Combination therapy for postprandial and orthostatic hypotension in an elderly patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus [13]

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.57). 05/2006; 54(4):727-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00668_13.x
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether abdominal compression with an inflatable abdominal band, a device we developed, improved post-dialytic orthostatic hypotension (OH) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Twenty-five chronic HD patients with intractable post-dialytic OH were recruited. Post-HD changes in systolic blood pressure (DeltaSBP) in the supine and standing positions were compared in the patients, measured with or without the use of the band. The study showed DeltaSBP after HD without the band was significantly greater than that measured before HD (-36.1+/-18.2 vs -13.1+/-16.8 mm Hg; P<0.0001). DeltaSBP after HD with the band was reduced significantly in comparison to DeltaSBP after HD without the band (-19.4+/-21.2 vs -36.1+/-18.2 mm Hg; P<0.002). Use of the band did not cause an elevation in SBP in the supine position (149.0+/-29.6 vs 155.4+/-25.7 mm Hg); however, it did increase SBP upon standing (129.6+/-27.3 vs 117.2+/-22.6 mm Hg; P<0.05). Eight patients in whom an increase in SBP of 25 mm Hg or more was achieved with the band were classified as responders. Ejection fraction was significantly higher (76.4+/-11.1 vs 61.9+/-13.6%; P<0.02) and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration significantly lower (27.9+/-22.0 vs 68.9+/-47.5 pg/ml; P<0.02) in responders than in non-responders. We conclude that the abdominal band was effective for overcoming post-dialytic OH, without elevating supine SBP in some patients.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs frequently in elderly people and may lead to syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, angina pectoris, and stroke. Some studies suggest that the magnitude of the postprandial fall in blood pressure (BP) is influenced by the rate at which glucose enters the small intestine. We hypothesized that acarbose (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), a hypoglycemic agent that decreases the rate of glucose absorption in the small intestine, would attenuate PPH in the elderly, and would be safe in the treatment. Forty-three elderly in-patients with PPH were recruited. All of them were in relatively stable conditions. They had semi-liquid standard meals without and with acarbose for the two following days: screening day and intervention day. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline and every 15 minutes for 120 minutes using a non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system during the study, and ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were measured by two dimensional echocardiography. Compared with the screening day, the falls in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP) (all P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated after taking acarbose during breakfast, so were MAP (P < 0.05) during lunch, DBP (P < 0.05) and MAP (P < 0.05) during supper. The change of HR was not statistically significant after taking acarbose in three meals. EF and FS were positively correlated with the relief rate. The effective power was 63%, and the incidence of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was 9%. Acarbose is effective and safe in the treatment of elderly patients with PPH.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Chinese medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial hypotension is an important problem in the elderly and may be triggered by the increase in splanchnic blood flow induced by a meal. Acarbose attenuates the fall in blood pressure (BP) induced by oral sucrose and may be useful in the management of postprandial hypotension. It is not known whether the effect of acarbose on postprandial BP reflects slowing of gastric emptying and/or carbohydrate absorption nor whether acarbose affects splanchnic blood flow. We examined the effects of intraduodenal (ID) acarbose on the BP, heart rate, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow, and glycemic and insulin responses to ID sucrose in older participants--this approach excluded any "gastric" effect of acarbose. Eight healthy participants (four male and four female, age 66-77 years) received an ID infusion of sucrose (~6 kcal/min), with or without acarbose (100 mg), over 60 minutes. BP, heart rate, SMA flow, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured. Acarbose markedly attenuated the falls in systolic (p < .01) and diastolic (p < .05) BP and rises in heart rate (p < .05), SMA flow (p < .05), blood glucose (p < .01), and serum insulin (p < .05). The maximum fall in systolic BP and peak SMA flow was inversely related on the control day (r(2) = -.53, p < .05) but not with acarbose (r(2) = .03, p = .70). We conclude that in healthy older participants receiving ID sucrose, (a) acarbose markedly attenuates the hypotensive response by slowing carbohydrate absorption and attenuating the rise in splanchnic blood flow and (b) the fall in BP is related to the concomitant increase in SMA flow.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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