Parkinson’s Disease Brain Mitochondrial Complex I Has Oxidatively Damaged Subunits and Is Functionally Impaired and Misassembled
Loss of mitochondrial complex I catalytic activity in the electron transport chain (ETC) is found in multiple tissues from individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) and is a property of some PD model neurotoxins. Using special ETC subunit-specific and complex I immunocapture antibodies directed against the entire complex I macroassembly, we quantified ETC proteins and protein oxidation of complex I subunits in brain mitochondria from 10 PD and 12 age-matched control (CTL) samples. We measured nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-driven electron transfer rates through complex I and correlated these with complex I subunit oxidation levels and reductions of its 8 kDa subunit. PD brain complex I shows 11% increase in ND6, 34% decrease in its 8 kDa subunit and contains 47% more protein carbonyls localized to catalytic subunits coded for by mitochondrial and nuclear genomes We found no changes in levels of ETC proteins from complexes II-V. Oxidative damage patterns to PD complex I are reproduced by incubation of CTL brain mitochondria with NADH in the presence of rotenone but not by exogenous oxidant. NADH-driven electron transfer rates through complex I inversely correlate with complex I protein oxidation status and positively correlate with reduction in PD 8 kDa subunit. Reduced complex I function in PD brain mitochondria appears to arise from oxidation of its catalytic subunits from internal processes, not from external oxidative stress, and correlates with complex I misassembly. This complex I auto-oxidation may derive from abnormalities in mitochondrial or nuclear encoded subunits, complex I assembly factors, rotenone-like complex I toxins, or some combination.
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