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The topographical tetrazolium method for determining the germinating capacity of seeds

DEPARTMENT OF SEED RESEARCH AND SEED TESTING STATION, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, STUTTGART-HOHENHEIM, GERMANY.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 6.84). 08/1949; 24(3):389-94. DOI: 10.1104/pp.24.3.389
Source: PubMed

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    • "Provided that dark green seeds were plump and fully developed when picked, they ripened and turned dark brown naturally post harvest, and germination rates were identical to those of fully mature seeds (Figure 1c). Seed viability was evaluated using the tetrazolium test (Lakon, 1949), with a solution of 1% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (Sigma, USA), which stains viable endosperms and embryos red (Figure 1d). Seeds used for experiments investigating the effects of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and temperature were spread evenly over filter paper (Whatman No. 2, Qualitative, Germany) in sterile, disposable petri dishes (SPL, Korea). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bupleurum latissimum Nakai is a critically important endangered plant belonging to the family Apiaceae. Seed germination was promoted by soaking in the dormancy breaker gibberellic acid (GA3) (50% germination as compared with 4% of the control). An optimal temperature for germination of seed previously soaked in GA3 solution was determined by incubation at various temperatures. Seed germination of 31.8% was observed at 25 °C. These results indicate that the seeds of B. latissimum are difficult to germinate, even when treated with GA3. The greatest callus induction (94.8%) was observed in root explants of seedlings grown on MS medium containing a specific concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (1.0 mg L–1) and N6-benzyladenine (BA) (3.0 mg L–1). Induction of somatic embryo was observed in 78.5% of the root segment cultured on MS medium containing 3.0 mg L–1 2,4-D alone. The highest shoot induction rate was obtained in MS medium containing 30 g L–1 sucrose (number of shoots, 6.8; average length of shoot, 8.8 cm). After acclimation in artificial soil (1:1:1 mixture of peat moss, perlite, and sand) and transfer to the greenhouse, 98% of plantlets survived over 2 months. This in vitro propagation protocol will be very useful for the conservation of this critically endangered plant.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Turkish Journal of Biology
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    • "Site locations are denoted with a star. et al., 1994; Lakon, 1949). Seed embryos were removed from their seed coats and soaked in a 1 % tetrazolium chloride solution for 24 hours before examination on a dissecting scope at 10x magnification (Conacher et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Two separate field experiments in the Newport River/Back Sound, North Carolina (NC) and the lower Chesapeake Bay (CB), Virginia were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to quantify the effects of time (6, 12, 15 months), seed source (mixed-annual, perennial NC; perennial CB), site (local environmental factors), and sediment type (fine, coarse) on the persistence of Zostera marina seeds in the sediment seed bank. It is here, at the southern limit of the species distribution along the western Atlantic, that the probability of population loss may be high and the importance of a seed bank in the resilience and recovery of these populations great. Experimental results indicate that viability of both NC and CB seeds decreased significantly after just 6 months in the sediment following the seasonal period of maximum germination and continued to decline over time with no seeds viable remaining in CB cores and < 5% of seeds remaining viable after 15 months in NC treatments. In these experiments time was the overriding factor affecting the persistence Z. marina seed banks for all treatments in both NC and CB and viability was not significantly affected by seed source, site, or sediment type. Based on the results of the in situ experiments, mixed-annual and perennial Zostera marina populations in North Carolina and perennial populations in Virginia produce transient seed banks (seeds viable < 12 months). The lack of a persistent seed bank may reduce the resilience of Z. marina at the limits of the species distribution to repeated stress events. As a result these populations may be particularly susceptible to disturbance with only a limited capacity for recovery if sexual reproduction is impaired.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
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    • "Viability of the remaining seeds was tested using tetrazolium chloride (Lakon 1949; Sawma and Mohler 2002). Nonviable embryos were divided into split and intact seeds. "
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    ABSTRACT: Seed germination and seedling establishment di-rectly affect the resiliency of seagrasses to disturbance or environmental stress. The objectives of this study were to compare maximum seed germination, time to germination, nongerminated seed viability, and initial seedling biomass between mixed-annual and perennial Zostera marina seed populations in coarse (>90 % sand) and fine (<50 % sand) sediments and at shallow (1 cm) and deep (5 cm) burial depths. Perennial seeds collected from Virginia and North Carolina had greater maximum germination, shorter time to germination, and greater seedling biomass compared to mixed-annual seeds collected from North Carolina. For both mixed-annual and perennial seeds, maximum germination and seedling biomass were the greatest in shallow fine sediments. Mixed-annual seeds buried at 1 cm had a shorter time to germination than in the deep treatments; however, sediment type did not affect mean time to germination. Perennial seeds had a shorter time to germination in shallow compared to deep burial depths and in fine compared to coarse sediments. Cues for germination were present at the deeper depths; however, the cotyledon failed to emerge from the sediment surface resulting in mortality at depths of 5 cm. The greater perfor-mance of perennial compared to mixed-annual seeds and seedlings demonstrate the trade-offs which can occur between Z. marina reproductive strategies. Reduced germination of Z. marina seeds buried ≥5 cm and in coarse sediments may represent a possible bottleneck in successful sexual reproduc-tion, feasibly affecting the resiliency to and recovery from disturbance for both perennial and mixed-annual Z. marina beds.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Estuaries and Coasts
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