Xin, M. & Deng, X. Protein phosphatase 2A enhances the proapoptotic function of Bax through dephosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 18859-18867

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 08/2006; 281(27):18859-67. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M512543200
Source: PubMed


Bax is a major proapoptotic member of the Bcl2 family that is required for apoptotic cell death. We have recently discovered that Bax phosphorylation at serine 184 induced by nicotine through activation of protein kinase AKT abolishes its proapoptotic function in human lung cancer cells. Here we found that either treatment of cells with the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor okadaic acid or specific disruption of PP2A activity by expression of SV40 small tumor antigen enhanced Bax phosphorylation, whereas C(2)-ceramide, a potent PP2A activator, reduced nicotine-induced Bax phosphorylation, suggesting that PP2A may function as a physiological Bax phosphatase. PP2A co-localized and interacted with Bax. Purified, active PP2A directly dephosphorylated Bax in vitro. Overexpression of the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A/C) suppressed nicotine-stimulated Bax phosphorylation in association with increased apoptotic cell death. By contrast, depletion of PP2A/C by RNA interference enhanced Bax phosphorylation and prolonged cell survival. Mechanistically C(2)-ceramide-induced Bax dephosphorylation caused a conformational change by exposure of the 6A7 epitope (amino acids 13-19) that is normally hidden at its N terminus that promoted the insertion of Bax into mitochondrial membranes and formation of Bax oligomers leading to cytochrome c release and apoptosis. In addition, PP2A directly disrupted the Bcl2/Bax association to liberate Bax from the heterodimer complex. Thus, PP2A may function as a physiological Bax regulatory phosphatase that not only dephosphorylates Bax but also activates its proapoptotic function.

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    • "Activation by ceramides of serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A is involved in regulation of the apoptotic/anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2 family proteins by changing their phosphorylation status. Ceramide-activated PP2A increases the pro-apoptotic potential of Bcl-2 family proteins by dephosphorylation of Bax (activation) (Xin and Deng, 2006), or Bcl-2 (inactivation) (Ruvolo et al., 1999). An additional substrate for PP2A is serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB (Pettus et al., 2002). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2014
    • "BAX gene is reported to induce apoptosis.[28333435] The BAX protein belongs to a family of Bcl2 intracellular proteins that regulate the activation of caspase.[36] "
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    ABSTRACT: The modulation of the toxic effects of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) on the liver by apoptosis was investigated. Fisher-344 (F344) rats were exposed to various concentrations of 2AA for 14 and 28 days. The arylamine 2AA is an aromatic hydrocarbon employed in manufacturing chemicals, dyes, inks, and it is also a curing agent in epoxy resins and polyurethanes. 2AA has been detected in tobacco smoke and cooked foods. Analysis of total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) extracts from liver for apoptosis-related gene expression changes in apoptosis enhancing nuclease (AEN), Bcl2-associated X protein (BAX), CASP3, Jun proto-oncogene (JUN), murine double minute-2 p53 binding protein homolog (MDM2), tumor protein p53 (p53), and GAPDH genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was coupled with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 (Casp3) activity assays. Specific apoptosis staining result does not seem to show significant difference between control and treated animals. This may be due to freeze-thaw artifacts observed in the liver samples. However, there appears to be a greater level of apoptosis in medium- and high-dose (MD and HD) 2AA treated animals. Analyses of apoptosis-related genes seem to show AEN and BAX as the main targets in the induction of apoptosis in response to 2AA exposure, though p53, MDM2, and JUN may play supporting roles. Dose-dependent increases in mRNA expression were observed in all genes except Casp3. BAX was very highly expressed in the HD rats belonging to the 2-week exposure group. This trend was not observed in the animals treated for 4 weeks. Instead, AEN was rather very highly expressed in the liver of the MD animals that were treated with 2AA for 28 days.
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    • "FOXO1, an important pro-apoptotic transcription factor has been reported to be a substrate for PP2A [4]. We assessed the role of PP2A-FOXO1 interplay in NO mediated apoptosis in breast cancer. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that relatively high concentrations of NO [Nitric Oxide] as produced by activated macrophages induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468. More recently, we also demonstrated the importance of endogenous H2O2 in the regulation of growth in human breast cancer cells. In the present study we assessed the interplay between exogenously administered NO and the endogenously produced reactive oxygen species [ROS] in human breast cancer cells and evaluated the mechanism[s] in the induction of apoptosis. To this end we identified a novel mechanism by which NO down regulated endogenous hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] formation via the down-regulation of superoxide [O2 (.-)] and the activation of catalase. We further demonstrated the existence of a feed forward mechanistic loop involving protein phosphatase 2A [PP2A] and its downstream substrate FOXO1 in the induction of apoptosis and the synthesis of catalase. We utilized gene silencing of PP2A, FOXO1 and catalase to assess their relative importance and key roles in NO mediated apoptosis. This study provides the potential for a therapeutic approach in treating breast cancer by targeted delivery of NO where NO donors and activators of downstream players could initiate a self sustaining apoptotic cascade in breast cancer cells.
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