Effects of soluble fiber on matrix metal loproteinase-2 activity and heating of colon anastomosis in rats given radiotherapy

Article · August 2006with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2006.01.028 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Soluble fiber is fermented by colonic microflora yielding short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. We aimed to investigate the effect of oral administration of soluble fiber on healing of anastomosis and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in radiotherapy received colonic anastomosis. Eighty-four Wistar rats were divided into six groups. All rats were performed a left colonic resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Group I received rat cow. Group II received soluble fiber orally for five consecutive days preoperatively as well as 3rd and 6th days postoperatively. Group III received SCFAs via rectum for five consecutive days preoperatively. Group IV received irradiation to the pelvis at a total dose of 24 Gy on the 10th and 5th days before the operation. Group V was exposed to irradiation like the rats in Group IV and oral treatment like the rats in Group II. Group VI received irradiation like the rats in Group IV and transrectal treatment like the rats in Group III. On the 3rd and 7th postoperative days, all the rats were anesthetized to evaluate the anastomosis healing clinically, histologically and biochemically. Third and 7th day bursting pressures of the rats that were fed with a normal diet and exposed to radiotherapy were significantly decreased (P<0.001). Bursting pressures of Groups V and VI on the 7th day were significantly higher than the control group's bursting pressures (P<0.05). Hydroxyproline levels of Group IV were significantly decreased (P<0.001). Following oral soluble fiber and transrectal administration of SCFAs, these low levels reached to the levels of control radiotherapy group. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity of all the rats that were exposed to radiotherapy was higher than the control group (P<0.001). Matrix metalloproteinase-2 enzyme levels in the Groups V and VI were lower than the ones in the Group IV (P<0.001). The histologic parameters of anastomotic healing such as epithelial regeneration, exudate, necrosis, and fibroblast levels were significantly improved by the use of oral soluble fiber and transrectal SCFAs treatment. Undesirable effects of preoperative radiotherapy on mechanical, histological and biochemical parameters can be overcome by oral soluble fiber. Oral soluble fiber administration has similar positive effects like the transrectal administration of the SCFA's.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is an increasingly popular form of adjunct therapy for rectal cancer; however, little is known about its effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in colonic anastomotic healing. Wistar rats were irradiated to a total dose of 25 or 40 Gy. Four days after the end of RT, an end-to-end colorectal anastomosis was performed. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 7 days after the anastomosis. A control group was studied similarly, but was not irradiated. No significant differences were found in peritonitis rate and anastomotic complications. The average bursting pressure and breaking strength were only reduced significantly in the rats irradiated with 40 Gy. However, the concentration and the content of hydroxyproline in anastomotic tissues were unchanged. In irradiated rats, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased at 40 Gy, but not at 25 Gy. On the other hand, 25-Gy irradiation induced a smaller increase in the levels of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 compared with the controls. Anastomotic strength is adversely affected by high-dose fractionated preoperative RT. In contrast, preoperative RT at 25 Gy in five fractions over 5 days is safe with regard to the maintenance of wound strength in colorectal anastomosis.
    Article · Feb 2007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefits of early postoperative oral feeding following colonic anastomosis have previously been demonstrated. However, early postoperative oral feeding in patients with upper gastrointestinal surgery has been avoided because of concerns regarding anastomotic leakage. We investigated whether early postoperative oral feeding was advantageous for upper gastrointestinal anastomosis in comparison to parenteral feeding with a fasting period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the same surgical manipulation, i.e., venous catheterization, gastrostomy, and proximal jejunal anastomosis. Rats were divided into two groups: the enteral nutrition (EN) group, which received nutrients via gastrostomy as a substitute for oral feeding, and the total parental nutrition (TPN) group, which was fed via a venous catheter. Identical nutritional solutions were administered to the two groups immediately after surgery. The anastomotic bursting pressure (ABP) and the content of hydroxyproline in the anastomotic tissue were measured 5 days postoperatively. The ABP in the EN group was significantly higher than that in the TPN group (214.6 +/- 42 versus 149.5 +/- 49 mmHg; p < 0.01). The hydroxyproline content in the EN group was also significantly higher (63.5 +/- 10 versus 50.5 +/- 12 micromol/g dry tissue; p < 0.01). Early enteral feeding via gastrostomy accelerated jejunal anastomotic healing in comparison to parenteral feeding. This study clearly indicates that early oral feeding after upper gastrointestinal surgery leads to prompt anastomotic healing.
    Article · Jul 2007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Algae, which are used as supplementary nutrients in various countries, are products rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of algae extracts on the healing of colonic anastomosis in malnourished rats. Seventy-two rats were randomized to three groups. Group 1 was fed with standard diet for 15 days, before and after the colonic anastomosis. Groups 2 and 3 were fed with a malnutrition diet for 15 days prior to colonic anastomosis and then with the basic diet for 15 days there after. Group 3 also received an extract of algae derived from Cholerella sp. via oral gavage postoperatively, in addition to the basic diet. Rats were killed on the 3rd, 7th and 15th postoperative day. Blood samples were collected to evaluate prealbumin, transferring and albumin levels. Anastomotic bursting pressures (BPs), histopathology and tissue hydroxyproline levels were evaluated after killing. In group 3, the prealbumin level on the 3rd postoperative day and transferrin and albumin levels on the 7th and 15th postoperative days were significantly increased compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Tissue hydroxyproline levels and anastomotic BPs of group 3 were significantly higher than in group 2 on the 3rd, 7th and 15th postoperative days (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination of the anastomosis revealed significantly better healing patterns for group 3 than for groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.05). Extract derived from Cholerella sp. microalgae has favourable effects on healing of experimental colon anastomoses.
    Article · Jul 2008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Low-frequency magnetic fields have been shown to affect biological In this article the effects of 50-Hz sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) stimulation and application of fibrin glue on the healing of experimental colonic anastomoses were investigated. Material and Methods. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 underwent 2-cm left colonic resection and primary anastomosis. Group 2 underwent normal resection anastomosis and the area was covered with fibrin glue. Group 3 underwent normal resection anastomosis and the rats were exposed to a 50-Hz sinusoidal MF. Group 4 underwent normal resection anastomosis, the anastomosis area was covered with fibrin glue, and the rats were exposed to a 50-Hz sinusoidal MF. Investigations included bursting pressure measurement, hydroxypro-line content, and histopathological changes. Results. Tissue hydroxyproline levels and anastomotic bursting pressures of groups 2, 3, and 4 were significantly higher than in group 1. Collagen deposition and fibroblast infiltration in groups 2, 3, and 4 had higher scores than in group 1. Furthermore, these results were significantly higher in group 4 rats than in the other groups. Histopathological examination of the anastomosis revealed significantly better healing patterns for group 4 than for groups 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions. A 50-Hz sinusoidal MF stimulation and application of fibrin glue provided a significant gain in anastomotic healing in the large intestine. A combination of a 50-Hz sinusoidal MF and fibrin glue has significantly favorable effects on healing of experimental colon anastomosis.
    Article · Jan 2009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colon healing and remodeling depends on the collagen changes in extracellular matrix. Some conditions, disrupt its turnover, causing strength weakening of the scar, as a result of high activity of local matrix metalloproteinases, causing a high risk of dehiscence. The extracellular matrix metalloproteinases are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, or metzincines, and have been currently recognized in humans about 24 genes responsible for each one. The first MMP, colagenase (MMP-1), was described by Gross and Lapière (1962), while studying tadpole resorption of the American bullfrog. Metalloproteinases activity in cancer research, has taken a special place. Currently, evidences points to the cancer cell ability to interfere with enzymatic activity modulation - an co-factor which affects local invasiveness and metastatic dissemination. Both MMPs-2 and -7 have been frequently observed in colon cancer. Moreover, MMP-12 seems to counteract MMP-7 effect therefore considered as a protector and associated with better prognosis, in contrast to MMP-3, which may be responsible for a worse outcome. Association between high activity of MMPs, the prognosis of cancer and increased risk of intestinal anastomotic leakage has been highlighted, suggesting a consistent trilogy. Pharmacological therapy using MMPs inhibitors has been extensively studied, especially targeted for cancer control. The article discusses the most relevant information and updated information on the subject.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on intestinal anastomotic healing. The applied preparation methods and PRP concentrations used in the few studies that have been carried out varied markedly. Therefore, the positive effects of PRP on the anastomotic healing process remain unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of different concentrations of PRP on intestinal anastomotic healing. From SD rat blood, three different concentrations of plasma were prepared: high-concentrated PRP (H-PRP: platelet count 5 × 10(6)/mm(3)), low-concentrated PRP (L-PRP: 2 × 10(6)/mm(3)), and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). Male SD rats underwent proximal jejunal anastomosis and central venous catheterization. Rats were divided into four groups (n = 12 for each group): control, PPP, L-PRP, and H-PRP groups. Two types of PRP and PPP (0.21 mL) were applied to each anastomosis line, with the exception of the control group. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions were administered (151 kcal/kg/d). Five days after surgery, anastomotic bursting pressure (ABP) in situ and hydroxyproline concentration (HYP) in anastomotic tissue were evaluated. The ABP values of control, PPP, L-PRP, and H-PRP groups were 171 ± 20, 174 ± 23, 189 ± 17, and 148 ± 25 mmHg, respectively. The HYP values of each group were 516 ± 130, 495 ± 123, 629 ± 120, and 407 ± 143 μg/g dry tissue. Compared with the other groups, the L-PRP group exhibited a significant increase in both ABP and HYP, while the H-PRP group exhibited a significant decrease in these two variables. As a result, L-PRP was considered to promote anastomotic wound healing, but H-PRP was considered to inhibit it. There was no significant difference between the PPP group and the control group. PRP concentration plays a crucial role in the efficacy of PRP. PRP might exert positive effects on intestinal anastomotic healing in a dose-dependent manner up to a certain level, but adverse effects occur when it is highly concentrated. The essential PRP action appears to be driven by the platelets themselves.
    Article · Nov 2010
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