What tools help make "whole-of-patient" practices happen? A Tasmanian falls prevention project
University Department of Rural Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Holistic nursing practice
(Impact Factor: 0.62).
05/2006; 20(3):130-6. DOI: 10.1097/00004650-200605000-00007
The development of "whole-of-patient" approaches is explored using transcripts of 10 interviews with registered nurses implementing the Quickscreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment Tool in general practices in northern Tasmania. These data suggest that while the tool helped develop holistic nursing practices, the development of multidisciplinary practices requires different tools and strategies.
Available from: Ruth Garside
- "There are different hierarchies of expertise within different populations. The definition of ‘expert’ ranges from healthcare professionals
[13,23,25,26,37] to families
[22,28]. The studies suggest the existence of a further hierarchy within the category of expertise, where medical expertise (organisational)
 appears to be favoured by healthcare professionals over the expertise of managing illness (individual)
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More than a third of people over the age of 65 years fall each year. Falling can lead to a reduction in quality of life, mortality, and a risk of prolonged hospitalisation. Reducing and preventing falls has become an international health priority. To help understand why research evidence has often not been translated into changes in clinical practice, we undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research in order to identify what factors serve as barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes.
We conducted a review of literature published between 1980 and January 2012 for qualitative research studies that examined barriers and facilitators to the effective implementation of fall-prevention interventions among community-dwelling older people and healthcare professionals. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality according to predefined criteria. Findings were synthesised using meta-ethnography.
Of the 5010 articles identified through database searching, 19 were included in the review. Analysis of the 19 studies revealed limited information about the mechanisms by which barriers to implementation of fall-prevention interventions had been overcome. Data synthesis produced three overarching concepts: (1) practical considerations, (2) adapting for community, and (3) psychosocial. A line of argument synthesis describes the barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. These concepts show that the implementation of fall-prevention programmes is complex and multifactorial. This is the first systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to examine factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes from the perspectives of both the healthcare professional and the community-dwelling older person.
The current literature on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of fall-prevention programmes examines a variety of interventions. However, the ways in which the interventions are reported suggests there are substantial methodological challenges that often inhibit implementation into practice. We recommend that successful implementation requires individuals, professionals, and organisations to modify established behaviours, thoughts, and practice. The issues identified through this synthesis need to be fully considered and addressed if fall-prevention programmes are to be successfully implemented into clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic musculoskeletal conditions in the lower extremities, particularly arthritis, and the chronic pain associated with them, are independent risk factors for falls, with approximately 50% of people with arthritis reporting one or more falls. Despite this, few studies have specifically addressed balance dysfunction, falls risk and falls incidence in people with arthritis. This review aimed to identify potential factors contributing to the increased risk of falls in people with lower limb osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis and to summarise the evidence base for effective exercise interventions targeted to reduce their risk of falls. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in February 2010 and included the following databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. Only three studies that investigated exercise programmes for people with lower limb arthritis met all inclusion criteria, but none used falls as an outcome measure. To broaden the review, systematic reviews that assessed the effectiveness of exercise interventions for fall prevention in older people were also included. The presence of any form of lower limb arthritis and the associated consequences including pain, balance impairment, reduced muscle strength and reduced function are all associated with increased risk of falling. Due to the link between musculoskeletal pain and the increased risk of falls, further research needs to investigate which type of exercise programme will be effective in reducing the risk of falls in populations with arthritis in the lower limbs.
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ABSTRACT: Falls in the perinatal setting have received minimal attention and have not been well documented. Women are at risk for falling following vaginal or caesarean birth, especially during initial attempts at ambulation. Recently, a women's hospital that averages over 500 births per month recorded a postpartum fall rate that exceeded the national mean for adult surgical patient falls. A fall prevention team (FPT) of five nurses was formed with a goal to decrease the incidence of postpartum patient falls to zero within the following 7 months. A patient-centered fall prevention strategy was developed. The results of this project have laid the foundation for additional research of a program that will consider not only prevention of falls in a healthy population but also the development of a risk assessment tool specific to women in the immediate postpartum period.
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