Costimulation of chemokine receptor signaling by matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates enhanced migration of IFN-alpha dendritic cells
Type I IFNs induce differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) with potent Ag-presenting capacity, termed IFN-alpha DCs, that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. In this study, we found that IFN-alpha DCs exhibit enhanced migration across the extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 that recruit DCs to inflammatory sites, but not the lymphoid-homing chemokine CCL21. IFN-alpha DCs expressed elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which mediated increased migration across ECM. Unexpectedly, MMP-9 and its cell surface receptors CD11b and CD44 were required for enhanced CCL5-induced chemotaxis even in the absence of a matrix barrier. MMP-9, CD11b, and CD44 selectively modulated CCL5-dependent activation of JNK that was required for enhanced chemotactic responses. These results establish the migratory phenotype of IFN-alpha DCs and identify an important role for costimulation of chemotactic responses by synergistic activation of JNK. Thus, cell motility is regulated by integrating signaling inputs from chemokine receptors and molecules such as MMP-9, CD11b, and CD44 that also mediate cell interactions with inflammatory factors and ECM.