Article

Investigation on Injury to Plants from Air Pollution in the Los Angeles Area

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Spinach, beet, endive, oat, and alfalfa plants were used for the determination of crop damaging pollutants in the air of metropolitan Los Angeles. The catalytic oxidation of the olefins with NO/sub 2/ under the influence of sunlight produces oxidation products very similar to those produced by ozone. In the plant fumigations with oxidation products of olefins, lachrymatory effects were often observed. These investigations demonstrate the utility of plants in analyzing air pollutants. They further show for the first time that hydrocarbons, normally harmless air pollutants of organic nature, can cause severe damage through their reaction with substances know to be in the air. In this way these experiments have contributed to a better understanding of the smog problem.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Smog-like leaf damage was observed for seven species exposed to concentrations of acrolein ranging from 233 to 4700 µg/m 3 (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Darley et al., 1960;Masaru et al., 1976). The most sensitive plant tested was alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which developed speckled surface necrosis (percentage effect not given) after a 9-h exposure to 233 µg acrolein/m 3 , the lowest concentration tested in a study by Haagen-Smit et al. (1952). ...
... Smog-like leaf damage was observed for seven species exposed to concentrations of acrolein ranging from 233 to 4700 µg/m 3 (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Darley et al., 1960;Masaru et al., 1976). The most sensitive plant tested was alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which developed speckled surface necrosis (percentage effect not given) after a 9-h exposure to 233 µg acrolein/m 3 , the lowest concentration tested in a study by Haagen-Smit et al. (1952). This concentration corresponded to a NOEC for the four other species of crop plants tested in that study (sugar beet, Beta sp.; endive, Cichorium endivia; spinach, Spinacia oleracea; oats, Avena sp.). ...
... This concentration corresponded to a NOEC for the four other species of crop plants tested in that study (sugar beet, Beta sp.; endive, Cichorium endivia; spinach, Spinacia oleracea; oats, Avena sp.). The method of exposure involved the vaporization of liquid acrolein continuously injected into a fumigation chamber (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952). In a study of the Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) seed, there was a complete inhibition of pollen tube elongation following a 5-h exposure to 910 µg acrolein/m 3 (Masaru et al., 1976). ...
... In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the LACAPCD, in collaboration with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), undertook an extensive research program to determine what air pollutant species were responsible for this plant damage and to define safe concentrations of these species [9,10]. Much of the experimental work was conducted in the Earhart Plant Research Laboratory at Caltech in Pasadena, California. ...
... The visibility in downtown Los Angeles on good days was approximately 7 miles but was 1 mile or less on intensely smoggy days. In the earlier fumigation work in which smog damage to plants was studied, it was observed that greater damage resulted when using unsaturated hydrocarbons (olefins) than when using saturated hydrocarbons [9]. In discussing this, Haagen-Smit noted that a major change in Los Angeles gasoline composition had occurred during World War II, due to the introduction of catalytic cracking processes [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
During the 1940s, an unusual form of air pollution was experienced in the Los Angeles (LA) area of Southern California. Referred to as LA smog, this pollution differed from previously known air pollution with respect to its temporal patterns (daytime formation and nighttime dissipation), eye irritation, high oxidant levels, and plant damage. Early laboratory and field experimentation discovered the photochemical origins of LA smog. Though mechanistic understanding was incomplete, it was determined that hydrocarbon (HC) compounds in the atmosphere participate in smog formation, enabling build-up of higher ozone concentrations than would otherwise occur. It being a significant source, there was great interest in characterizing and controlling HC emissions from motor vehicles. Considerable work was done in the 1940s and 1950s to understand how emissions varied with vehicle operating conditions and deterioration of engine components. During this time, procedures were developed (and improved) to sample and quantify vehicle emissions. Besides exhaust, HC emissions from crankcase blowby, carburetor evaporation, and fuel tank losses were measured and characterized. Initial versions of both catalytic and non-catalytic exhaust after-treatment systems were developed. The knowledge gained from this pre-1960 work laid the foundation for many advancements that reduced vehicle emissions and improved air quality during subsequent decades.
... In the early 1950s, the atmospheric chemistry of the infamous Los Angeles (LA) photochemical "smog" was characterized, and ozone identified as a major component of smog. Haagen-Smit (1952) and Haagen-Smit et al. (1952) reported that ozone is formed during the day when the chemical precursors to ozone formation (nitrous oxides [NOx] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) react in sunlight-driven atmospheric photochemical reactions. These authors, as well as the Stanford Research Institute (SRI 1954), reported that common sources of NOx and VOCs included fossil fuel combustion, vehicle emissions, industrial processes, and others. ...
... Middleton et al. (1950) described visible injury to herbaceous plants due to the LA photochemical smog, which included ozone. Two years later Haagen-Smit et al. (1952) reported ozone injury on leaves of alfalfa, endive, and spinach plants following laboratory exposures to the photochemical oxidants in LA smog. Soon after, Middleton (1956) observed ozone injury on field beans in California. ...
... 1950 : Middleton décrit les dommages visibles sur la végétation provoqués par la pollution photochimique (Middleton et al. 1950). Dans les années qui suivent, les effets sur la végétation de la pollution à l'ozone en particulier seront identifiés (Haagen-Smit et al. 1952). ...
... Dans les années 1940, la mise en évidence de teneurs élevées en ozone dans l'air ambiant de la région de Los Angeles a été suivie des premières observations de dommages visibles sur la végétation. D'abord associés à la pollution photochimique en général (Middleton et al. 1950, Haagen-Smit et al. 1952, ces symptômes ont par la suite été clairement reliés à la présence d'ozone (Heggestad & Middleton 1959). Depuis ces études originelles, l'impact de l'ozone troposphérique sur les plantes a été amplement documenté et l'ozone est aujourd'hui considéré comme le premier polluant phytotoxique à l'échelle mondiale. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
L'ozone est aujourd'hui considéré comme le premier polluant atmosphérique en termes de phytotoxicite. Bien que ses effets sur le métabolisme des arbres forestiers soient documentes, la réponse de la photorespiration et la relation entre le développement des feuilles et leur sensibilité à l'ozone restent méconnues. Afin d'étudier ces aspects, de jeunes plants de peuplier (Populus x canescens [Aiton] Sm.) ont été soumis en chambres de fumigation a une concentration de 120 ppb en ozone pendant 35 jours. Les arbres traités ont montre des symptômes foliaires (nécrose, chlorose et abscission précoce) ainsi qu'une réduction de la croissance radiale de la tige. Ces effets ont été accompagnes d'une diminution importante de la capacité photosynthétique (A, (phi]PSII) des feuilles matures, provenant de l'altération de la capacité de fixation du CO2 par la rubisco (Vcmax et activité in vitro) et de la photochimie (chlorophylles, Fv/Fm). Dans ces feuilles, l'exposition à l'ozone a provoqué une réduction importante de l'activité photorespiratoire in vivo et de activité glycolate oxydase, suggérant une inhibition coordonnée de la photosynthèse et de la photorespiration due a la réduction de la capacité rubisco. Dans ce contexte, l'absence d'effet sur la sousunite H de la glycine decarboxylase et la stimulation de l'activité glutamine synthétase, deux enzymes pourtant liées à la photorespiration, suggèrent une modification de leur rôle en réponse a l'ozone. Par ailleurs, une stimulation de la respiration mitochondriale et de activité phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase est induite par l'ozone et pourrait répondre à une demande accrue en pouvoir réducteur due a la mobilisation du système antioxydant. Le fait qu'aucun des paramètres étudiés n'ait été modifié par l'ozone dans les feuilles en phase précoce d'expansion indique que la sensibilité à l'ozone apparait au cours du développement foliaire, vraisemblablement au moment de la transition puits/source.
... So schrieb bereits Schönbein 1844 [1]: "So gut das Ozon einen Catarrh zu verursachen vermag, so gut kann es auch eine zarte Blüthe desorganisiren". Sichtbare Schädigungen an der Vegetation in größerem Ausmaß wurden erstmals 1944 im Raum Los Angeles beobachtet [2]. Im Zusammenhang mit den sog. ...
... Interestingly, troposheric ozone may be essential for survival of many organisms by playing a key role in enhancing human health and well being since O3 is involved in chemical reactions that clean the troposphere of some pollutants but is at the same time drastically harmful to life because it reacts with any oxidizable compound (organic or inorganic) (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Ozone/). In plants, the discovery of the phytotoxicity of O3 during the mid 1950's (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952) prompted widespread studies on the effects of O3 on their growth and development (Ashmore, 2005). ...
Article
Akademisk avhandling Som med vederbörligt tillstånd av rektorsämbetet vid Umeå universitet för avläggande av filosofie doktorsexamen i ämnet växtfysiologi. Framläggs till offentligt försvar i KB3A9, KBC-huset, Fredagen den 12 oktober 2007, kl. 10.00 Avhandlingen kommer att försvaras på engelska.
... So schrieb bereits Schönbein 1844 [1]: "So gut das Ozon einen Catarrh zu verursachen vermag, so gut kann es auch eine zarte Blüthe desorganisiren". Sichtbare Schädigungen an der Vegetation in größerem Ausmaß wurden erstmals 1944 im Raum Los Angeles beobachtet [2]. Im Zusammenhang mit den sog. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tropospheric ozone poses a critical threat for human health as well as for vegetation. In the context of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) concentration-based and stomatal flux-based critical levels for vegetation were defined above which direct adverse effects on sensitive vegetation may occur according to present knowledge. While concentration-based critical levels are suitable for estimating the risk of damage only, flux-based critical levels and the associated response functions could be used for assessing economic losses. If the flux-based critical levels are exceeded the corresponding receptor is at risk. In accordance with the meaning of Article 2 of the European Council Directive 2008/50/EC for wheat a target value is suggested by the working group NA 134-03-03-02 "Effects of Air Pollutants on Vegetation" of the Commission on Air Pollution Prevention of VDI and DIN - Standards Committee KRdL. Relative yield losses should be related to this target value and the use of a three colour scale (traffic lights) is recommended to indicate and communicate the degree of risk for ozone damage.
... The effects of O 3 on the appearance of leafy crops have been known for several decades (e.g. Guderian et al., 1985;Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Heagle, 1989;Temple et al., 1990). Widespread and even complete yield loss due to the effects on the aspect of the crop has been recorded in the field (Fumagalli et al., 2001;Manning et al., 1972;Oshima et al., 1974). ...
Article
Two open-top chamber experiments were carried out at a continental and a coastal location in Spain to test the ozone sensitivity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla) under Mediterranean conditions. Three cultivars of spinach and two cultivars of Swiss chard currently grown in commercial fields were screened for ozone tolerance in terms of marketable yield. Different physiological parameters were measured to identify traits related with this tolerance and ozone effects on yield quality.
... al., 2011). These changes can be seen in form of chlorosis, necrosis, and element deficiency in plant system (Haagen et al., 1952;Taylor, 1978 (Angold 1997;Bobbink et. al., 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of air pollution has become complex than any other environmental challenges as one cannot produce fresh ambient air to respire. Plant species reduce pollution through their leaf and other aerial surfaces from air by sedimentation and impaction process. In the present work, distinctive changes in plant towards air pollution were assessed by studying their biochemical contents to determine the value of air pollution tolerance index. The plant species chosen were Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sisso, Ficus religiosa and Delonix regia grown-up as roadside plantation. The site was exposed to constant vehicular traffic plying on Najafgarh road network in Delhi. The tolerance index value was found to be maximum for Dalbergia sisso (16.59) followed by Azadirachta indica (14.66), Ficus religiosa (12.41) and last for Delonix regia (8.78). The values indicated a range for sensitive to tolerant kind of plant species growing under air pollution affected areas. The anticipated performance value for individual species was also evaluated to determine the benefits from physical features to other socioeconomic uses in society. The study of pollution resistance feature in favor of urban vegetation represented an alternative way against air pollution through green spaces developed around emissions from vehicular pollution.
... Since the detection of foliar injury by ozone pollution in 1950s (Middleton et al. 1950(Middleton et al. , 1953(Middleton et al. , 1956Haagen-Smit et al. 1952;Noble 1955;Richards et al. 1958), visible foliar injury by O 3 (O 3 visible injury) has been used as a biomarker to assess potential phytotoxicity of O 3 . Ozone visible injury has been investigated in native and exotic trees, shrubs, and Responsible editor: Yi-ping Chen Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9475-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ...
Article
Full-text available
Visible foliar injury by ozone (ozone visible injury) is known as a biomarker to assess potential phytotoxicity of ozone. We investigated ozone visible injury in an ozone-sensitive poplar (Oxford clone) under a 2-year free-air controlled exposure (FACE) experiment and calculated three ozone indices (i.e., accumulative ozone exposure over 40 ppb during daylight hours (AOT40), phytotoxic ozone dose above a flux threshold of 0 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (POD0), and the cumulative value of the ratio of hourly ozone uptake to net photosynthesis (ΣU/P n ) to assess the critical level (CL) at the time of the first symptom onset of ozone visible injury. We tested the hypothesis that ozone injury depends both on the amount of ozone entering a leaf and on the capacity for biochemical detoxification or repair with photosynthesis as a proxy. The CLs at the time of the first symptom onset of ozone visible injury were 19 ppm h for AOT40, 26 mmol m(-2) for POD0, and 1.2 mol mol(-1) for ΣU/P n in Oxford clone at the ozone FACE experiment. Our findings were then verified by 4-year observation-based data in central Italy on Oxford clone and white poplar (Populus alba L.). These observation-based data indicated that we found ozone visible injury in Oxford clone even though AOT40 was relatively low (11.7 ppm h). On the other hand, when values of POD0 and ΣU/P n exceeded over the CLs, the occurrence of initial symptoms in Oxford clone was shown. White poplar did not show ozone visible injury. ΣU/P n of white poplar at the field sites reached ~1.0 mol mol(-1) (less than the CL = 1.2 mol mol(-1), which was obtained from O3 FACE) during May-September, although the values of POD0 were relatively high in white poplar (44-47 mmol m(-2) during May-September). The result implies that ozone injury may have occurred in poplars when stomatal ozone flux exceeded the critical range of tolerance due to the assimilate shortage for repair and defense against ozone stress.
... In the 1940s and 1950s, different studies were developed to understand better how pollution may impact plants (Thomas, 1951). Scientists started to observe, in 1944, nocive damages to some plant's leaves induced by polluted air (smog) (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952). In the 1950s, important progresses were made, such as comprehending that the damage induced by pollution on plants was a reality and it not always was apparent to human eyes: the absence of leaf injury was not a proof of lack of impairments; decrease in plant's growth rate without apparent impairment on plant's appearance may occur as a consequence of exposure to pollutants (Bleasdale, 1952). ...
Chapter
As the environmental pollution is a major concern for human beings worldwide, different strategies have been developed over the years to try to mitigate the dangers associated with environmental pollutants and/or to efficiently remove them from contaminated areas, thus recovering the balance of the ecosystem. Phytoremediation is an efficient, well-accepted, low-cost, eco-friendly strategy to contribute to the restoration of environments. The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of plant-based remediation, highlighting the most relevant facts so that the scenario of today was achieved.
... Interestingly, troposheric ozone may be essential for survival of many organisms by playing a key role in enhancing human health and well being since O3 is involved in chemical reactions that clean the troposphere of some pollutants but is at the same time drastically harmful to life because it reacts with any oxidizable compound (organic or inorganic) (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Ozone/). In plants, the discovery of the phytotoxicity of O3 during the mid 1950's (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952) prompted widespread studies on the effects of O3 on their growth and development (Ashmore, 2005). ...
Thesis
When switching from green to yellow, a leaf undergoes both morphological and metabolic changes. This process is known as senescence and improved understanding of its mechanisms is important both from a fundamental scientific perspective but also for biotechnological applications. The present thesis reports on several important aspects regarding the cellular and metabolic mechanisms occurring during leaf senescence with an emphasis on the mitochondrial contribution to this process. As a first step, we developed methods to isolate either highly functional crude mitochondria or highly purified mitochondria from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods were further used to study mitochondrial contributions to cellular redox homeostasis and to estimate the mitochondrial capacities in leaves undergoing senescence. In particular, we compared the induction of senescence by different dark treatments in Arabidopsis. The comparison between individually darkened leaves and leaves from whole darkened plants revealed different metabolic strategies in response to darkness. Integrating data from measurements of photosynthesis, respiration and confocal laser microscopy with transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling, we suggested that metabolism in leaves of the whole darkened plants enter a ?stand-by mode? with low mitochondrial activity in order to maintain the photosynthetic machinery for as long as possible. In contrast, mitochondria from individually darkened leaves are more active and may provide energy and carbon skeletons for the degradation of cell constituents, facilitating the retrieval of nutrients. We also investigated the dynamics of the microtubular cytoskeleton during dark-induced senescence. Mitochondrial mobility was affected by an early disruption of the microtubules in individually darkened leaves but not in whole darkened plants. In addition, several microtubules associated proteins (MAPs) seemed to be involved in the bundling of the microtubules around the chloroplasts. Altogether, the work presented in this thesis highlights several important steps regarding the metabolic adjustments and the cellular mechanisms in Arabidopsis leaves submitted to prolonged darkness. In particular, we suggest the mitochondria to fulfill specific and important functions during leaf senescence since the role of mitochondria in leaves experiencing prolonged darkness appears very dependant on the whole metabolic status of the plant.
... The presence of air pollutants in the atmosphere affects not only humans but also the entire biosphere. In fact, the research into the hazardous chemical compounds in Los Angeles photochemical smog by Prof. Arie Haagen-Smit and others was driven in part by a critical need to understand the effect of the air pollution on plants and ecosystems in the area (5). Extreme air pollution episodes leading to health issues and damage to vegetation have prompted the adoption of strict air pollution regulations in many countries. ...
Chapter
The chapter outlines authors' view on the importance of multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere. The chapter starts with a short description of the development of atmospheric chemistry from gas-phase spectroscopy and kinetics into a highly interdisciplinary research on complex multiphase processes. Despite the impressive progress over the years in our understanding of multiphase processes, the air pollution and climate problems are far from being solved. Further research on multiphase chemical reactions and the interactions across phases is needed in order to understand the properties and effects of complex mixtures of trace gases and particles that surround us.
... Haagen-Smit et al_. (1952) were the first to report the influence of some component of the atmosphere in the Los Angeles area of California upon plant tissue. They observed both necrotic lesions and a chlorotic condition in plants exposed to that mixture of pollutants which had been termed "smog".Richards ejt al_. (1958) identified ozone as an important photochem ...
... Nitrogen oxides (NO + NO 2 ≡ NO x ) are trace gases in the atmosphere and are key species controlling air quality and affecting radiative balance. NO x regulates the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (Jacob et al., 1993), which affects the radiative balance in the upper troposphere (Myhre et al., 2013) and is harmful to plants (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Heath, 1975), animals, and humans (Menzel, 1984) at the surface. It also plays a role in the formation of aerosol particles (Izumi and Fukuyama, 1990;Pandis et al., 1992;Carlton et al., 2009;Rollins et al., 2012), which also affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere (Boucher et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
We describe upgrades to the Berkeley High Resolution (BEHR) NO2 satellite retrieval product. BEHR v3.0B builds on the NASA version 3 standard Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 product to provide a high spatial resolution product for a domain covering the continental United States and lower Canada that is consistent with daily variations in the 12km a priori NO2 profiles. Other improvements to the BEHR v3.0 product include surface reflectance and elevation, and factors affecting the NO2 a priori profiles such as lightning and anthropogenic emissions. We describe the retrieval algorithm in detail and evaluate the impact of changes to the algorithm between v2.1C and v3.0B on the retrieved NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). Not surprisingly, we find that, on average, the changes to the a priori NO2 profiles and the update to the new NASA slant column densities have the greatest impact on the retrieved VCDs. More significantly, we find that using daily a priori profiles results in greater average VCDs than using monthly profiles in regions and times with significant lightning activity. The BEHR product is available as four subproducts on the University of California DASH repository, using monthly a priori profiles at native OMI pixel resolution (https://doi.org/10.6078/D1N086) and regridded to 0.05° × 0.05° (https://doi.org/10.6078/D1RQ3G) and using daily a priori profiles at native OMI (https://doi.org/10.6078/D1WH41) and regridded (https://doi.org/10.6078/D12D5X) resolutions. The subproducts using monthly profiles are currently available from January 2005 to July 2017, and will be expanded to more recent years. The subproducts using daily profiles are currently available for years 2005–2010 and 2012–2014; 2011 and 2015 on will be added as the necessary input data are simulated for those years.
... During the first thirty years following the observation of damaging effects of O 3 on plants (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952), few studies were devoted to the effect of O 3 specifically on plant mitochondria (Dizengremel and Citerne, 1988). The concentration of O 3 used was often acute (1 ppm delivered for several hours) and the resulting effect was mainly an inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation (Lee, 1967). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ozone is a secondary air pollutant, which causes oxidative stress in plants by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) starting by an external attack of leaf apoplast. ROS have a dual role, acting as signaling molecules, regulating different physiological processes and response to stress, but also inducing oxidative damage. The production of ROS in plant cells is compartmented and regulated by scavengers and specific enzyme pathways. Chronic doses of ozone are known to trigger an important increase of the respiratory process while decreasing photosynthesis. Mitochondria, which normally operate with usual levels of intracellular ROS, would have to play a prominent role to cope with an enhanced ozone-derived ROS production. It is thus needed to compile the available literature on the effects of ozone on mitochondria to precise their strategy facing oxidative stress. An overview of the mitochondrial fate in three steps is proposed, i) starting with the initial responses of the mitochondria for alleviating the overproduction of ROS by the enhancement of existing antioxidant metabolism and adjustments of the electron transport chain, ii) followed by the setting up of detoxifying processes through exchanges between mitochondria and the cell, and iii) ending by an accelerated senescence initiated by mitochondrial membrane permeability and leading to programmed cell death.
... The presence of hydrocarbons, the scientists learned, resulted in "further development of the symptoms" on plants to the point where the symptoms were "indistinguishable from that noticed on plants exposed to smog" outside the laboratory. 17,18 The team delved further by redoing the fumigation experiments and identifying size-effect variation when hydrocarbon volume was altered. 17 However, hydrocarbons were not the full story. ...
Article
This article analyzes the early years of 20th-century air pollution control in Los Angeles. In both scholarship and public memory, mid-century efforts at the regional level were overshadowed by major federal developments, namely the Clean Air Act and creation of the US Environmental Protection Agency in 1970. Yet the mid-century local experience was highly consequential and presaged many subsequent challenges that persist today. The article begins with an exploration of the existential, on-the-ground misery of smog in Los Angeles during the 1940s and 1950s. The article examines the role that scientific evidence on smog did and did not play in regulation, the reasons smog control galvanized support across various constituencies in the region, and, finally, some of mid-century air pollution’s limits.
... Responses of plants have been examined at different scale levels, from molecular systems to communities [2], [3]. On individual level, a wide range of end-points have been used, growth inhibition and visible leaf symptoms are amongst the most frequently applied [4], [5]. ...
... Originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources (Matsunaga et al., 2002;Sharkey et al., 2008), NMHCs can react with the key oxidants in the atmosphere and thus serve an important sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH) (Hell en et al., 2003;Kansal, 2009). Atmospheric NMHCs also significantly impact the formation of ozone (O 3 ) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (Atkinson, 2000;Donahue and Prinn, 1990); previous studies demonstrated that NMHCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of O 3 (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Haagen-Smit and Fox, 1956). NMHCs could contribute up to 40% of the world's net photochemical O 3 production, resulting in an increase of 17% in the tropospheric O 3 columns (Houweling et al., 1998) and 40% in the oceanic atmosphere (Poisson et al., 2000). ...
Article
Marine-derived reactive gases constitute a substantial fraction of volatile organic compounds and directly impact atmospheric chemistry and the global climate. Light alkene emissions from marginal seas are limited, and their contribution to atmospheric concentrations is likely underestimated. We surveyed oceanic emissions of ethylene, propylene, and isoprene, as well as their potential controlling factors in the marginal seas of China during the cruises in 2014–2015. Significant temporal-spatial variations in ethylene, propylene, and isoprene concentrations were observed, with the highest occurring in summer near the coastal regions. Isoprene concentrations were primarily controlled by phytoplankton biomass (i.e., Chl-a) in coastal regions, while the elevated concentrations of ethylene and propylene were attributed to photochemical reactions with the high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Additionally, the vertical distributions of ethylene and propylene mirrored light penetration, with exponential decrease in concentrations with depth. However, there were high values of ethylene and propylene observed at deep chlorophyll maximum, suggesting the existence of non-photochemical production pathways, most likely biological origin. Emissions of ethylene, propylene, and isoprene from the marginal seas of China were estimated to be 0.022, 0.024, and 0.011 Tg C yr⁻¹, respectively, indicating they are important contributors to global non-methane hydrocarbons. Due to the scarcity of alkene emission data for marginal seas, current global emissions have been underestimated to some extent. It is essential to incorporate the contributions from marginal seas to accurately estimate alkene budgets on global scales.
... Originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources (Matsunaga et al., 2002;Sharkey et al., 2008), NMHCs can react with the key oxidants in the atmosphere and thus serve an important sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH) (Hell en et al., 2003;Kansal, 2009). Atmospheric NMHCs also significantly impact the formation of ozone (O 3 ) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (Atkinson, 2000;Donahue and Prinn, 1990); previous studies demonstrated that NMHCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of O 3 (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Haagen-Smit and Fox, 1956). NMHCs could contribute up to 40% of the world's net photochemical O 3 production, resulting in an increase of 17% in the tropospheric O 3 columns (Houweling et al., 1998) and 40% in the oceanic atmosphere (Poisson et al., 2000). ...
Article
The spatial distributions, fluxes, and environmental effects of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) in spring. The average concentrations of ethane, propane, i-/n-butane, ethylene, propylene and isoprene in the seawater were 18.1 ± 6.4, 15.4 ± 4.7, 6.8 ± 2.9, 6.4 ± 3.2, 67.1 ± 26.7, 20.5 ± 8.7 and 17.1 ± 11.1 pmol L⁻¹, respectively. The alkenes in the surface seawater were more abundant than their saturated homologs and NMHCs concentrations (with the exception of isoprene) decreased with carbon number. The spatial variations of isoprene were consistent with the distributions of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Nitzschia mainly contributed to the production of isoprene, while the others’ distributions might be related to their photochemical production. Observations in atmospheric NMHCs indicated alkanes in the marine atmosphere decreased from inshore to offshore due to influence of the continental emissions, while alkenes were largely derived from the oceanic source. In addition, no apparent diurnal discrepancy of atmospheric NMHCs (except for isoprene) were found between daytime and night. As the main sink of NMHCs in seawater, the average sea-to-air fluxes of ethane, propane, i-/n-butane, ethylene and propylene were 31.70, 29.75, 18.49, 15.89, 239.6, 67.94 and 52.41 nmol m⁻² d⁻¹, respectively. The average annual emissions of isoprene accounted for 0.1–1.3% of the global ocean emissions, which indicated that the coastal and shelf areas might be significant sources of isoprene. Furthermore, this study represents the first effort to estimate the environmental effects caused by NMHCs over the YS and the ECS and the results demonstrated contributions of alkanes to ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were lower than those of the alkenes and the largest contributor was isoprene.
... human health and the environment, and has been linked to increased human mortality and decreased crop yields (Haagen-Smit et al., 1952;Heck et al., 1982;Chameides et al., 1999;Kim et al., 2004;Jerrett et al., 2009). Fleming et al. (2018) noted that the annual fourth-highest maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O 3 value increased at an average rate of 2 ppbv per year between 2000-2014, and the number of days with 8-hour O 3 values greater than 70 ppbv increased by up to two days per year across South Korea. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) has a population of 24 million and frequently experiences unhealthy levels of ozone (O3). In this work, measurements taken during the Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ, 2016) are used to explore regional gradients in O3 and its chemical precursors, and an observationally-constrained 0-D photochemical box model is used to quantify key aspects of O3 production including its sensitivity to precursor gases. Box model performance was evaluated by comparing modeled concentrations of select secondary species to airborne measurements. These comparisons indicate that the steady state assumption used in 0-D box models cannot describe select intermediate species, highlighting the importance of having a broad suite of trace gases as model constraints. When fully constrained, aggregated statistics of modeled O3 production rates agreed with observed changes in O3, indicating that the box model was able to represent the majority of O3 chemistry. Comparison of airborne observations between urban Seoul and a downwind receptor site reveal a positive gradient in O3 coinciding with a negative gradient in NOx, no gradient in CH2O, and a slight positive gradient in modeled rates of O3 production. Together, these observations indicate a radical-limited (VOC-limited) O3 production environment in the SMA. Zero-out simulations identified C7+ aromatics as the dominant VOC contributors to O3 production, with isoprene and anthropogenic alkenes making smaller but appreciable contributions. Simulations of model sensitivity to decreases in NOx produced results that were not spatially uniform, with large increases in O3 production predicted for urban Seoul and decreases in O3 production predicted for far-outlying areas. The policy implications of this work are clear: Effective O3 mitigation strategies in the SMA must focus on reducing local emissions of C7+ aromatics, while reductions in NOx emissions may increase O3 in some areas but generally decrease the regional extent of O3 exposure.
Chapter
Aerial plant parts are capable of absorbing gases and solutes from the surrounding atmosphere and from deposits of dusts or sprays. This phenomenon, or the associated agricultural practice, has been described as foliar feeding, non-root feeding, extra-root feeding, “Blattdüngung” and nutrient absorption by above ground plant parts. In some of the descriptive terms for the phenomenon there is the implication that aerial plant parts other than leaves may also participate in nutrient uptake. Experiments that conclusively demonstrated the uptake of nutrients through leaf surfaces were published as early as 1844 by Gris and were followed by those of Mayer (1874) and Böhm (1877). In recent years the agricultural importance of foliar applications of mineral nutrients has progressively achieved greater proportions.
Chapter
Full-text available
Emissions of volatile organic compounds from plants in the presence of nitrogen oxides can result in plant damage through the production of ozone and other air pollutants. It has long been known that photochemical air pollution can damage vegetation (Middleton et al. 1950). The first laboratory experiments by Haagen-Smit et al. (1952) showed that photolyzed mixtures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and alkenes damage plants. Haagen-Smit and coworkers also showed that ozone was produced in these mixtures (HaagenSmit 1952; Haagen-Smit et al. 1953; Haagen-Smit and Fox 1956).
Article
Ozone concentration in the troposphere has more than doubled since the last century, and the surface ozone concentration superimposed with ozone-rich urban air plumes often reaches damaging levels for vegetation. Since the 1950s, when ozone was identified as the cause of damages to some crop species, many studies have been done about the effects of ozone on crop growth and yield. From 1980 through 1987, the National Crop Loss Assessment Network was conducted in the USA, and the relationship between ozone dose and crop yield response (D-R relationship) was calculated for major crop species from the results of ozone exposure in open-top field chambers. Assessments using the D-R relationship showed substantial loss of agricultural production in the USA and its economic consequences. In Europe too, D-R relationships were established for crop species such as spring wheat by the experiments with open-top chambers. In Japan, a research project was initiated in 1986 for assessing ozone impacts on production of crops with rice of major concern. D-R relationship was established for rice by the experiments with field chambers, and the ozone impact on rice production was estimated with a simple model of rice growth for the Kanto region of Japan. The results showed up to 10% yield loss due to ozone with a large variability by year and location, and the total amount of crop loss of up to 4.7% of the total production in the study area. Variation of the D-R relationships was studied using process-based models of soybean and rice. The results suggested soil water constraint and seasonal variability of ozone concentration as possible causes of the variation. Further analyses with an analytical model indicated that the variation is inherent to D-R relationship, and is generally caused by the fluctuation of the crop growth perse.
Article
Full-text available
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Es wird eine historisch-kritische Betrachtung des Luft-und Klimabegriffs und der gegenwärtigen Forschungsanforderungen an die Beschreibung des Klimasystems sowie dessen Angrenzung zum Erdsystem gegeben. Auf die wichtigsten das Klima mitbestimmenden luftchemischen Prozesse, ihre Ursachen und Evolution wird eingegangen. Eine Prognose der Emissionen klimarelevanter Substanzen wird vorgestellt. ABSTRACT This contribution presents a historic-critical analysis of the air and climate term and the present research needs to describe the climate systems and its distinguishing from the Earth system. The most important atmospheric chemical processes, its causes and evolution will be presented. Finally, a prognosis of climate relevant substances is given.
Chapter
Purpose – Emissions trading is often heralded as an efficient approach to environmental regulation. In the mid-90s Communities for a Better Environment (CBE), a Los Angeles-based advocacy organization, raised concerns that emissions trading in the South Coast Air Basin, the most polluted region in Southern California, would result in environmental injustice. The organizations concerns received mixed responses from regulators. Historical analysis is used to assess the clash between emissions trading and environmental justice (EJ). Methodology/approach – Emissions trading and EJ arose side by side between the 1960s and the 1990s, yet they disagree on how to clean the air. Historical analysis of legal documents, presidential addresses, letters, working papers, reports, and the like offers a better understanding of the development of emissions trading and EJ, and their intersection in environmental policy. Findings – Emissions trading was grafted onto Clean Air Act policies not inherently designed for their incorporation. As a result, emissions trading came into direct philosophical opposition with EJ as political pressures calling for both economically efficient antiregulatory-ism and environmental equity forced their intersection. Formally, regional and national government accepted EJ as part of law. However, in principle, emissions trading undermined this acceptance. As a result, CBE could not easily win or explicitly lose its battle against emissions trading. Originality/value of paper – Previous work on the relationship between emissions trading and EJ tend to focus on legal analysis and normative implications of emissions trading. Putting emissions trading and environment justice into historical perspective helps to illuminate larger questions about EJ activism and policy. Also, as California, the United States, and Europe turn to emissions trading to combat not only air pollution but also climate change, important lessons can be learned from the histories and collision of emissions trading and EJ.
Article
The twentieth-century American experience with the automobile has much to tell us about the relationship between consumer capitalism and the environment, Tom McCarthy contends. In Auto Mania he presents the first environmental history of the automobile that shows how consumer desire (and manufacturer decisions) created impacts across the product lifecycle-from raw material extraction to manufacturing to consumer use to disposal. From the provocative public antics of young millionaires who owned the first cars early in the twentieth century to the SUV craze of the 1990s, Auto Mania explores developments that touched the environment. Along the way McCarthy examines how Henry Ford's fetish for waste reduction tempered the environmental impacts of Model T mass production; how Elvis Presley's widely shared postwar desire for Cadillacs made matters worse; how the 1970s energy crisis hurt small cars; and why baby boomers ignored worries about global warming. McCarthy shows that problems were recognized early. The difficulty was addressing them, a matter less of doing scientific research and educating the public than implementing solutions through America's market economy and democratic government. Consumer and producer interests have rarely aligned in helpful ways, and automakers and consumers have made powerful opponents of regulation. The result has been a mixed record of environmental reform with troubling prospects for the future.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the fact that air pollution enters every phase of our daily lives. The average citizen may find that his eyes hurt. Farmers' crops are damaged, and sometimes ruined. In our laboratories even carefully designed experiments are affected by air pollution. The astronomer is annoyed by light scattering by dust and dirt from the ever-expanding cities. Even on our way to a meeting the buildings we pass afford abundant evidence of the destructive power of air pollution. This chapter briefly sketches the fundamental nature of the air pollution problem and discusses some of the problems where a mathematical treatment can be beneficial. Air pollution studies concern themselves primarily with the nature and variability of the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere. It also discusses that a common operation, such as burning of wood or sawdust in an incinerator is not as straightforward as one would think. The oxidation is seldom complete and combines the features of different types of distillations carried out in the presence and absence of oxygen. In laboratory experiments more than a hundred different compounds have been identified in the dry distillation of wood.
Article
Air must be considered as an important natural resource vital to animals and plants for their life processes and to industry and transportation for combustion purposes. The quality of the air, or the chemical composition of its minor constituents, varies as a result of emission of contaminants from all of man’s activities including the generation of energy, manufacturing of goods, and disposal of various types of wastes. The amounts of the major constituents of air--nitrogen and oxygen--are fairly constant and together account for ninety-nine per cent of the atmosphere near the earth’s surface. In clean air the remaining one per cent is made up of carbon dioxide, water vapor and a variety of other compounds. The minor gaseous constitutents of the air, however, often vary as a result of emissions from the various activities noted above. Thus the quality of the air, when altered by many of these contaminants, may have profound effects on the growth and development of vegetation because gases enter the leaves during the course of normal gas exchange and, if toxic, kill cells and tissues and otherwise interfere with the plant’s normal growth processes.
Article
Full-text available
Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity is caused by the O3 dose absorbed through the stomata. Within the framework of the UNECE ICP Vegetation clover programme a preliminary cumulative critical absorbed dose was derived for the onset of visible injury on the O3 sensitive NC-S biotype of white clover. Water vapour exchange between clover pots and the atmosphere as well as O3 exchange was simulated applying the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model PLATIN (PLant-ATmosphere INteraction). The parameterisation of stomatal conductance was validated via measured evapotranspiration rates. A critical O3 load of 300 mg·m-2 normalised for the effective leaf area unit and accumulated over five consecutive days during daylight hours was derived. Because the level of the critical absorbed dose depends strongly on the parameterisation of non-stomatal deposition, any critical O3 load may not be realistic, since the value is not verified by independent experiments and by micrometeorological O3 flux measurements.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Es wird eine historisch-kritische Betrachtung des Luft-und Klimabegriffs und der gegenwärtigen Forschungsanforderungen an die Beschreibung des Klimasystems sowie dessen Angrenzung zum Erdsystem gegeben. Auf die wichtigsten das Klima mitbestimmenden luftchemischen Prozesse, ihre Ursachen und Evolution wird eingegangen. Eine Prognose der Emissionen klimarelevanter Substanzen wird vorgestellt. ABSTRACT This contribution presents a historic-critical analysis of the air and climate term and the present research needs to describe the climate systems and its distinguishing from the Earth system. The most important atmospheric chemical processes, its causes and evolution will be presented. Finally, a prognosis of climate relevant substances is given.
Chapter
Die Atmosphäre wird in diesem Kapitel vor allem aus der Perspektive des Transports von Luftmassen und deren Eigenschaften betrachtet. Man hat zwischen physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften der Luft zu unterscheiden, die durch Zustandsgrößen wie Temperatur oder Wind auf der einen Seite und Konzentrationen oder Mischungsverhältnissen auf der anderen Seite beschrieben werden. Durch Luftbewegungen transportierte Eigenschaften werden als Flüsse bezeichnet, also Massenfluß, Wärmefluß oder Impulsfluß auf der physikalischen Seite und Spurenstofffluß (etwa Ozonfluß, Wasserdampf-oder Feuchtefluß, CO2-Fluß) auf der chemischen Seite. Diese Flüsse führen bei Spurenstoffen im allgemeinen zu einer Verdünnung, d. h. Konzentrationsabnahme. Das geschieht durch Transport von den Quellen oder Anhäufungsgebieten weg und durch Vermischung mit Luftmassen, die geringere Konzentrationen des transportierten Stoffes aufweisen, ferner durch Transport zu Senkengebieten hin. Ein solches ist die Erdoberfläche für viele Luftbeimengungen, die dort deponiert werden (s. Bd. 1B, Kap. 2). Doch unter gewissen Umständen kann der Transport auch zu Anhäufungen von Schadstoffen führen. Das geschieht, wenn verschmutzte kalte Luft in ein Tal abfließt und sich dort ansammelt. Ein anderes Beispiel, das die beobachtete Ozonverteilung in der Stratosphäre betrifft, ist die Anhäufung von Ozon, das in niedrigen Breiten erzeugt wird, durch konvergenten Ozonmassenfluß in mittleren und höheren Breiten (Fabian 1992).
Chapter
“Water is the best of all things.” This saying of Pindar (518–446 B.C.) has not lost its meaning over the ages. A grain seed, properly stored for thousands of years in a pottery jar, has a good chance to germinate once exposed to the humid soil. A bacterium, enclosed in a crystal of salt, is said to have come to life again after a few hundred million years of suspended animation. Some suggest, however, that the “pickled” bacterium is simply a modern contamination, but I see no reason why it could not have survived for all those years.
Chapter
On the dry weight basis, bulk organic matter is composed of six major elements: carbon (47%), oxygen (33%), hydrogen (9%), nitrogen (9%), sulfur (1%), and phosphorus (1%). It would be ill advised, however, to investigate only the biogeochemical cycling of just these six major elements and not consider the large suite of metal ions that are of vital importance in sustaining life. Close to about 25 essential elements are structurally and functionally involved in cellular activities, and a deficiency in any one of them would be deleterious to life.
Chapter
The major tea-growing regions of the world are located in Asia, where tea contributes substantially to their economy. It is known how the rapid development of the economy, twinned to global change, has created in many districts of industrialized countries critical levels of air pollution. Abiotic stresses may affect plant growth, quality, and distribution. This is particularly important for specialty crops such as tea, where functional quality is determined by phytonutrients, secondary metabolites, and bioactive components that play a pivotal role in plant defense and acclimation/adaptation/resilience to environmental stresses. Stress conditions such as drought, heat, light extremes, salinity, and toxic metals in the substrate have been the subject of intense researches, and the sensitivity of tea plants to these constraints has been tested by the scientific community through field and controlled experiments. Tea plants present high leaf surface areas, and exchange with atmosphere is elevated. However, little is known about the way air pollution affects tea responses and how this species is able to counteract this insult. In this chapter, the existing literature reporting the effects of air pollution on the tea plant is reviewed with the aim to examine physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses found in this species. To the best of our knowledge, only the impacts of few air pollutants have been somehow assessed on tea plants, and several responses are still poorly understood. Thus, more research on the impact of air pollution on tea plants is needed. This is of pivotal importance also because commercial tea samples may contain significant quantities of contaminants, which may be transferred to the consumer. No doubt that health national/international bodies should pay more attention to this issue and adopt safe standards of pollution content in the commodities of one of the world’s most popular beverages, highly appreciated also by young people because of its pleasant aroma, flavor, and potential positive effect on mood.
Article
Full-text available
Key messageOzone, one of the major atmospheric pollutants, alters tree growth, mainly by decreasing carbon assimilation and allocation to stems and roots. To date, the mechanisms of O3 impact at the cellular level have been investigated mainly on young trees grown in controlled or semi-controlled conditions. In the context of climate change, it is necessary to introduce a valuable defence parameter in the models that currently predict O3 impact on mature trees and the carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystems. ContextAir pollution is an important factor that affects negatively forest ecosystems. Among oxidative air pollutants, ozone is considered as the most toxic in terms of impact on vegetation. AimsThis paper focuses on the negative impacts of ozone on trees in controlled conditions or in their natural environment. The current knowledge of the responses at cell level is presented and ways to improve their use for ozone risk assessment of forest stands are discussed. Methods Information was collected from original papers or reviews, providing an overview of the research conducted over the last 60 years. ResultsThe negative effects of ozone on carbon assimilation and tree biomass production were reviewed and discussed, with a focus on effects on cell processes implied in cell defence, including stomatal regulation, detoxification, signalling, and biosynthesis of wood compound. Conclusion In the context of increasing significance of O3 flux approach, this review intends to shed light into the black box of defence processes, which are playing a crucial part within the effective O3 dose modelling. Today, it is recognized that tropospheric ozone inhibits tree growth and its role on the future carbon sink of the forest ecosystem is discussed along with the combination of other environmental factors like elevated temperature, water, and nitrogen supply, likely to be modified in the context of climate change.
Article
Full-text available
Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and Rhodium (Rh) has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.
Chapter
The effects of chemical substances on plant cells have been studied extensively, and for several reasons. In the realm of fundamental research their use has permitted systematic study of the various cellular functional systems in one way or another; examples are selective respiratory enzyme inhibitors, synthetic growth regulators, and narcotics. In addition, various extremely toxic substances serve as cytological fixing agents, which must possess the capacity of stopping living processes in the shortest possible time in order to preserve original structures. Poisons and the underlying toxicological principles find application in the field of crop protection, where especially rapid advances have been made in the last 20 years. Pesticides have been developed that are lethal to insects but harmless to plants; others that are selective towards fungi. There is today a rapidly expanding group of herbicides, with which it is possible to eliminate plants that grow where they are not wanted. It is encouraging that in a technological field such as weed control many workers are carrying on fundamental research in the physiological (or pathological) effects of poisons on plant cells and tissues. Results of theoretical interest in many instances find immediate application.
Article
NO x lifetime relates nonlinearly to its own concentration; therefore, by observing how NO x lifetime changes with changes in its concentration, inferences can be made about the dominant chemistry occurring in an urban plume. We used satellite observations of NO2 from a new high-resolution product to show that NO x lifetime in approximately 30 North American cities has changed between 2005 and 2014 in a manner consistent with our understanding of NO x chemistry.
Article
Glater, Ruth Bobrov, Richard A. Solberg, and Flora M. Scott. (U. California, Los Angeles, and Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District.) A developmental study of the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa as related to their smog-sensitivity. Amer. Jour. Bot. 49(9): 954–970. Illus. 1962.—Plants growing in the fields of Los Angeles County as well as those experimentally fumigated in the laboratory show gross markings in response to smog which vary from species to species, from a glistening appearance of the leaf undersurface due to a temporary accumulation of water in the affected cells through complete necrosis. In dicotyledonous leaves, “silvering,” “bronzing,” brown-black mottling or an increase in anthocyanin may be seen. In monocotyledons, transverse banding, tan in color, or longitudinal streaking of leaves are the usual responses. This damage appears in a characteristic pattern on the leaves, different from that produced by other phytotoxicants. Nicotiana glutinosa plants were grown in the air-filtered greenhouses at UCLA. The normal anatomical development of the foliage was studied and correlated with its susceptibility to smog injury. On a given plant, leaves of different ages show damage in different positions. Very young leaves at the apex of the plant and old leaves at the base of the plant are not sensitive. Expanding leaves between young and old in age are sensitive; in this group a distinct pattern of damage is discernible. Damage markings in the youngest leaves appear only at the tip; in leaves somewhat older, close to midblade; in fully mature leaves, only at the base. This localization of damage is shown to be correlated with the gradient of cellular differentiation from tip toward base as the leaf matures. Those cells which have just attained maximum size (young mature) are sensitive; damage, therefore, is a function of cellular development and maturity. The following anatomical details were analyzed: (1) differentiation and distribution of stomata and their opening and closing on both upper and lower epidermal surfaces and (2) development of intercellular air spaces in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissue. These studies indicate that damage occurs in the region of the leaf where stomata have just become functional and ambient polluted air can make direct contact with interior leaf tissues by virtue of large substomatal chambers and intercellular air spaces.
Thesis
Full-text available
Les modèles climatiques indiquent qu’il est très probable que les végétaux soient de plus en plus exposés à deux facteurs de stress environnementaux : l’ozone troposphérique (O3) et le déficit hydrique du sol, tous deux pouvant provoquer un stress oxydant pour le végétal. Dans des conditions naturelles, ces deux facteurs peuvent être concomitants ou se succéder. L’impact de l’O3 et de la sécheresse nécessite donc une attention particulière. Afin de déterminer les réponses de défense mises en place par les arbres, deux génotypes de Populus nigra x deltoides (Carpaccio et Robusta) ont été exposés aux contraintes séparées ou à leur combinaison en conditions contrôlées dans des chambres de culture. Pour explorer les effets des stress et l’interaction entre les deux contraintes, nous avons ciblé les deux premiers niveaux de défense des plantes que sont le contrôle de l’ouverture/fermeture des stomates et les processus de détoxication cellulaire. Nos résultats montrent que Carpaccio et Robusta sont tous deux relativement tolérants à une sécheresse modérée grâce à un contrôle efficient des stomates. Face à l’O3, cependant, les deux génotypes adoptent des stratégies de réponse différentes : un évitement important pour Carpaccio et une maximisation de l’assimilation au détriment des feuilles pour Robusta. Cela se traduit par une différence de fermeture des stomates. Les deux génotypes ne font alors pas face au même flux d’O3 entrant dans les feuilles, ce qui impacte la détoxication cellulaire, dans laquelle le glutathion semble jouer un rôle majeur. En lien avec les modifications de capacité antioxydante, l’activité des enzymes du cycle ascorbate-glutathion (MDHAR, DHAR et GR) et/ou l’expression des gènes codant pour ces protéines sont modifiées. En combinaison de stress, le déficit hydrique protège le végétal du stress oxydant induit par l’O3 en amplifiant la fermeture des stomates. En revanche, la croissance de l’arbre est impactée par l’effet additif des deux contraintes. De plus, l’induction de voies de régulation hormonales différentes par les deux contraintes pourrait modifier le « cross-talk » complexe régulant la réponse au stress combiné. Enfin, dans le cas d’une succession de stress, l’exposition à l’O3 avant un épisode de sécheresse impacte faiblement la réponse de l’arbre. Cependant, un ralentissement de la fermeture des stomates induit par l’O3 est observé malgré l’arrêt de la fumigation. Il est donc nécessaire de prendre en compte le ralentissement et la fermeture des stomates induit par l’O3 et le déficit hydrique dans les modèles de conductance stomatique utilisés pour calculer l’indicateur du flux d’O3 entrant, le PODy (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold of y nmol O3 m-2.s-1).
Article
Full-text available
We describe upgrades to the Berkeley High Resolution (BEHR) NO2 satellite retrieval product. BEHR v3.0 builds on the NASA version 3 standard Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 product to provide a high spatial resolution product that is consistent with daily variations in the 12 km a priori NO2 profiles. Other improvements to the BEHR v3.0 product include surface reflectance and elevation, and factors affecting the NO2 a priori profiles such as lightning and anthropogenic emissions. We describe the retrieval algorithm in detail and evaluate the impact of changes to the algorithm between v2.1C and v3.0B has on the retrieved NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). Not surprisingly, we find that, on average, the changes to the a priori NO2 profiles and the update to the new NASA slant column densities have the greatest impact on the retrieved VCDs. More significantly, we find that using daily a priori profiles results in greater average VCDs than using monthly profiles in regions and times with significant lightning activity. The BEHR product is available as four subproducts on the University of California DASH repository: using monthly a priori profiles at native OMI pixel resolution (https://doi.org/10.6078/D1N086) and regridded to 0.05° × 0.05° (https://doi.org/10.6078/D1RQ3G) and using daily a priori profiles at native OMI ( https://doi.org/10.6078/D1WH41) and regridded (https: //doi.org/10.6078/D12D5X) resolutions.
Chapter
This chapter describes a history of the automobile from an electric vehicle perspective, the various energy sources, and the resulting emissions. Standardized vehicle drive cycles are discussed as drive cycles are used to provide a uniform testing approach to measure the emissions and the fuel economy of a vehicle, both of which are related to the efficiency of the energy conversion from the stored energy to kinetic energy. Government regulations and the marketplace have resulted in strong global trends to reduce these potentially harmful emissions and to increase the fuel economy. These factors of reduced emissions and improved efficiency combine with a greater consumer market appreciation for green technology to motivate the development of the electric powertrain. Diesel combustion engines are the major source of NOx in urban environments. The chapter reviews the competing automotive powertrains in terms of efficiency. It also discusses heavy-duty commercial vehicles and other modes of transport.
Article
Injury to an apricot orchard situated next to an aluminium reduction plant is reported. The orchard was about 60% defoliated, the injury being progressively more severe with decreasing distance from the plant. Unfavorable soil conditions intensified symptoms. The amount of fluorine present on the leaves of the plants was from 247 to 403 parts per million, and was assumed to be a result of particulate deposition of air pollutants emanating from the aluminium plant. Leaf injury first appeared 2 to 3 weeks after the trees were in leaf. The first symptom was a wilting of the edges, the width of the injury varying from an eight to two thirds of an inch. Within three weeks following the closing of the plant new growth was normal and no injury to leaves was found afterwards.
Article
The established phytotoxic agents of air pollution, such as SO2 and fluorine, are not the primary constituents causing plant damage in the air pollution of this area. The initial injury in most cases is in the lower mesophyll. Leaves of crop plants which have little or no pubescence and a moderate amount of cuticle develop a shiny, glazed appearance. Pubescent leaves having little or no cuticle appear somewhat bleached and lack the metallic luster. Subsequently extensive necrotic areas develop. As a result of a survey of 11 susceptible crops in 1949 in Los Angeles County, it is estimated that the aggregate loss due to smog injury was nearly $500,000. || ABSTRACT AUTHORS: G. K. Parris
tion by sulfur dioxide and by clipping on yield of alfalfa
  • George Hill
  • Jr Thomas
HILL, GEORGE., JR. and THOMAS, MOYER D. tion by sulfur dioxide and by clipping on yield of alfalfa. Physiol. 8: 223-245. 1933
portant une double liaison ethylenique. cinnamique
  • E Dallwigk
  • E Briner
DALLWIGK, E. and BRINER, E. portant une double liaison ethylenique. cinnamique. Helv. Chim. Acta 33: 2186
The Earhart Plant Research Laboratory
WENT, F. W. The Earhart Plant Research Laboratory. Chron. Bot. 12: 89-108. 1950.
Effect of sulfur dioxide on vegetation. 447 pp. National Research Council
  • Associate Committee
  • Trail
  • Research Smoke
  • Canada Council
ASSOCIATE COMMITTEE ON TRAIL SMELTER SMOKE, National Research Council, Canada. Effect of sulfur dioxide on vegetation. 447 pp. National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada. 1939.
Technical and administrative report on air pollution control in Los Angeles County
  • Angeles Los
  • County
  • Pollution
  • District
Los ANGELES COUNTY AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT, Technical and administrative report on air pollution control in Los Angeles County. Annual Report, 1949-1950.
Sur l'ozonation des aldehydes comportant une double liaison ethylenique. I. Etude de l'aldehyde cinnamique
DALLWIGK, E. and BRINER, E. Sur l'ozonation des aldehydes comportant une double liaison ethylenique. I. Etude de l'aldehyde cinnamique. Helv. Chim. Acta 33: 2186. 1950.