
... E. Eisenberg, Olson, Neumark-Sztainer, Story, & Bearinger, 2004;Elgar, Craig, & Trites, 2013;Fulkerson, Kubik, Story, Lytle, & Arcan, 2009;Fulkerson et al., 2006;Haines, Kleinman, Rifas-Shiman, Field, & Austin, 2010;Kawasaki, 2001;Offer, 2013;Takano, Nouchi, Takano, Kojima, & Sato, 2009;Tominaga, Shimizu, Mori, Kodama, & Sato, 2001). Snow and Beals (2006) further reported that mealtime communication helps to improve communication skills. Based on previous studies, Offer (2013) explored the functions of shared mealtimes among adolescents and found that they served as a unique form of communication that improves emotions, behaviors, and so forth. ...
... SWB is strongly related to mental health (Stewart-Brown, 1998). Additionally, having numerous opportunities for shared mealtimes can help improve communication skills, which, in turn, strengthen SWB (Snow & Beals, 2006). However, the effects of different shared mealtime partners or the perceived quality of the shared mealtimes on SWB remain unknown. ...
Article
Shared mealtimes have been found to be important daily rituals with positive effects on behavior and mental health, such as increasing subjective well‐being. However, most previous studies have not considered possible barriers to these positive effects, specifically shyness. We investigated the relationships among shared mealtime quality, shyness, and subjective well‐being, and the moderating role of shyness in the relationship between the other two variables by surveying a sample of college students (n = 305). Correlational analyses revealed that shared mealtime quality was negatively associated with shyness and positively associated with subjective well‐being. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that shared mealtime quality was significantly associated with subjective well‐being, as was the interaction between the friend factor of shared mealtime quality and shyness. Therefore, shared mealtime quality might help improve happiness, but shyness should be considered a possible barrier to this beneficial effect when meals are shared with friends.
... Research has reported various potential benefits from interactions during mealtimes in ECEC. Conversations during meals are recognised as an opportunity space for developing language (Grøver Aukrust & Snow, 1998;Snow & Beals, 2006), and peer talk presents a double opportunity space (Blum-Kulka, Huck-Taglicht, & Avni, 2004;Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka, 2010). In addition to language practice, participating in peer talk gives opportunities for togetherness among peers while creating, sharing and negotiating meanings (Johansson & Berthelsen, 2014;Os, 2013;Ødegaard, 2006). ...
... Barton & Tomasello, 1991). Such conversations and interactions can facilitate toddlers' well-being, group togetherness, language and cognitive development, feeling of security and learning about different themes and how to interact with adults and peers (Grøver Aukrust & Snow, 1998;Blum-Kulka et al., 2004;Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka, 2010;Hooper & Hallam, 2017;Ridley et al., 2000;Snow & Beals, 2006;Ødegaard, 2006). ...
Article
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Knowledge on how caregivers engage and interact with groups of toddlers in childcare settings is limited. Practice in toddler care is often based on individual approaches even though childcare is a group setting. This study focused on how caregivers created joint attention with toddlers in 12 groups during mealtimes. The results showed that some caregivers took the lead and engaged their groups in sustained joint attention episodes. The children in these groups seemed to be engaged in interactions that involved multiple children and had a rich variety of content. Other caregivers seemed unengaged, and their groups had few, brief interactions that mostly did not meet the criteria for joint attention. In these groups, the interactions largely consisted of rules and regulations. Keywords: Caregiver-toddler interactions, group-related joint attention, mealtimes, toddler childcare
... (Snow & Beals, 2006). Similarly, in the reminiscing literature, some caregivers are shown to use a highly elaborative style (characterized by questions and follow ups that extend the conversation) when talking about the past with their young children, and this style is shown to promote language development (e.g., Reese, Leyva, Sparks, & Grolnick, 2010; for a review see Salmon & Reese, 2016).Explanatory talk during readalouds in kindergarten classrooms is also shown to involve discussions over multiple speaker turns (Gosen, Berenst, & de Glopper, 2013;Mascareño, Snow, Deunk, & Bosker, 2016). ...
... We take a different approach and suggest that the overall style of the extratextual talk might be more important for preschoolers' language development than the level of abstraction. Based on research on maternal elaborative reminiscing and extended talk in other contexts (Salmon & Reese, 2016;Snow & Beals, 2006), we define an elaborative style of extratextual talk as one that is characterized by questions and follow ups that both appraise and elaborate on children's responses. We expect that an elaborative style will provide a supportive context for abstract discussions to unfold during shared reading with preschoolers, and thus predict language outcomes above sheer level of abstraction. ...
Preprint
Caregiver abstract talk during shared reading is associated with preschool-age children's vocabulary development. However, previous research has focused on the level of abstraction with less consideration of the style of extratextual talk. Here, we investigated the relation between these two dimensions of extratextual talk, and their contributions to children's vocabulary skills. Caregiver level of abstraction was associated with use of an elaborative style. Controlling for socioeconomic status and child age, elaboration predicted children's concurrent vocabulary skills whereas abstraction did not. Controlling for earlier vocabulary skills, neither dimension of the extratextual talk predicted later vocabulary. Theoretical and practical relevance are discussed.
... Beyond learning specific behaviors centered about dinner, children also learn the general roles, rules, and values of family living coalesce in this setting (Dreyer and Dreyer, 1973). Moreover, Snow and Beals (2006) and Weizman and Snow (2001) reported improved language development and academic achievement in children when mealtimes are characterized by responsiveness to children's questions and when behavior is well regulated. Furthermore, there are also evidence indicating that frequency of family mealtimes and family climate during shared mealtimes are related to the behavior and development of a child. ...
... Furthermore, there are also evidence indicating that frequency of family mealtimes and family climate during shared mealtimes are related to the behavior and development of a child. For instance, children with families spending mealtime together have shown fewer behavior problems (Hofferth and Sandberg, 2001) and vocabulary growth (Snow and Beals, 2006). ...
Article
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Although research has highlighted the importance of home experience and especially of play in early brain development, the value of this factor for executive function (EF) development has not received the attention it deserves. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the link between parental play beliefs and preschoolers’ play frequency at home on the one hand and their EF skills on the other. Additionally, other types of home activities were also assessed. A total of 102 preschoolers (45 girls; mean age = 62.08 months; SD = 7.66 months; range, 50–74 months) with their parents (mean age = 35.21 years; SD = 6.96 years) representing low to middle socioeconomic status (SES) families in Ethiopia participated in the study. Results revealed that children’s home activities (frequency of breakfast at home, spending mealtime together with family, participation in peer play, participation in pretend play, and participation in arts and crafts) and parental play support were significantly positively correlated with their performance on EF tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for age and SES showed that parental play support and frequency of breakfast at home were medium-sized predictors (β = 0.36, p < 0.001 and β = 0.31, p = 0.001, respectively) explaining a significant level of variance in inhibitory control, while participation in arts and crafts at home was a significant predictor (β = 0.22, p = 0.03) of children’s performance on a visual–spatial working memory (VSWM) task. In conclusion, parental play support and preschoolers’ home activities are important factors linked with EF development in early childhood.
... En relación con las actividades, una serie de estudios se han centrado en analizar su relación con las características de las interacciones que se desarrollan en estas, tanto en el entorno del hogar (Beals, 1997;Hoff, 1991;Snow y Beals, 2006;Weizman y Snow, 2001; entre otros) como en el jardín de infantes (Barnes et al., 2019;Connor et al., 2006;Dickinson y Porche, 2011;Dickinson et al., 2014;Ramírez et al., 2019; entre otros). Los trabajos centrados en el entorno escolar han puesto de manifiesto que el tipo de actividad que la maestra y los niños se encuentran llevando a cabo incide en las propiedades del lenguaje que ambos emplean. ...
Article
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El presente trabajo se propone realizar un análisis exploratorio de la producción argumentativa entre niños y docentes de preescolar considerando las actividades en las que ocurre (el juego en rincones y la ronda de intercambio) y las funciones pragmáticas de las emisiones que promueven el despliegue argumentativo. Se analizaron 10 situaciones de juego y 10 de ronda audiograbadas en salas de 5 años de 10 jardines de infantes de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Se identificaron las secuencias conversacionales de Oposición, Argumentación y Justificación (N=116) y se codificó la Identidad de los participantes, el rol argumentativo que estos asumían en las distintas secuencias y las funciones pragmáticas de las emisiones que desencadenaban la presencia del argumento o justificación. Se realizó un análisis de correspondencias múltiples que arrojó tres agrupamientos: el primero vincula la Justificación con las funciones pragmáticas Directiva y Reporte, con un fuerte peso de la maestra en el despliegue de la misma; el segundo agrupa la argumentación con las funciones pragmáticas Pregunta y Comentario y al niño en rol de Oponente y presentando los argumentos; y finalmente, en el tercer agrupamiento, la Simple oposición con el niño como Proponente. Asimismo, el análisis estadístico se combinó con un análisis cualitativo que ejemplifica los agrupamientos identificados. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto que tanto el juego y como la ronda son actividades igualmente propicias para el despliegue de argumentos y justificaciones.
... Vocabulary acquisition requires not only more language input but also the use of more sophisticated vocabularies during interactions ( Hoff, 2006 ). Although child routines can provide meaningful contexts in which children and caregivers can engage in natural conversations (Robert & Rochester, 2021;Snow & Beals, 2006 ), caregivers may need to introduce more complex and sophisticated vocabulary to the conversations to effectively expand children's vocabulary repository. In addition, child routines pertaining to language and literacy (e.g., shared reading, alphabet and word play, and library and bookstore visits) appear to be more strongly related to language development compared to general routines ( Dunst et al., 2013 ). ...
Article
School readiness is critical to children's academic and social-emotional success at school entry and over time. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mediating role of consistent child routines in the association between interparental functioning and school readiness among preschool-aged children in China. Participants included 349 preschoolers and both of their parents. Data were collected across two time points with 1.5 years apart. Consistency in child routines was found to mediate the association between maternal interparental functioning and child school readiness. Specifically, mother-perceived marital satisfaction was positively related to their contributions to coparenting, which further had a positive association with consistency in child routines, and this eventually predicted children's school readiness across multiple indicators. However, different patterns of findings emerged for paternal interparental functioning. Father-perceived marital satisfaction was directly linked to consistency in child routines without the mediation effect of paternal coparenting, which, in turn, predicted school readiness. Fathers’ contributions to coparenting also directly predicted children's social-emotional functioning. The findings have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining consistent routines for young children in order to promote school readiness across the preschool period.
... Additionally, when children were with a parent they were more likely to be engaged in mealtime or educational activities. Decades of research have shown that mealtime activities offer important opportunities for families to engage in co-constructed family narratives that allow for the development of a shared history (Ochs & Capps, 2001), an experience known to promote resilience during times of trauma (Duke et al., 2008), in addition to promoting cognitive skills such as language, literacy, executive function (Leyva, et al., 2022;Snow & Beals, 2006), social-emotional understanding, and wellbeing (Fivush et al., 2006;Lora et al., 2014). Lareau (2015) and others have also shown that family routines are shaped by social class status. ...
Article
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To understand how parents adapted to virtual learning expectations during the initial COVID-19 school closures in spring 2020, this study investigated families’ daily activities, including parents’ emotions and their appraisals of the value of daily activities across two timepoints. Thirty-two parent–child dyads (Mean child age = 78 months, 50% male; 47% Latinx/Hispanic; 28% Spanish speaking) from a Southern California school district serving a diverse population completed a daily diary texting protocol (experience sampling method; ESM) five times per day over five days. Families spent most of their time together engaging in mealtime activities (preparing meals and eating). Families from low socioeconomic backgrounds reported appraising academic activities, social skills, and life skills more highly than families from high socioeconomic backgrounds. Parents reported more positive emotions than negative emotions. Findings provide opportunities for educators to mitigate learning loss by building on children’s learning experiences and family adaptations to daily routines during COVID-19.
... Within school, home, and community settings, mealtime is a natural time for children to develop social communication skills through conversations (Massey, 2004). Conversations during meals can incorporate discourse on individual and shared community interests and provide opportunities for embedded instruction on conversational and social skills (Snow & Beals, 2006). In early childhood classrooms, breakfast, snack, and lunch times often take up a significant part of the day and are one of the few times when children are consistently seated in close proximity to their peers. ...
Article
The diversity of children within the preschool classroom is dramatically changing as children with autism spectrum disorder are increasingly included within it. To engage in the benefits of inclusion, social skills are needed. Yet, children with autism commonly experience difficulties in this area. Extant literature indicates that social skills are more successfully acquired when taught through naturalistic and embedded instruction in established routines. A commonly occurring routine in most classroom, home, and community settings is mealtime. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Snack Talk, a visual communication support, for increasing the communication engagement of five preschool children with autism. A reversal design across participants was used to analyze the relation between Snack Talk and conversation engagement. Results from the maintenance probes show that conversation engagement increased across all participants when compared to baseline. Furthermore, a functional relation was established between the teaching phase (baseline and intervention data collection phases) and the maintenance phase. Limitations and directions for further research are also discussed.
... Two key drivers of children's educational success that are determined both by home and school are good nutrition [7,8] and a responsive caregiving environment that supports rich linguistic interactions [9][10][11]. Mealtimes provide an ideal context to evaluate both of these factors as one can detail not only regular dietary intake but also exposure to potentially sophisticated language for a meaningful duration of time each day [12,13]. Studies to date suggest that children's diets and the structure of home mealtimes vary considerably both between and within African countries [14]. ...
Article
Background: The association between school and home is fundamental to sustainable education: parents' understanding of the school's priorities and teachers' understanding of their pupils' home environment are both vital for children to remain in school and succeed academically. The relationship between parents and teachers is closest in preschool settings, providing a valuable opportunity to build bridges between home and school. In this protocol paper, we outline our planned methods for identifying beneficial home and school behaviors. Objective: Our project aims to identify culture-specific structures and behaviors in home and school settings, which influence the quantity and quality of child-directed speech and identify positive experiences that can help improve children's linguistic development and nutrition. Methods: Using a mixed methods approach and focusing on early language learning, nutrition, and responsive caregiving, we will video-record and analyze mealtime language and eating behaviors at home and in school, targeting 80 preschool children and their families in rural Kenya and Zambia. In addition, we will assess children's language skills through audio recordings and use questionnaire-based interviews to collect extensive sociodemographic and dietary data. Results: Between the start of our project in January 2020 and the end of December 2021, we had collected complete sets of sociodemographic, observational, and food recall data for 40 children in Kenya and 16 children in Zambia. By the end of May 2022, we had started data collection for an additional 24 children in Zambia and transcribed and coded approximately 85% of the data. By the end of September, 2022, we plan to complete data collection, transcription, and coding for the entire sample of 80 children across both countries. From September 2022 onwards, we will focus on analyzing our language data, and we hope to have results ready for publication in early 2023. By relating children's language outcomes and nutritional intake to the observed mealtime behaviors, we hope to identify practices that increase the quantity and quality of child-directed speech and improve children's nutritional intake. Conclusions: Good nutrition and the promotion of language learning are key issues in early childhood development. By using a cross-cultural approach, combining a variety of methods, and working closely with stakeholders and policy makers throughout the project, we hope to find and share best practices for improving children's linguistic outcomes and nutrition and lay the foundation for the development of practitioner networks and parent outreach programs. International registered report identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/36925.
... We also found that parents in this study highly valued social interaction while feeding and reported engaging in social conversation with their children, particularly older children, during meals. Although this social interaction is valuable for social-emotional and cognitive development (Snow and Beals 2006), it may not necessarily impact eating behaviours. Addessi et al. (2005) found that children are more likely to eat a new food if others eat the same type of food than when others are simply present or eating another kind of food. ...
Article
Children benefit from responsive feeding practices where their internal signals of hunger and satiety are valued and met with prompt, emotionally supportive, and developmentally appropriate responses. Using an online survey, this study describes responsive feeding values and practices among parents of young children (0–5 years) (n = 1039) across 3 Canadian Maritime provinces. Independent-samples t-tests and 1-way ANOVA were performed to determine the differences in survey questions related to the responsive feeding practices and values. First-time parents and parents with younger children report implementing more consistently some of the challenging responsive feeding practices, such as avoiding pressuring their children to eat, compared with parents with multiple children and parents with children ages 3–5 years. Parents often have well-intended reasons to encourage their children to eat; however, these can coincide with non-responsive practices with food such as pressuring, rewarding, and restriction. These coercive practices may be ineffective and counterproductive as they reinforce reasons to eat unrelated to appetite and self-regulation. Preschool and early feeding interventions that support parents in understanding normal child development, including typical eating behaviours and self-regulation, could help to equip them for challenging feeding experiences and encourage long-term responsive feeding practices. Novelty: First-time parents and parents with younger children report more consistently avoiding pressuring their children to eat, compared with parents with multiple children and parents with children ages 3–5 years. Parents often have well-intended reasons to encourage their children to eat; however, these can coincide with non-responsive practices such as pressuring, rewarding, and restriction.
... In other words, many of the learning opportunities during shared book reading are due to interactive dialogues between teachers and children (Deshmukh et al., 2019). This could be explained by the fact that conversations during shared book reading provide children with the opportunity to hear and use new words, and to receive feedback while doing so (Hindman et al., 2019;Snow & Beals, 2006). Interactive techniques encouraging children to participate in the conversations during shared book reading have shown to positively affect children's language competence (Deshmukh et al., 2019;Hargrave & Sénéchal, 2000;Walsh & Blewitt, 2006). ...
Article
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In the present study, it was hypothesized that the proportion of open questions teachers ask during shared book reading would be directly and indirectly (through class aggregated mean length of utterance) related to children’s vocabulary and would be directly and indirectly (through class aggregated mean length of children’s utterance and vocabulary) related to children’s narrative competence. A total of 7 early childhood teachers and 176 pupils participated in this study. Outcomes of mediation analyses revealed that the proportion of open questions was positively related to class aggregated mean length of children’s utterance and vocabulary and negatively related to narrative competence. In addition, the proportion of open questions was indirectly and positively related to children’s narrative competence, through class aggregated mean length of children’s utterance. The results of this study indicate that the type of questions teachers ask during shared book reading are related to children’s language competence.
... Au cours des dernières décennies, on a régulièrement démontré que les conversations quotidiennes permettent d'enrichir le vocabulaire de l'enfant (Sénéchal, LeFevre, Hudson, & Lawson, 1996), quelle que soit la situation socioéconomique des parents (Snow & Beals, 2006 (Canut & Vertalier, 2012;Grossmann, 2001). Les enfants qui sont activement engagés dans une lecture de livre avec un adulte apprennent plus de vocabulaire que ceux qui l'écoutent passivement (Sénéchal et al., 1995). ...
Thesis
Pour que l’école maternelle française puisse jouer un rôle compensatoire des inégalités sociales, elle doit permettre aux jeunes élèves d’exercer, en contexte scolaire, les habiletés que les plus favorisés d’entre eux construisent également en famille et qui constituent le meilleur viatique pour leur scolarité future : comprendre les récits écrits, savoir les raconter et acquérir du lexique. C’est dans ce but que l’outil didactique Narramus a été conçu. Dans notre recherche doctorale, nous avons voulu savoir si cet outil produisait les effets escomptés sur le développement des compétences langagières des élèves et sur les pratiques des enseignants. Pour cela nous nous sommes posé trois questions : - une première d’ordre socio-pédagogique : l’utilisation d’un outil didactique innovant peut-elle favoriser les apprentissages langagiers de tous les élèves et contribuer à réduire les inégalités de réussite à l’école ? - une seconde d’ordre méthodologique : comment construire et mettre en œuvre un dispositif expérimental d’évaluation présentant des critères rigoureux pour tester l’efficacité d’un outil didactique ? - une troisième relative au rôle de l’outillage et de l’accompagnement dans l’amélioration des pratiques d’enseignement : quels liens existe-t-il entre l’utilisation de l’outil, l’accompagnement assuré par des équipes de circonscription et le développement professionnel des enseignants ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous avons mené deux études quasi-expérimentales (impliquant 250 classes et 1500 élèves de petite, moyenne et grande section) et élaboré deux protocoles expérimentaux qui respectent les critères méthodologiques exigeants définis par les promoteurs de l’Evidence Based Education. La première étude visait à identifier un éventuel effet Narramus sur les apprentissages enfantins et à mesurer l’influence de l’accompagnement de cette innovation sur le développement professionnel des enseignants. Nos données montrent que les élèves qui ont bénéficié de Narramus obtiennent de meilleurs résultats que leurs camarades du groupe contrôle sur l’ensemble des dimensions évaluées. De plus, les différences entre les deux groupes outillés (avec ou sans accompagnement) ne sont pas significatives : l’accompagnement n’est pas indispensable pour qu’un outil, s’il est bien conçu, provoque les effets positifs attendus. Nous avons cependant montré que l’accompagnement, s’il n’affecte pas directement les performances des élèves, peut agir comme une aide à l’identification de gestes professionnels nouveaux, mobilisables dans d’autres domaines d’apprentissage et semble, à ce titre, être un vecteur de développement professionnel. La deuxième étude a mis en évidence une réduction des inégalités sociales et un transfert des compétences construites avec Narramus vers d’autres textes que ceux étudiés en classe : les élèves qui en ont bénéficié comprennent et racontent mieux que leurs camarades de même condition sociale et leurs performances s’approchent de celles d’enfants favorisés. Leur vocabulaire est lui-aussi enrichi. Ces conclusions valident la pertinence de l’outil et concourent à valoriser un enseignement explicite et intégré de la compréhension et du vocabulaire auprès de jeunes élèves.
... At breakfast time, increased family interaction during a time of psychosocial development may offer cognitive and social benefits. Several studies have reported that frequent family mealtimes are associated with increased literacy [35] and academic achievement [36]. However, this effect is sensitive to the nature of the mealtime interaction; when mealtimes are characterized by openness, responsiveness to children's questions and social support, children have displayed enhanced language development and academic achievement [37] but this may not be the case for families that consume meals separately. ...
Article
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This study aimed to assess the relationship between breakfast composition and long-term regular breakfast consumption and cognitive function. Participants included 835 children from the China Jintan Cohort Study for the cross-sectional study and 511 children for the longitudinal study. Breakfast consumption was assessed at ages 6 and 12 through parental and self-administered questionnaires. Cognitive ability was measured as a composition of IQ at age 6 and 12 and academic achievement at age 12, which were assessed by the Chinese versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and standardized school reports, respectively. Multivariable general linear and mixed models were used to evaluate the relationships between breakfast consumption, breakfast composition and cognitive performance. In the longitudinal analyses, 94.7% of participants consumed breakfast ≥ 4 days per week. Controlling for nine covariates, multivariate mixed models reported that compared to infrequent breakfast consumption, regular breakfast intake was associated with an increase of 5.54 points for verbal and 4.35 points for full IQ scores (p < 0.05). In our cross-sectional analyses at age 12, consuming grain/rice or meat/egg 6–7 days per week was significantly associated with higher verbal, performance, and full-scale IQs, by 3.56, 3.69, and 4.56 points, respectively (p < 0.05), compared with consuming grain/rice 0–2 days per week. Regular meat/egg consumption appeared to facilitate academic achievement (mean difference = 0.232, p = 0.043). No association was found between fruit/vegetable and dairy consumption and cognitive ability. In this 6-year longitudinal study, regular breakfast habits are associated with higher IQ. Frequent grain/rice and meat/egg consumption during breakfast may be linked with improved cognitive function in youth.
... 학령기에 부모와의 식사를 통해 가족식사의 의미와 중요 성을 이해하게 되면, 이후에도 가족식사에 대한 긍정적인 인식과 태도가 안정적으로 이어지는 경향이 있다 (Franko et al., 2008;Friend et al., 2015;Harbec et al., 2018). 그러나 자녀의 학령 이 높아질수록 가족공유시간이 줄고 또래 등 가족 외부의 요인이 더 큰 영향력을 발휘하게 된다 (Bae & Ok, 2015 Lee et al., 2008;Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010;Shin, Kang et al., 2017;Skeer & Ballard, 2013;Snow & Beals, 2006). 또한 긍정적인 가족식사 경험은 자녀의 학교적응 (Lee, 2014;Lee & Choi, 2013), 기본생활습관과 사회 적응 (Harbec et al., 2018), 사회성 , 사교성과 준법성 (Yoo et al., 2011), 외향성, 친근성, 감정적 안정성 (Shin, Yu et al., 2017) (Bae, 2016;Lee & Choi, 2013;Ok, 2017;Olson, 2011 (Brown et al., 2019;Utter et al., 2013) 자녀와 부모 모두 가 족관계, 가족기능, 가족유대를 긍정적으로 인지하였다 (Ho et al., 2018;Utter et al., 2013;2018 (Brown et al., 2019;Utter et al., 2013). ...
... 학령기에 부모와의 식사를 통해 가족식사의 의미와 중요 성을 이해하게 되면, 이후에도 가족식사에 대한 긍정적인 인식과 태도가 안정적으로 이어지는 경향이 있다 (Franko et al., 2008;Friend et al., 2015;Harbec et al., 2018). 그러나 자녀의 학령 이 높아질수록 가족공유시간이 줄고 또래 등 가족 외부의 요인이 더 큰 영향력을 발휘하게 된다 (Bae & Ok, 2015 Lee et al., 2008;Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010;Shin, Kang et al., 2017;Skeer & Ballard, 2013;Snow & Beals, 2006). 또한 긍정적인 가족식사 경험은 자녀의 학교적응 (Lee, 2014;Lee & Choi, 2013), 기본생활습관과 사회 적응 (Harbec et al., 2018), 사회성 , 사교성과 준법성 (Yoo et al., 2011), 외향성, 친근성, 감정적 안정성 (Shin, Yu et al., 2017) (Bae, 2016;Lee & Choi, 2013;Ok, 2017;Olson, 2011 (Brown et al., 2019;Utter et al., 2013) 자녀와 부모 모두 가 족관계, 가족기능, 가족유대를 긍정적으로 인지하였다 (Ho et al., 2018;Utter et al., 2013;2018 (Brown et al., 2019;Utter et al., 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between family meals and family strengths (cohesion and flexibility) in Korean families with school-aged children. We focused on five dimensions of family meals: frequency, family rituals, communication, rules and roles, and perceptions. Our data came from 619 mothers who were married with at least one child in elementary school. Our multiple regression analyses showed that mothers reported higher levels of both cohesion and flexibility when they gave a higher priority to family meals, made family meals a ritual, had conversations on diverse topics during family meals, or experienced lower levels of meal-related stress. In addition, higher levels of family flexibility were found when a family had more structured rules related to family meals and the father more regularly participated in meal-related housework. This study contributes to the literature by understanding the roles of family meals from a multidimensional perspective.
... In contrast, mealtime is a near-universal experience in Western families and provides a unique opportunity for family members to share information and ideas. Though mealtimes vary widely across social classes and cultures in amount and style of talk, these periods typically include discussions and explanations of current events, world knowledge, and abstract ideas (Pan et al., 2000;Snow & Beals, 2006). Early intervention and preschool providers coach parents to embed language learning in everyday routines, such as mealtimes (Cole & Flexer, 2015;Moeller et al., 2013), but few studies have explored how modern parents elicit conversations and teach language outside of experimental and therapy settings . ...
Article
Purpose This mixed-methods study aimed to examine the conversation techniques used by parents of young children with hearing loss (HL) during dinnertime at home. Parents' usage rates of open- and closed-ended language elicitation, reformulation, imitation, directives, and explicit vocabulary instruction were examined in relation to children's receptive vocabulary and basic-concepts skills. Method Twenty-minute dinnertime segments were extracted from naturalistic, daylong recordings of 37 preschoolers with HL who used listening and spoken language. The segments were hand-coded for parents' use of conversation techniques. Children's receptive vocabulary and basic concepts were assessed using standardized measures. Results Parents' use of conversation techniques varied widely, with closed-ended elicitation and directives used most frequently during dinner. Explicit vocabulary instruction was correlated with general receptive vocabulary and basic-concepts skills. Thematic analysis of the conversations revealed common themes, including concrete topics and sibling speakers. In addition, parents who used many techniques often introduced abstract conversation topics; electronic media was present in all conversations with few techniques. Conclusions Parents of preschoolers with HL may benefit from specific coaching to elicit language and introduce new vocabulary during home routines. These techniques may help develop their children's receptive language.
... Free play tasks are typically shorter, conducted in the research laboratory, and may limit the input somewhat due to a focus on the toys available to the dyad. In contrast, naturalistic observations, typically conducted in the comfort of a dyad's home, for longer durations, may yield more natural conversation and provide a context for more ample and sophisticated vocabulary compared to free-play (Pan, Perlmann, & Snow, 2000;Snow & Beals, 2006). This contextual finding will be an important consideration for future research seeking to determine the most optimal context for observing language interactions (Beals & Tabors, 1993;Bornstein et al., 1999). ...
Article
This meta-analysis examined associations between the quantity and quality of parental linguistic input and children's language. Pooled effect size for quality (i.e., vocabulary diversity and syntactic complexity; k = 35; N = 1,958; r = .33) was more robust than for quantity (i.e., number of words/tokens/utterances; k = 33; N = 1,411; r = .20) of linguistic input. For quality and quantity of parental linguistic input, effect sizes were stronger when input was observed in naturalistic contexts compared to free play tasks. For quality of parental linguistic input, effect sizes also increased as child age and observation length increased. Effect sizes were not moderated by socioeconomic status or child gender. Findings highlight parental linguistic input as a key environmental factor in children's language skills.
... Sociocultural theorists have emphasized relationships as a potent context in which children gain knowledge and skill (Vygotsky, 1978). Parent-child conversations across a range of contexts (e.g., during mealtime, book reading, and museum visits) have been shown to support positive cognitive and emotional development (e.g., Mendelsohn et al., 2018;Snow & Beals, 2006;Tompkins et al., 2017;Willard et al., 2019). Extensive research has documented how parent-child conversation scaffolds children's memory development, and by extension their understanding of emotion and self (Fivush, 2019). ...
Article
Mother‐child conversations reflect and support many important skills—including, perhaps, children’s understanding of personality. Children acquire an understanding of people’s personalities during the preschool and early elementary years. This study of 4‐ to 9‐year‐old children and their mothers (Npairs = 135) investigated the relation between mothers’ ability to reason about the personalities of self and others––termed personal intelligence—and characteristics of their conversations with their children. Mothers and children conversed about topics potentially involving personality (e.g., contrasting two relatives), and later completed a validated ability‐based measure of personal intelligence (Mayer, Panter, & Caruso, 2018). Across the conversations recorded between mother and child dyads, mothers’ personality talk was correlated with children’s, and mothers’ personal intelligence scores predicted both, independent of age. This is the first study to document individual differences among mothers that may shape their conversations with children about people, with implications for children’s developing understanding of personality.
... En relación con las actividades, una serie de estudios se han centrado en analizar su relación con las características de las interacciones que se desarrollan en estas, tanto en el entorno del hogar (Beals, 1997;Hoff, 1991;Snow y Beals, 2006;Weizman y Snow, 2001; entre otros) como en el jardín de infantes (Barnes et al., 2019;Connor et al., 2006;Dickinson y Porche, 2011;Dickinson et al., 2014;Ramírez et al., 2019; entre otros). Los trabajos centrados en el entorno escolar han puesto de manifiesto que el tipo de actividad que la maestra y los niños se encuentran llevando a cabo incide en las propiedades del lenguaje que ambos emplean. ...
Article
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Traslaciones. Revista latinoamericana de Lectura y Escritura (Cátedra UNESCO) http://revistas.uncu.edu.ar/ojs/index.php/traslaciones/issue/view/294 This study aims to carry out an exploratory analysis of argumentative production among preschool 5 year old children and kindergarten teachers by considering the type of the activity in which it occurs (play centers and circle time) and the pragmatic functions of the utterances that promote argumentative display. The corpus consists of 10 play situations and 10 circle time activities audio-recorded at 10 kindergartens in Entre Ríos, Argentina. We coded: 1) the Conversational sequences of Opposition, Argumentation and Justification (N = 116), 2) the Identity of the participants, 3) the Argumentative role they assumed in the different sequences, and 4) the Pragmatic functions of the utterance that triggered the presence of the argument or justification. A multiple correspondence analysis was carried out that yielded three clusters: the first one links Justification with the Directive and Reporting pragmatic functions, with a strong weight of the Teacher in the Argumentative role; the second groups the Argumentation with the Question and Comment pragmatic functions and a prominent role of the Child displaying the arguments. Finally, in the third cluster, the Simple opposition links with the Child as the Proponent. Likewise, the statistical analysis were combined with a qualitative analysis that exemplifies the identified groupings. These results show that both the play center and the circle time are equally conducive to the deployment of arguments and justifications.
... Emerging bilinguals and their monolingual peers develop more complete and complex linguistic repertoires when the sociocultural contexts in which they find themselves offer language models that use language in ways that go beyond what the students can currently do with language. Exposure to more varied and sophisticated vocabulary (Dickinson, 2011;Hoff, 2003;Weizman & Snow, 2001), hearing and using syntactically complex language (Gámez & Levine, 2013;Huttenlocher et al., 2002;Justice et al., 2013), referring to happenings that occurred in another context (Demir, Rowe, Heller, Goldin-Meadow, & Levine, 2015;Rowe, 2013), and extending utterances in the kind of multiclause turns needed to develop an idea (Dickinson, 2011;Huttenlocher et al., 2002;Snow & Beals, 2006;Weizman & Snow, 2001) all expand children's capacity with language, leading to a more complete and complex linguistic repertoire. Storytelling occasions using language in these ways (Flynn, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examined story circles to understand how the small-group activity supports and shapes the storytelling of young students in multicul-tural, multilingual preschool classrooms. Through a representative example, we show how language development unfolds in the context of a transcultural and translanguaging dialogic exchange of stories. We describe features of increasing linguistic complexity present in students' storytelling as they established affinity-affirming connections over ideas, shared ways of languag-ing, and shared ways of storytelling. By examining changes in one student's storytelling in the context of a mixed-language story circle group, we offer insights into both language development and features of the language ecology in which such changes are supported.
... Furthermore, in addition to providing numerous instances for embedded instruction, opportunities to incorporate each student's family values, beliefs, and culture into intervention are also present. Mealtimes also provide a context where students sit in close proximity to each other, fostering engagement in social interactions and conversation (Snow & Beals, 2006). While proximity may facilitate conversation engagement for some students, for many students with ASD, additional supports are often needed to promote engagement in meaningful social interactions, highlighting the importance of this intervention as a whole. ...
Article
Rates of inclusion for children with disabilities continue to increase. Schools are also experiencing an increase in culturally and linguistically diverse students. As such, the diversity of children in classrooms across the country continues to dramatically shift and teachers are challenged to implement culturally responsive and relevant interventions. Social skills are a significant area of development for which children with disabilities frequently require intervention. Yet, important considerations regarding cultural awareness and relevancy should be made when implementing social skills interventions as research emphasizes the necessity of diverse representation in interventions. This column discusses the implementation and cultural considerations of a visual communication support used to increase social engagement among children during mealtimes.
... Number of words spoken in the household before age 3 correlated roughly r = .6 with children's vocabulary at age 3, individual differences in vocabulary at age 3 strongly predicted differences in vocabulary at age 9, frequency of exposure to low-frequency words proved especially predictive of children's vocabulary at age 9, and amount of non-business talk in the home before age 3 correlated substantially with children's performance on an IQ test at age 9 (Hart & Risley, 1995Snow & Beals, 2006). ...
Article
Although almost everyone agrees that the environment shapes children's learning, surprisingly few studies assess in detail the specific environments that shape children's learning of specific content. The present article briefly reviews examples of how such environmental assessments have improved understanding of child development in diverse areas, and examines in depth the contributions of analyses of one type of environment to one type of learning: how biased distributions of problems in mathematics textbooks influence children's learning of fraction arithmetic. We find extensive parallels between types of problems that are rarely presented in US textbooks and problems where children in the US encounter greater difficulty than might be expected from the apparent difficulty of the procedures involved. We also consider how some children master fraction arithmetic despite also learning the textbook distributions. Finally, we present findings from a recent intervention that indicates how children's fraction learning can be improved.
... Those who frequently share meals with family members have healthier dietary intakes (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) and a lower prevalence of disordered eating (8)(9)(10)(11) in comparison with children and adolescents who do not have regular family meals. The benefits extend beyond nutrition, as frequent family meals are associated with lower levels of substance abuse (9,12,13) , depressive symptoms (12,14) and improved academic outcomes (12,15,16) . However, the frequency of shared meals typically declines linearly beyond the preschool years (17,18) . ...
Article
Objective Family meals promote healthful dietary intake and well-being among children. Despite these benefits, family meal participation typically declines as children age. This study utilises life course theory to explore parents’ perceptions of family meals in order to understand how parents’ past experiences with family meals (in childhood and earlier in adulthood) influence their current beliefs and practices regarding mealtimes with their own children. Design Semi-structured qualitative interviews. Setting In-person interviews were conducted in participants’ homes. Participants Twenty families (twenty-one mothers and fifteen fathers) with a child aged between 18 months and 5 years. Results Thematic analysis revealed that families seemed to primarily approach mealtimes from one of three overarching orientations: meals for (1) Togetherness, (2) Nutrition Messaging or (3) Necessity. These orientations were informed by parents’ own mealtime experiences and significant life transitions (e.g. parenthood). The current family meal context, including the messages parents shared with their children during mealtimes and the challenges experienced with mealtimes, characterised the orientations and families’ approaches to mealtimes. Conclusions Parents’ own early life experiences and significant life transitions influence why families eat meals together and have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of mealtime practices. Results may help to inform the content and timing of intervention strategies to support the continuation of frequent family meals beyond the preschool years.
... Machalicek et al. (2015) also suggested that improving parental optimism and self-efficacy in their ability to meet their child's needs, improved outcomes for both parents and the child. (Spagnola, 2007;Snow, 2006;Hale, Berger, & Le Bourgeois, 2011;Muniz et al., 2014) that have linked involvement in family routines such as mealtimes, story time and reading to improved cognitive outcomes and social emotional health. Fiese et al. (2012) conducted research around the importance of mealtimes in terms of understanding childhood obesity. ...
Conference Paper
Children who are unable to swallow safely, have gastric problems or neurological difficulties may require tube feeding via a gastrostomy to meet their nutritional requirements. Usually commercial formula feeds are used however, more families are opting to use blended diets (BD), which may consist of everyday family meals or other foods blended to a smooth consistency and then passed down the feeding tube. The overall impact of BD is not fully understood and there are varying views amongst professionals involved in the care of those using them. The aim of this research is to identify the reasons for and implications of using BD, and establish whether there are any differences between parents who do and do not use BD, and the outcomes for children and young people who do and do not use BD. A mixed methodology is used in the research, with three phases, the first two being qualitative using thematic analysis with data collected from in-depth interviews and blog posts. The information from phases one and two informed the content of the survey used in phase three. The third phase of the research is the quantitative phase. A survey was distributed to families who were and were not using BD. This enabled the researcher to gauge the prevalence of the viewpoints/ themes from the interviews, and to compare views and characteristics of those who were and were not using BD. The qualitative phase revealed a mismatch between the priorities and perceptions of families and clinicians, which was also identified in the literature. The quantitative phase indicates that parents who opt to use BD have a significantly higher level of concerns about commercial formula and see less need for it. Both phases provided anecdotal evidence suggesting BD have physiological benefits to the children and young people using them. These data are parent-reported, and larger scale studies, with more objective outcome measures are now required.
... Fortunately, not only book reading situations but also other oral contexts, such as conversations during toy play, dressing, meals, or reminiscing may be effective to foster children's language and literacy development (Barnes, Grifenhagen, & Dickinson, 2019;Beals, 2001;Curenton, Craig, & Flanigan, 2008;Hoff-Ginsberg, 1991;Snow & Beals, 2006;Reese, Leyva, Sparks, & Grolnick, 2010). For instance, Beals (2001) reports that the proportion of mealtime talk devoted to narratives or explanations at age 4 to 5 was correlated positively with concurrent receptive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary in grades 6 and 7, and later reading achievement (Beals, 1991;cf. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reading stories to children fosters their language development. An approach rarely investigated is narrators telling stories without reading from text (i.e., oral storytelling). Oral storytelling may differ from more commonly employed read-aloud approaches in terms of language complexity and the opportunity to regulate the storytelling process via attention-guiding behavior, such as eye contact and gesticulation. By experimentally separating the influences of language complexity and attention-guiding behavior, the current study tried to shed light on the effect of story-delivery method (oral storytelling vs. read-aloud) and its underlying mechanisms on novel word acquisition, story comprehension, and children's on-task behavior. In a 4 × 2 mixed-design, with method of story delivery (live read-aloud vs. live oral storytelling vs. audiotaped read-aloud vs. audiotaped oral storytelling) as a between-subjects factor and time (pretest vs. posttest) as a within-subjects factor, a sample of 60 four-to six-year-old children listened to four short stories in one of the four conditions twice. Target-word learning from pre-to posttest as well as story comprehension were measured. Additionally, in the live conditions storyteller and child behavior was coded. Although learning occurred across conditions, live oral storytelling resulted in the largest gains in receptive target-vocabulary and best story comprehension. In addition, children were less restless and more attentive during live oral storytelling.
... [18][19][20] Having regular family meals has been related to markers of better psychosocial health and diet quality among parents and children 2 to 18 years, stronger vocabulary skills for preschoolaged children, better academic outcomes for school-aged children, and higher likelihood of healthy weight maintenance over time. [21][22][23][24][25][26] Given the benefits of family meals and organized activities, and their potential public health impact, there is a great need for strategies to support families that would like to benefit both from participation in organized activities as well as eating nutritious meals together. ...
Article
Background: Research has related child participation in organized activities to health and academic benefits; however, participation may interfere with family meals. Objective: Examine whether parents perceive child participation in organized activities to interfere with family meals and how perceptions are related to the household eating environment. Design: A cross-sectional analysis was completed using survey data collected in 2015-2016 as part of the Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) cohort study. Participants: Survey participants were originally recruited in Minneapolis-St Paul schools in 1998-1999. The analytic subsample of parents (one per household, n=389, 69% female, 31% nonwhite race, mean age=31) had one or more children involved in an organized activity. Approximately 33% of households included a child aged 2 to 5 and no older child; two thirds of households included school-aged children (6 to 18 years). Main outcome measures: Parents reported family meal frequency, family meal scheduling difficulties, frequency of at-home meal preparation, and their own intake of fast food, fruit, and vegetables. Statistical analyses performed: Analyses compared household environment characteristics reported by parents who perceived low interference between organized activities and family meals to characteristics reported by parents who perceived moderate to high interference from at least one form of activity. Regression models included a dichotomous indicator of interference as the independent variable and were adjusted for parental and household characteristics. Results: Among parents with children at any age, moderate to high interference was associated with lower family meal frequency, greater difficulty scheduling family meals, and more fast-food intake (all P≤0.01). The perception of moderate to high interference was more common among parents who reported involvement in both sport and nonsport activities (P<0.001) and those with a school-aged child (P<0.001) vs those with only preschool-aged children. Conclusions: Follow-up research, including qualitative studies, is needed to identify the specific aspects of child participation in organized activities (eg, scheduled time of day) that may interfere with family meals.
... Fruh et al. (2011) noted that having meals with family not only contributes to family closeness and connectedness, but also leads to intellectual development of children. A longitudinal study of 15 years that examined the benefits of family meal conversations found that the conversations led to children's vocabulary expansion that improved their reading skills (Snow & Beals, 2006). Other verbal interactions between parents and children such as shared reading also have been linked to children's development of language skills (Pomerantz, Moorman, & Litwack, 2007;Storch & Whitehurst, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Using nationally representative data, this study found that family trips have a positive impact on children's academic achievement in reading and math. Children who took at least one family trip at kindergarten or third-grade achieved on average 1% higher in third-grade reading and math tests. The benefits were greater with more family trips, but differed by trip type. Family trips to cultural attractions most benefited the reading achievement, whereas those to athletic events benefited the math the most. This study's findings contribute to the understanding of family trip's educational benefits in early childhood; they provide a rationale for the promotion of family trips for children's educational benefits and for the further examination of different types of trips and travel.
... As family mealtimes are co-located activities in which members may overhear the talk of other members, once the talk is initiated it may lapse and then be reinitiated, and so family members are in a "continuing state of incipient talk" (Schegloff & Sacks, 1973, p. 325). For this reason, not only parents but also children play dynamic roles during mealtime conversations and these interactional moments can provide then opportunities for children to organize and structure dialogues within multiparty interactions (Davidson & Snow, 1996;Snow & Beals, 2006), and to enhance socio-cognitive competencies such as the development of food-acceptance patterns (Birch, Johnson, & Fisher, 1995), the ability to speak in a group conversation and to extend their vocabulary (Beals, 1997;Weizman & Snow, 2001), and to respect the others' physical space (Fiese, Foley, & Spagnola, 2006). Laurier and Wiggins (2011, p. 63) have indicated in a recent article one of the research directions that scholars interested in family learning through interactions at mealtime should consider more in depth in the years to come: "How is the quantity and quality of food routinely negotiated, during the dinner itself, by and between parents and children?" ...
Article
Previous works have investigated argumentative skills of young children referring to the number of arguments and counter-arguments advanced by children as the sole indicator to assess their capacities. Hitherto, less attention has been paid to analyze the strategies adopted by children of different ages in family interactions. This study investigates the argumentative types used by children aged 3–5 and 6–9 years to refute parental eat-directives during mealtime conversations, and whether participants refer to activity-bound/-unbound arguments within the two age groups. To analyze video-recorded meals of Swiss and Italian families, we employed the pragma-dialectical ideal model of critical discussion as tool to examine sequences in which children advance different types of arguments to support their refusal to parental eat-directives. Findings highlight differences and similarities in the two groups of children: mostly, both younger and older children use activity-bound arguments such as quantity and quality of food in response to parental directives; on the contrary, only children aged 6–9 years use activity-unbound arguments (adult-expert opinion and appeal to consistency) to refute the parental eat-directives. Results show how the construction of and engagement in argumentation are embedded in and shape social activities, and how argumentative skills are valued to participate in family interactions.
... Bechlivanidis et al. (2017), for example, found that their participants favored explanations with more precise, concrete details, though irrelevant details did not have added value (see also Frazier, Gelman, & Wellman, 2016). More generally, there's evidence that when engaged in activities that might broadly be considered explanatory, people offer and accept "narratives" or "stories" that incorporate concrete and temporal information (e.g., Bruner, 1991;Dawes, 1999;Snow & Beals, 2006; see also Schechtman, 2007). This naturally raises the question: Why don't we always engage in abstractive explanation? ...
Article
People often answer why‐questions with what we call experiential explanations: narratives or stories with temporal structure and concrete details. In contrast, on most theories of the epistemic function of explanation, explanations should be abstractive: structured by general relationships and lacking extraneous details. We suggest that abstractive and experiential explanations differ not only in level of abstraction, but also in structure, and that each form of explanation contributes to the epistemic goals of individual learners and of science. In particular, experiential explanations support mental simulation and survive transitions across background theories; as a result, they support learning and help us translate between competing frameworks. Experiential explanations play an irreducible role in human cognition—and perhaps in science.
... However, during mealtime, parents frequently have a high level of conversational involvement in the many facets of children's lives and, on most occasions, even the youngest children are granted participatory rights as ratified conversational partners. In particular, the use of a wide range of supportive strategies by parents encourages children to initiate topics of personal relevance to them (Beals, 1997;Snow & Beals, 2006;Weizman & Snow, 2001). For example, Nevat-Gal (2002) showed that the participation of young children to family discussions is favored by the use of humorous phrases by parents. ...
Chapter
Why do parent-child argumentative interactions matter? What is the reason for such an interest? This chapter provides the reasons that motivated the study of parent-child argumentation with the aim to understand the function of this type of interactions. Focusing on the activity of family mealtime, in the first part, the chapter draws attention to the distinctive features of parent-child conversations. A second section of the chapter is devoted to discussing whether and, eventually, when children have the competence to construct arguments and engage in argumentative discussions with the aim to convince their parents to change opinion. In the last part of the chapter, research questions and structure of the volume are presented.
Article
Young children with visual impairment and their families often require specialized assistance through early intervention to develop adaptive routines, cues, and environmental settings during mealtimes and other daily tasks. There is little empirical data in the area of mealtime routines available to support families of young children with visual impairment, and the need for research-based interventions is great. The purpose of this initial needs assessment survey was to gather information as little is already known about what teachers of students with visual impairment trained in early intervention (TSVI-EIs) and other early interventionists who work with infants and toddlers with visual impairment already know about the development of independent mealtime skills. The results of this survey indicate that early intervention professionals would like additional opportunities to learn about mealtime routine strategies for young children with visual impairment, confirm their current experiences and knowledge, and identify additional training and resources.
Chapter
As families interact in mealtimes, opportunities arise for the telling of stories. This chapter focusses on stories told by children during family life in families where English is the language spoken. The chapter reports on a study that video-recorded the participation of young children (2–10 years) and their families in three homes in Australia. Adopting an ethnomethodological approach using conversation analysis, three sequences of talk are analysed highlighting how the children launch and progress stories. Analysis showed the competence of children to initiate stories to share events with family members. Also highlighted is the way in which other family members including adult family members and siblings contribute to, and support and challenge the telling of stories. Findings from the study suggest the importance of storytelling within family settings to mark practices unique to family members and point to how family members can support children’s development of storytelling.
Thesis
This thesis investigates experiences of transnational multilingual Chinese Australian families who have diverse Chinese linguistic and cultural backgrounds and are dedicated to Chinese language maintenance in Metropolitan Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Chinese Australian multilingual family experiences are framed under the enquiry of language policy and planning (LPP), particularly family language policy, which has a strong theoretical basis in sociolinguistics. Informed by LPP studies, an analytical framework for understanding Chinese Australian families’ multilingual experiences was developed in this thesis to answer the following major questions: 1) How do transnational Chinese families engage in Chinese language planning in the community language school (CLS) and in the home?; 2) What language(s) do they use at home? What do the languages mean to the families? How do they talk about the language decisions they make?; and 3) What are the perceptions and experiences of the children in relation to Chinese language learning and their identities? This research adopted an ethnographic case study approach with various methods including interviewing, observations and collection of student work samples. Between February and October 2015, fieldwork was conducted in a Chinese CLS with three participating families. The research uncovered three major findings. Firstly, this research found that the initiation of community language planning (CLP) can be an extended and joint form of family language planning, merging various legal and political factors. The CLP process is stimulated by changing sociopolitical situations and is fundamentally affected by immigrants’ legal citizenship arrangements. Putonghua has become the exclusive planning subject and the acquisition planning of Putonghua in teaching practice becomes a de facto prestige planning for the Chinese variety. Family language policy in relation to the necessity of Chinese maintenance is primarily a parental identity practice. It is situated on a language ideological continuum with one end informed by an essentialist ethnic authenticity discourse and the other end informed by language assimilation. This study extends the concept of family language policy as systematic and enduring language experiences, language use rules or other language practices that occur in the home and significantly influence children’s language proficiency. Secondly, this study identified the socioemotional function of someone’s mother tongue, which is manifested by its sense of naturalness, its symbolism of ‘hometown’ and ‘family’, its ‘unlearnability’ and its role in determining sub-Chinese community membership. Meanwhile, there exists a classic language shift situation—from regional languages to a dominant community language, before dominance shifts to the main societal language. This sequence of language shift has produced a problematic grandparent–grandchild communication model with a potential decrease of family intimacy. On the other hand, the relatively ‘closed’ nature of private households and proud regional Chinese-identity recognition creates the possible maintenance of regional Chinese languages by second-generation Chinese Australians, without overwhelming ideological interactions with the Mandarin Chinese discourse. Thirdly, this research suggests that Chinese Australian children are trapped in a conflicted ideological space where parents and community educators ‘push’ the learning, while mainstream society typically misunderstands the learning. It can undermine families when their community efforts towards language learning are considered the major reason for non-Chinese-background students’ underachievement in Mandarin courses and assessment, a popular belief that is currently held by the Australian mainstream. Finally, Chinese Australian children’s multilingual experiences involve multiple dimensions ranging from dynamics of ethnicity, physical appearance, language, transnational journey to their syncretic cultural practices and tension-filled highly sensitive classroom experiences that position, challenge and shape their identities. This thesis proposes a framework for informed multiglossic family language planning and enhanced multilingual experiences as a theoretical and practical implication of this research contributing to the field of family language policy/planning and the Chinese Australian community.
Article
Objective Language development, both what is understood (receptive language) and spoken (expressive language), is considered critical to a child's ability to understand and interact with their environment. However, little research has investigated the role children's early language skills might play in their food acceptance. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between young children's food-related receptive language (FRL) and food-related expressive language (FEL) and acceptance of novel food. Methods Caregivers (n = 54) reported their perceptions of children's (aged 7–24 months) FRL and FEL using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. Novel food acceptance was observed (grams consumed) during a laboratory visit. Multivariable linear regression tested associations between FRL, FEL, and novel food acceptance, by child age (infants [aged from 7 to < 12 months], toddlers [aged 12–24 months]), and at a significance level of P < 0.1 for hypothesis-generating research. Results Children's FRL and food acceptance differed by age (F = 8.08, P = 0.01). Among toddlers, greater FRL was associated with greater novel food acceptance (0.22 g [95% confidence interval, −0.04 to 0.49]), P = 0.09). In infants, greater FRL was associated with lower novel food acceptance (−0.80 g [95% confidence interval, −1.53 to −0.07], P = 0.03). No association between FEL and novel food acceptance was noted in either group. Conclusions and Implications Toddlers’ understanding of food-related vocabulary may facilitate food acceptance; however, young infants may not yet have sufficient FRL to facilitate novel food acceptance.
Chapter
Students’ eating habits have been frequently studied in previous literature as determinants of children and adolescents’ academic performance from a health and nutrition point of view. The objective of this chapter is to analyze additional benefits related to student meals by understanding the importance of the family mealtime. Specifically, the aim is to analyze whether the frequency of shared family meals is related to the academic performance of adolescents. To do so, we analyze the data for Spain in PISA 2015. In order to perform a rigorous analysis of the data, we estimate multilevel models that consider the hierarchical PISA data structure: (1) first, public and private schools are randomly selected; and (2) then fifteen-year-old students from the selected schools are selected. The results show that there is a positive relationship between the frequency with which parents eat the main meal with their children and academic performance in reading comprehension as measured by PISA test scores. The positive association is of similar magnitude irrespective of gender and socio-economic and cultural status of the student.KeywordsMealtimeFamilyPISAMultilevel
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Introduction: For children with cerebral palsy (CP), conducting self-care tasks may be difficult due to physical and cognitive problems. Accurate assessment of children with CP is needed for realistic intervention. The Self-Care Inventory for Children with Cerebral Palsy (SCICP) was developed by Julia Burg in 2016. The SCICP is a caregiver reported questionnaire that aims to assess the extent to which a CP child can conduct their self-care tasks independently. Burg created the SCICP due to the lack of a valid assessment tool for the South African population to assess CP children's self-care abilities. The aim of the study was to investigate selected psychometric properties of the SCICP in terms of known-group validity, concurrent validity with the gross motor function, and manual abilities of the children with CP as well as the tool's diagnostic accuracy. Method: A quantitative cross-sectional, non-experimental study design with the caregivers of 50 children with CP (0 to 8-years-old), and 50 typically developing children (0 to 6-years-old) was conducted. Data were collected at two hospitals in the Ekurhuleni district in Gauteng, South Africa. The caregivers completed a demographic questionnaire and the SCICP assessment tool for each child. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to analyse the data, since data were ordinal. Sensitivity and specificity and internal consistency were also established. Results: The SCICP differentiates between children who are typically developing and children with CP who present with developmental delay on the overall score. For some components of self-care activities for the 0 to 1-year-old children, the difference in scores is not significant since typically developing children of this age may be dependent in many self-care tasks. Conclusion: The SCICP shows promising results for use in the clinical setting to identify deficits in CP children's ability to perform their self-care tasks and provide guidance for intervention for self-care for children with CP.
Chapter
Rituals and routines, as defined by anthropologists, describe hair combing interaction. The daily routine of hair combing interaction (HCI) offers social workers and early childhood practitioners an opportunity to assess the socioemotional quality of the parent–child relationship. For infant, early childhood clinicians, and researchers, the routine of a mother, father, or primary caregiver combing an infant or child’s hair may serve as a clinical window into a family's intimate shared identity, providing an opportunity for a deeper understanding of behavioral and emotional characteristics of their growing attachment relationship. The analyses of the videotaped interaction revealed five observable stages of interaction that occur during the task. These stages, preparation, negotiation, combing hair, play, and closing rituals, reflect a synchrony of interactive relationship dynamics distinct to each stage (Lewis, 2015).
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Caregiver abstract talk during shared reading predicts preschool-age children’s vocabulary development. However, previous research has focused on level of abstraction with less consideration of the style of extratextual talk. Here, we investigated the relation between these two dimensions of extratextual talk, and their contributions to variance in children’s vocabulary skills. Caregiver level of abstraction was associated with an interactive reading style. Controlling for socioeconomic status and child age, high interactivity predicted children’s concurrent vocabulary skills whereas abstraction did not. Controlling for earlier vocabulary skills, neither dimension of the extratextual talk predicted later vocabulary. Theoretical and practical relevance are discussed.
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This study examined the distribution of language expansion in parent–child (preschool aged) mealtime conversations in 30 Chinese middle-class families. The conversations were categorised into four types: contextualised & conflicted, contextualised & non-conflicted, decontextualised & conflicted, and decontextualised & non-conflicted. The language expansions were analysed using the systemic functional linguistic theory related to cohesive patterns in language expansion: elaborations, extensions, and enhancements. While the parents dominated the conversations generally, the children were active contributors, initiating over one-quarter of the conversations. Initiation had an impact on the distribution of the conversational types: the proportions of contextualised & non-conflicted conversations was significantly higher in child-initiated conversations. The contextualised & conflicted conversations accounted for a higher proportion in parent-initiated conversations. It was the conversational type rather than initiation, which had an effect on the distribution of language expansion patterns. The least occurring decontextualised & conflicted conversations generated the most extensions. The frequently appeared contextualised & non-conflicted conversations, however, produced the fewest expanded messages. The implications from the findings for promoting high-quality mealtime conversations conducive to children’s language learning are discussed.
Article
Despite decades of research related to teaching and learning, the findings have made little impact on classroom teaching and learning. This paper briefly describes the four existing methods to close this gap, with more extensive analyses of the limitations of one of the four methods, which is to consolidate and distill robust laboratory findings reported over the past decades and attempt to translate them for classroom practice. An alternative method is proposed, which is to translate a theory of how students learn, called Interactive, Constructive, Active, Passive (ICAP), so that teachers and practitioners can translate their understanding of such a theory into practice themselves, thereby giving teachers autonomy, flexibility, generalizability, and ownership of their own designed interventions based on ICAP. The paper proposes that in order to close the research‐practice gap, a multi‐step empirical translation research framework is needed.
Technical Report
A full-text PDF file can be downloaded at http://family-school.snu.ac.kr/new/sub3/3_2.php?mode=view&number=314&b_name=data4&page=1
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This study used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups of children exposed to similar Home Language and Literacy Environments (HLLE) and explored whether belonging to a given HLLE group was related to children’s language and early literacy growth from prekindergarten to kindergarten. Participants were 1,425 Chilean mothers and their children (M age = 52.52 months at baseline) from low‐socioeconomic status households. Four HLLE groups were identified, which were associated with different trajectories of language and early literacy development. Children from groups whose mothers either read and talk about past events with them or teach them letters in addition to reading and talking about past events, showed higher relative vocabulary and letter knowledge. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.
Thesis
While heritage languages (HLs) have been receiving much research attention, there is still a scarcity of studies conducted on local HL communities. However, researchers in New Zealand have been actively engaged with various community languages for over four decades, providing rich insights into the dynamics of language maintenance and language shift within these communities. Although New Zealand sociolinguistic scholarship has covered a wide range of languages and ethnicities, there is no known study on the Indian Hindi community, whose HL is the fourth most spoken language in the country (Statistics New Zealand, 2013). Additionally, previous research has traditionally examined the functional aspects of language use and language attitudes in determining whether language can be preserved, viewing HL communities often as homogeneously formed. In contrast, current trends in the field of sociolinguistics aim to examine the connections between individuals and their languages (i.e. identity), taking multilingualism as a norm and focusing on dynamism in intraspeaker and interspeaker language use. This thesis addresses these issues by exploring how the realities that heritage language learners (HLLs) live connect to identity negotiation and development in social interaction. In particular, this thesis focuses on a group of learners of Hindi as a heritage language in New Zealand – a group that is under-explored. Grasping the relationship between the HLLs’ experiences and how they develop and negotiate heritage-related identities necessitates a micro-level analysis of language use by casting an eye on language practices in the language maintenance school and the home, for they constitute two key spaces of exposure to the HLs and cultures. Moreover, examining how HLLs draw upon indexicality to conceptualise their languages provides rich insights into their identity negotiation and development. The primary data for the analyses is mobilised in three dimensions adopting an ethnographic approach. The first dimension includes limited-participant observations for one school term, making a total of 20 hours of observation out of which 12 hours were recorded. The observations look at language practices in a multi-site Hindi School (HS) where families of Indian descent from various linguistic, ethnic, cultural and national backgrounds come together forming a constellation of communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998b) to stay connected with their Indian heritage. I also conducted semi-structured interviews with eight parents and stakeholders in the HS to enrich the analysis and check my interpretations of the observed and recorded practices. The second dimension embraces recordings of home interaction within three families with the aim of exploring language practices in the home. A total of eight hours of recorded data were collected in different conversational encounters (e.g. in the car, at the dining table and playtime). The families participating in this research have unique characteristics in terms of their heterogeneous configuration. The first family exemplifies a transnational adoptive family which is a unique family structure that has not been researched in New Zealand. The other two families reflect multicultural New Zealand Indian families where the parents do not speak the same HL. Finally, the data in the third dimension comes from the learners through linguistic reflection drawings (Krumm & Jenkins, 2001; Seals, 2017b). Twenty HLLs participated in the drawing activity which aims at examining how they process meaning-making through the use of language-colour association and views the linguistic repertoire as embodied (Bucholtz & Hall, 2016; Krumm & Jenkins, 2001). By employing the concept of communities of practice during in-depth discourse analysis, the HS data suggests that the shared practices within the school contribute to the construction of the learners’ multilingual and national/cultural identities, emphasising the Indian identity as an overarching one (i.e. Indianness), rather than privileging other regional, national or religious identities. Additionally, the analysis of the home data suggests that no matter how committed community members are, the HL is not always actively used at home. Rather, the three families in this study take part in a wide range of language practices that index their Indian identities. They introduce aspects of the Indian culture, which is mostly indexed via music, food and cultural lexical items in their discourse (Friesen, 2008; Shah, 2013). While HL literacy skills (e.g. numeracy and the reading of literary texts) were elicited, English linguistic features that are often associated with Indian English were used to construct Indian identity. However, at times multiple memberships became problematic because it contradicted other socially constructed identities, depending on the membership that is activated in the interaction settings. The analysis offers insights into the complexities of discursive identity negotiation within the home and the intricate relationship between identity negotiation and multiple memberships. Finally, the analysis of the HLLs’ linguistic reflection drawings through an indexical lens (Ochs, 1993) reveals that the participants use their languages as direct indices to display forms of capital (Bourdieu, 1986), which in turn are discursively used to index national and cultural identities. Likewise, some participants used their multilingual identities as a resource to negotiate national and/or cultural identities. Overall, this thesis sheds light on the complexities of identity negotiation and development in heterogeneous communities where community members have multiple heritage languages. As this research is the first to present non-traditional language school and family configurations in the New Zealand context, it will hopefully enrich the understanding of the dynamics of heritage language education and identity negotiation in such superdiverse settings.
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Families’ mealtime talk has significant implications for children’s language development. This study investigated five middle-class Australian Chinese families that differ in their lifestyles and meal routines. It aims to explore (1) the nature of the Chinese parents’ language use in interactions with children at mealtime and (2) the factors that may impact the quality of mealtime talk. Drawing on systemic functional linguistic theory, the parents’ language was analysed in terms of interpersonal functions and cohesive patterns. The findings show distinctive differences among the families. The parents sitting with children for meals generated a higher quality of language that contained informational functions, expanded in various cohesive patterns, than the families where parents were positioned separately from children or where fathers were absent from dinner. This study indicates the diversity of Chinese children’s language experiences at home. Lifestyles and meal routines could be a mediator affecting the nature of mealtime talk.
Chapter
From the moment children come into the world, they begin to participate in everyday activities within their communities that play a critical role in shaping their development. As children take part in these everyday activities, they develop the cognitive, language, and socio-emotional skills, as well as the social knowledge and competence needed to become full-fledged members of their community. Through this process, they acquire a toolkit of cultural resources that can be drawn upon as they take action and make meaning in their everyday lives. This toolkit continuously expands as children grow, develop, and are exposed to different ways of being, doing, thinking, acting, and learning. In this chapter, we argue that capitalizing on these cultural resources can foster children’s early educational success, not only through the acquisition of new knowledge and skills but also by forging positive and productive home-school connections. In doing so, we review interventions that integrate the cultural practices of Latino families as points of leverage to support young children’s early language and literacy development.
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Considerable research now suggests that, in addition to the phonemic awareness skills which support early decoding, skilled reading also requires more general oral language competencies, particularly those involving the use of decontextualized language. The basic hypothesis of the Home-School Study of Language and Literacy development is that early development of skill with decontextualized language will be related to reading comprehension abilities when children are in the middle grades of school. A model is presented which illustrates this theory and an overview of the sample, the data collection techniques, and the types of analyses are described.
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This study examines the use of politeness routines at the dinner table in the homes of eight middle‐class American families with preschool‐age children. Politeness routines, for example please, thank you, may I please be excused, were used pervasively. In addition, in six of the eight families parents used routinized prompts for eliciting politeness from their children, for example, What do you say? and What's the magic word? The discussion considers the acquisition of routines not only as social markers and as evidence of linguistic socialization, but as having a linguistic function as well. Adults provide children with their earliest lessons in stylistic variation when they insist that the children change the form of their utterances to more polite variants (routines; politeness formulas: linguistic socialization; parental teaching; stylistic variation; developmental pragmatics).
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The domain of narrative is often assumed to be the first extended discourse genre accessible to young children, and a natural mode for representing and remembering information. Ultimately, however, children must move beyond narrative to include other genres within their competency, such as explanation. Furthermore, narrative and explanation share a number of features that might lead one to expect more or less parallel development. We studied the occurrence of narrative and explanatory sequences of talk during mealtimes in 31 lowincome families with preschool-aged children. Narrative and explanatory sequences constituted approximately equal percentages of the total talk, but explanatory sequences were much briefer and more frequent than narrative sequences. Equivalent measures of narrative and explanatory talk showed moderate correlations, suggesting that families that engaged in one type of discourse also engaged in the other; this suggestion was confirmed by the finding that a large proportion of explanatory utterance were also parts of narratives. As 3- and 4-year-olds, children participated more competently in narrative than in explanatory discourse, though they requested many explanations at all ages. (Discourse Genres; Explanation; Development)
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This study examines mealtimes of preschoolers' families to determine whether rare words are used in informative ways so that a child could learn their meanings. Is there an association between informative use of rare words and the child's later vocabulary? Each use of rare words in 160 transcripts was coded for whether it was informative or uninformative. Each informative exchange was coded for type of strategy used to provide support: physical or social context, prior knowledge, and semantic support. There were 1,631 exchanges around rare words. About two-thirds of these exchanges were informative uses from which the child could learn the word's meaning. The most frequent strategy used was semantic support, accounting for two-thirds of strategies used. The frequency of use of rare words was positively correlated with age-five and age-seven PPVT scores.
Chapter
Discourse, Learning, and Schooling explores theoretical and methodological relationships between childrens' discourse - or socially used language - and their learning in educational settings. Within the fields of education and psychology, the role that discourse plays in social processes of learning and teaching has emerged as a critical, empirical and theoretical question. Authors in this volume address a range of issues, including literacy, authorship, the construction of self and classroom interaction. The chapters range from research studies of classroom discourse to essays reflecting on discourse and literacies. Collectively these chapters reflect both sociocognitive perspectives on relations between discourse, learning, and schooling, and sociocultural perspectives on discourse and literacies among diverse cultural groups.
Article
SOLITARY INDIVIDUALS waiting for flights in an airport departure lounge were classified as either readers (engaged in recreational reading for 10 consecutive minutes) or nonreaders by an experimenter unobtrusively observing their behavior. Of the 217 subjects, 111 were classified as readers and 106 as nonreaders. Individuals classified as readers scored higher on several recognition checklist measures of print exposure that can be administered in a matter of minutes. Individuals judged to be high in print exposure-on the basis of either an inference from their airport behavior or an inference from their responses on the checklist measures-displayed more extensive vocabularies and cultural knowledge than did individuals low in print exposure. Although engagement in literacy activities was correlated with both age and education, exposure to print was a substantial predictor of vocabulary and cultural knowledge even after differences in age and education were controlled. The results, taken in conjunction with the outcomes of several related studies, suggest a more prominent role for exposure to print in theories of individual differences in cognitive development.
Article
The present study examines the activity of storytelling at dinnertime in English‐speaking, Caucasian‐American families. Our findings demonstrate that, through the process of story co‐narration, family members draw upon and stimulate critical social, cognitive, and linguistic skills that underlie scientific and other scholarly discourse as they jointly construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct theories of everyday events. Each story is potentially a theory of a set of events in that it contains an explanation, which may then be overtly challenged and reworked by co‐narrators. Our data suggest that complex theory‐building through storytelling is promoted by (and constitutive of) interlocutors’ familiarity with one another and/or the narrative events. As such, long before children enter a classroom, everyday storytelling among familiars constitutes a commonplace medium for socializing perspective‐taking, critical thinking, and other intellectual skills that have been viewed as outcomes of formal schooling.
Article
The input of mothers and fathers to five-year-old children was examined, in both dyadic and whole-family interactions, to determine whether paternal input to five-year-olds was more challenging and less finely tuned than maternal input, as has been reported for interactions with younger children. Previous work has suggested that fathers' input might be particularly helpful in the development of the distanced communicative skills that develop after toddlerhood. Language of all speakers (in both family and dyadic settings) was analysed for evidence of complexity, for conversational function, and for cognitive challenge, variables that previous investigations have suggested might differentiate fathers' from mothers' language. However, in both interaction settings these mothers spoke more and more complexly than fathers and at mealtimes they were more active in initiating varied conversation topics in which the child could participate.
Article
The social-linguistic experiences of early readers in interaction with their parents were compared to that of age peers from similar families. Twelve kindergarten children, six precocious readers (ER) and six prereading peers (PR), and their parents were subjects for this study. Children were matched on age, sex, and receptive vocabulary (PPVT). ERs were reading fluently at the third grade level. The PRs presented age-appropriate emergent literacy skills. All parents were middle class, and educated at least two years beyond secondary school. The oral language of all speakers was analyzed for variables considered to be facilitative of the development of decontextualized language. Analyses of the 36 audio-recorded interactions focused on elements that described each speaker's 1) language complexity, 2) conversational devices, and 3) topic, as well as the children's performance on two decontextualized language tasks. ERs' parents created an even more enriched language environment for their children than PRs' parents. All significant and nonsignificant differences relating to decontextualized language favored ER families. ERs did not differ from PRs on the decontextualized task of giving formal definitions, though they did produce more complete and comprehensible procedural descriptions.
Article
Mealtimes reveal culturally specific ways of talking, and constitute opportunities for socialization of children into those ways. In 22 Norwegian families and 22 American families, matched for age and gender of preschoolaged child and for participant constellation, mealtimes were examined for the occurrence and type of narrative and explanatory talk. All indices suggested that the Norwegian families produced more narrative talk – in particular, talk about minor deviations from social scripts – whereas the American families produced more explanatory talk, particularly talk focused on explanations for physical events or for individual behaviors. When Norwegian families gave explanations, they were likely to be focused on social norms and deviations from them, like their narratives. The results are interpreted in relation to the Norwegian cultural values of mitigated collectivism, egalitarianism, homogeneity, and implicit social rules, in contrast to American values of individualism, diversity, and explicit formulation and transmission of civic values. (Socialization, culture, narrative, explanation, family, mealtimes, Norway, USA.)
Article
This study examined patterns of language choice and code‐switching behaviour in the discourse of ten families whose primary home language was Mandarin Chinese. Parent‐child dyads were observed reading a wordless book together, and both parents and target child (age 4.0–6.0 years) were audiotaped during an evening meal. Compared to parents, children incorporated English into more of their utterances, and were more likely to codeswitch in the Chinese‐to‐English direction. Children also complied with the codeswitches of other family members less often than parents, even when the switch was in their preferred direction. Results are interpreted with respect to parents’ and children's differential tendencies to accommodate their speech to their interlocutor, and implications for the maintenance of minority home languages are discussed.
Article
We experimentally assessed a 1-month, home-based intervention, designed to optimize parental reading of picture books to young children. Parents in the experimental group received instructions to increase their rates of open-ended questions, function/attribute questions, and expansions; to respond appropriately to children's attempts to answer these questions; and to decrease their frequency of straight reading and questions that could be answered by pointing. Control-group parents were instructed to read in their customary fashion. All families audiotaped their reading sessions at home. Analysis of these tapes demonstrated that the experimental group scored significantly higher than children in the control group on standardized posttests of expressive language ability. On the basis of analysis of audiotapes, children in the experimental group also had a higher mean length of utterance (MLU), a higher frequency of phrases, and a lower frequency of single words. Follow-up 9 months after the completion of treatment disclosed continued, although statistically diminished, differences between the two groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effects of an interactive book reading program were assessed with children from low-income families who attended subsidized day-care centers in New York. The children entered the program with language development in standard English vocabulary and expression that was about 10 mo behind chronological age on standardized tests. Children were pretested and assigned randomly within classrooms to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) a school plus home condition in which the children were read to by their teachers and their parents, (2) a school condition in which children were read to only by teachers, and (3) a control condition in which children engaged in play activities under the supervision of their teachers. Training of adult readers was based on a self-instructional video. The intervention lasted for 6 wks, at which point children were posttested on several standardized measures of language ability that had been used as pretests. These assessments were repeated at a 6 mo follow-up. Educationally and statistically significant effects of the reading intervention were obtained at posttest and follow-up on measures of expressive vocabulary. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Dinner-table conversations are contexts in which children become socialized to local cultural rules regulating storytelling and may be able to achieve autonomy in telling stories, as tellers of stories, and in the content or tale recounted. Conversations from five American and five Israeli middle-class families and five American working-class families matched on family constellation generated 33, 40, and 15 narratives, respectively. Each of the groups demonstrated a different pattern on dimensions such as who participated in telling narratives, who initi-ated narratives, and how secondary narrators participated; Israeli family narra-tives were more collaborative but with relatively little child participation, whereas American middle-class children participated more by initiating their own narratives and American working-class children narrated in response to adult elicitation. All three groups demanded fidelity to truth and coherence in the tales children told, but many more of the narratives told in Israeli families had to do with events known to all the family members, whereas American children told stories about events unfamiliar to at least some family members. (Communication)
Article
In this book, early childhood professionals, educators, and parents will travel into the homes and schools of more than 70 young children from diverse backgrounds and observe parent–child and teacher–child interactions. This book explores both the home and the school environments of children at ages 3, 4, and 5. Shows how families talk to their young children during everyday activities like book reading, toy play, and mealtimes. It also examines children's conversations throughout the school day and consider how teachers strive to support children's development. Readers will (1) see how the children's home and school environments correlate to their later reading success, (2) read transcripts of parent–child and teacher–child interactions that illustrate how everyday interactions relate to later development, (3) get suggestions for enhancing children's language and literacy development at home and school, and (4) learn how conversations and activities play out in the lives of 4 children in the study. Professionals and parents will come to understand how much their interactions with young children make a difference in the children's later language and literacy skills. They will also learn what they should be doing to give young children the best possible start in literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this article is to outline the types and frequency of explanatory talk that occur in naturalistic conversations of low-income families of preschoolers. Thirty-one families participated in the study, tape-recording family mealtimes when their children were 3, 4, and 5 years old. A total of 75 transcripts were collected and analyzed for the presence of nine categories of explanatory talk, including intentional, causal, evidential, definitional/descriptive, procedural, and consequential. Explanatory talk consisted of conversation concerning some connection between objects, events, concepts, and/or conclusions that one speaker is pointing out to another. The most frequent type of explanations fell into intentional categories, which accounted for more than half of all segments of explanatory talk.
Article
This study explores the degree of cultural diversity in the dinner-table conversation narrative events of eight middle-class Jewish-American and eight Israeli families, matched on family constellation. Conceptualized in terms of a threefold framework of telling, tales, and tellers, the analysis reveals both shared and unshared narrative event properties. Narrative events unfold in both groups in similar patterns with respect to multiple participation in the telling, the prevalence of personal experience tales, and the respect for children's story-telling rights. Yet cultural styles come to the fore in regard to each realm as well as their interrelations. American families locate tales outside the home but close in time, ritualizing recounts of “today”; Israeli families favor tales more distant in time but closer to home. While most narratives foreground individual selves, Israeli families are more likely to recount shared events that center around the family “us” as protagonist. In modes of telling, American families claim access to story ownership through familiarity with the tale, celebrating monologic performances; but in Israeli families, ownership is achievable through polyphonic participation in the telling. (Ethnography of communication, language and culture, conversation analysis, folklore, narrative).
Article
The question addressed in this paper is how children come to understand the three dimensions of social distance, power, and degree of imposition that control the use of politeness forms. Parent-child interactions in 110 families drawn from four different sources were analyzed to determine relative frequency of use of standard politeness forms (please, thank, excuse), and to explore the conditions under which such forms are used by parents to children. Although no robust social class differences in frequency of politeness form use were found, mothers used approximately twice as many politeness forms in addressing developmentally delayed (Down Syndrome) children as normally developing children. Requests to children to observe the basic rules of family interaction were relatively direct and unmitigated, sometimes even aggravated. Parents did, however, address children's positive and negative face needs when requesting favors of them, or when requesting or prohibiting activities that fell outside the realm of minimal civilized behavior. Although we found very few instances in which children received direct instruction about how the politeness system works, ample information about the rules governing the use of both positive and negative politeness strategies is available to children from their interactions with their parents.
Article
Vita. Thesis (Ed. D.)--Harvard Graduate School of Education, 1997. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 220-227). Photocopy. s
Article
A corpus of nearly 150,000 maternal word-tokens used by 53 low-income mothers in 263 mother-child conversations in 5 settings (e.g., play, mealtime, and book readings) was studied. Ninety-nine percent of maternal lexical input consisted of the 3,000 most frequent words. Children's vocabulary performance in kindergarten and later in 2nd grade related more to the occurrence of sophisticated lexical items than to quantity of lexical input overall. Density of sophisticated words heard and the density with which such words were embedded in helpful or instructive interactions, at age 5 at home, independently predicted over a third of the variance in children's vocabulary performance in both kindergarten and 2nd grade. These two variables, with controls for maternal education, child nonverbal IQ, and amount of child's talk produced during the interactive settings, at age 5, predicted 50% of the variance in children's 2nd-grade vocabulary.
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1002/cad In a study of the same mealtime conversations described above, Beals (1997) identified each use of a rare word
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Child discourse and social learning: An interdisciplinary perspective
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Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews
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