Article

Estrogenic activity of standardized extract ofAngelica sinensis

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Abstract

Since ancient times, extracts of plants have been used for women's health to prevent menopausal symptoms. The symptoms of menopause have been attributed to a reduction in the amount of estrogen produced by the ovaries. In this study the estrogenic activity of a commercial standardized extract of the roots of Angelica sinensis, used to relieve climacteric symptoms was evaluated using in vivo tests such as the degree of cornification of vaginal epithelium, uterotrophic assays and serum LH concentration in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, the effects on the estrous cycle in rat were investigated. The results obtained have shown that the administration of a standardized ethanol extract in ovariectomized rats exhibited a stimulation of the uterine histoarchitecture, a significant cornification in the vaginal epithelium and a reduction of serum LH concentration showing the estrogenic nature of the extract. Furthermore, the administration of the extract in intact female rats provoked a significant modification of the vaginal smear in 67% of treated rats. The estrous cycle thus modified was characterized by a prolonged estrus stage with a temporary reduction of the regular cyclicity.

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... The roots of Angelica sinensis have been used for restoring female hormonal balance in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries (Hook, 2014). The estrogenic activity of dong quai is controversial (Liu et al., 2001;Lau et al., 2005;Circosta et al., 2006). For example, it was shown that dong quai had proliferative effects in MCF-7 (ERa+) cells, whereas it did not induce ERa/ERb-dependent luciferase transcription in transfected HeLa cells and did not show uterotrophic activity in CD-1 mice (Amato et al., 2002). ...
... For example, it was shown that dong quai had proliferative effects in MCF-7 (ERa+) cells, whereas it did not induce ERa/ERb-dependent luciferase transcription in transfected HeLa cells and did not show uterotrophic activity in CD-1 mice (Amato et al., 2002). However, enhanced uterine weight, change in vaginal cytology, and reduced luteinizing hormone levels in female Wistar rats treated with an ethanolic extract of dong quai have been shown (Circosta et al., 2006). Similarly, cellbased studies showed controversial results. ...
... 1. Hormonal Pathway. As mentioned in section IV. A. 3.a, whether dong quai has estrogenic activities is highly controversial (Liu et al., 2001;Lau et al., 2005;Circosta et al., 2006). Some studies describe proliferative activities of a dong quai extract in MCF-7 (ERa) cells (Amato et al., 2002;Lau et al., 2005) and in BT20 (ER-negative cells) (Lau et al., 2005) and an increase in uterine weight in female Wistar rats (Circosta et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and their healthcare providers to realize that they have not been rigorously tested for potential toxic effects and/or drug/botanical interactions. Understanding the mechanism of action of these supplements used for women's health will ultimately lead to standardized botanical products with higher efficacy, safety, and chemopreventive properties.
... Vanillic acid (VA; 4-hydroxy-3-methobenzoic acid) is a phenolic compound found in high concentration in many plants especially in the roots of Angelica sinensis a Chinese herb (Circosta et al., 2006). VA is an oxidized form of Vanillin and used as a flavoring agent in food industry due to its creamy odor. ...
... However, the anti-osteoporotic activity of VA has not completely explored in an animal model. Moreover, VA from Angelica sinensis also been reported to exhibit estrogenic activity (Circosta et al., 2006) and hence it might be a promising candidate for treating bone related disorders like osteoporosis. Therefore, the current study was plotted to elucidate the anti-osteoporotic property of VA in OVX-rat model which mimic postmenopausal osteoporosis. ...
Article
Background The need for an anti-osteoporotic agent is in high demand since osteoporosis contributes to high rates of disability or impairment (high osteoporotic fracture), morbidity and mortality. Hence, the present study is designed to evaluate the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA) against bilateral ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Materials and Methods Forty healthy female adult SD rats were separated in to four groups with sham-operated control with bilateral laprotomy (Sham; n = 10), bilateral overiectomy (OVX; n = 10) group, OVX rats were orallay administrated with 50 mg/kg b.wt of VA (OVX + 50 VA; n = 10) or 100 mg/kg b.wt of VA (OVX + 100 VA; n = 10) for 12 weeks (post-treatment) after 4 weeks of OVX. Results A significant change in the body weight gain was noted in OVX group, while treatment with VA substantially reverted to normalcy. Meanwhile, the bone mineral density and content (BMD and BMC) were substantially improved on supplementation with VA. Also, the bone turnover markers like calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels were markedly attenuated in VA-treated rats. Moreover, the biomechanical stability was greatly ameliorated with VA administration. Both the dose of VA showed potent anti-osteoporotic activity, but VA 100 mg showed highest protective effects as compared with 50 mg of VA. Conclusion Based on the outcome, we concluded that VA 100 showed better anti-osteoporotic activity by improving BMD and BMC as well as biomechanical stability and therefore used as an alternative therapy for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
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Estrogen and progestins have adverse effects, and many of these adverse effects are caused by progestins. Due to this, many women choose to use botanical alternatives for hormone replacement therapy, which does not trigger steroido-genic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to screen these herbs for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effect of herb extract on PAE cells. Among the 13 herbs, Dipsacus asperoides extract exhibited progesto- genic activity, and 10 species – Cortex eucommiae, Folium artemisiae argyi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala koidz, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cuscuta chinensis, Euscaphis japonica, Ailanthus altissima, and Dioscorea opposita – were recognized to have anti-progestogenic like activities. Extract of Dipsacus asperoides demonstrated dose-dependent progestogenic activity, and the progestogenic activity of 100 μg/mL extracts was equivalent to 31.45 ng/mL progesterone activity. Herbs extracts that exhibited anti-progestogenic-like activity also inhibited the 314.46 ng/mL progesterone activity in a dose-response manner. None of the herb extracts shown significant toxic effect on PAE cells at 40–100 μg/mL compared to control. This discovery will aid selection of suitable herbs for hormone replacement therapy. J Biosci. 2014 Jun;39(3) 453-461.
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... Phytosteriods are structurally different from animal steroids and mechanisms of physiological action are also different. The extracts of Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis contain estrogenic activity (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006). Cortex eucommiae and Glycyrrhiza uralensis has androgenic (Ong and Tan 2007) and antiandrogenic (Yaginuma et al. 1982) activity, respectively. ...
... In animals, estrogen stimulates progesterone activity by increasing the expression of progesterone receptor. In this study, we found that extracts of phytoestrogen-containing herbs Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis (Zhang et al. 1995;Circosta et al. 2006) exhibited antiprogestogenic activity. It may be phytoestrogen in those herb extract blocked the progesterone activity. ...
... It is considered the most effective female tonic with multi-purpose action. No evidence of estrogenic activity was found in the studies reviewed and it has a possibly carcinogenic, especially for skin cancers in relation to sun exposure (31). ...
Article
Menopause is a physiological process, but for many women it is a difficult time due to vasomotor symptoms and symptoms related to the urogenital sphere. The hormonal changes and biological disorders that occur have a negative influence on women's health and functionality, on their physique and mental health. In addition, many women associate menopause as a transition from middle age to old age, which is psychologically difficult to face. Disturbing manifestations such as hot flushes, sleep disturbances, dyspareunia and decreased libido affect the quality of life of menopausal women and they must receive optimal therapy to help them get through this period more easily. The most effective therapy for treating menopausal symptoms is hormone replacement therapy. However, this is contraindicated for some women and avoided by others. That's why efforts are continually being made to find alternative and complementary therapies for menopause. Doctors must also be prepared to offer psychological support to these women.
... Previous studies indicated that root extracts of AS showed estrogenic activities by exhibiting uterine histoarchitecture stimulation, vaginal epithelium cornification, and reduced serum LH levels in ovariectomized rats (Circosta et al., 2006). Similarly, in the present study, the different proliferation effects of AS between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 could be responsible for its hormone-like activities. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The root of Angelica sinensis is widely used in traditional Chinese Medicine for relieving gynecological discomforts among the women population. However, its hormone-like effects have raised great attention on whether it is appropriate to use in breast cancer (BC) patients. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the tumorigenic effect of aqueous root extract of Angelica sinensis (AS) on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC growth through ER-induced stemness in-vitro and in-vivo. Materials and methods The chemical composition of the AS was characterized by HPLC. Cell viability was detected by MTS assay. The in-vivo effect of AS was investigated by xenograft model, immunohistochemistry, histology, western blot, and self-renewal ability assay. Target verification was used by shRNA construction and transfection. Mammosphere formation assay was performed by flow cytometry. Results AS significantly promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells. AS significantly induced tumor growth (2.5 mg/kg) in xenograft models and however tamoxifen treatment significantly suppressed the AS-induced tumor growth. AS induced ERα expression in both in-vivo and in-vitro and promoted cancer stem cell activity in ER-positive BC. Conclusion AS shows the tumorigenic potential on ER-positive BC growth through ERα induced stemness, suggesting that the usage of AS is not recommended for BC in terms of safety measures.
... A strong relationship between estrogen level and pituitary growth hormone secretion has been reported, as enhancing estrogen level following phytoestrogen intake may regulate body metabolism, growth, composition, weight and development in male and female [25]. This argument has been confirmed by a study showing an increased uterus and ovary weights following estradiol treatment [26]. All of the abovementioned reports could be plausible mechanisms for increasing of the body weight following prenatally and postnatally exposure to fennel extract or its seed; rich in phytoestrogens. ...
Article
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Background: Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) is traditionally suggested for the fertility improvement in Iranian lore due to its antioxidant and phytoestrogen compounds. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of fennel seed and its hydroalcoholic extract on the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and folliculogenesis in offspring exposed to either of the treatments in utero and 56 days after birth (PND 56). Methods: Pregnant NMRI mice were randomly divided into 5 groups of 7: extract-treated groups received 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day fennel extract (FE), seed-treated groups received 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day fennel seed (FS), and the control group (CTL) received no treatment. The treatments started from pregnancy day 1 and continued until PND 56. Body and right ovary weights and ovary dimensions were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin stained ovary sections were prepared to calculate the proportion of different follicles. The level of TAC in the serums was also measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching. Results: A marked rise in the body and ovary weights of treated mice was observed compared to the CTL group. The mean number of primordial, primary, pre-antral, and pre-ovulatory follicles as well as corpus luteum size in the treated offspring was significantly higher compared to those of CTL offspring. The atretic follicle number was nonsignificantly lower in either of the treatment groups compared with that in the CTL. However, treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg FE showed a more pronounced effect. Animals in FS500, FE500 and FE1000 groups had a significantly higher level of serum TAC compared to the CTL group. Conclusions: Fennel extract and seed administration in pregnancy and lactation period improve offspring's folliculogenesis. Higher level of TAC in the serum of offspring might have positively altered the folliculogenesis milieu.
... Diels (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and is used in dietary supplements and cosmetics globally [10]. Originally listed as top grade in the Shennong's Classic of Herbology and nowadays described as 'female ginseng', Danggui is used in gynaecological disorders such as painful dysmenorrhea, postpartum weakness and treating menopause [11]. The herb is known to regulate blood circulation, have antioxidant activity, and is widely used in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension [12]. ...
Article
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Background: Granules are a popular way of administrating herbal decoctions. However, there are no standardised quality control methods for granules, with few studies comparing the granules to traditional herbal decoctions. This study developed a multi-analytical platform to compare the quality of granule products to herb/decoction pieces of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui). Methods: A validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) method quantitatively compared the aqueous extracts. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) clustered the samples according to three chemical compounds: ferulic acid, caffeic acid and Z-ligustilide. Ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assessed the antioxidant activity of the samples. Results: HCA and PCA allocated the samples into two main groups: granule products and herb/decoction pieces. Greater differentiation between the samples was obtained with three chemical markers compared to using one marker. The herb/decoction pieces group showed comparatively higher extraction yields and significantly higher DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05), which was positively correlated to caffeic acid and ferulic acid, respectively. Conclusions: The results confirm the need for the quality assessment of granule products using more than one chemical marker for widespread practitioner and consumer use.
... Considering the yield of the extract is 30% of crude DG, the dose of DG extract should be within 25-75 mg/kg human/d for a 60 kg human being. In the current study, we chose the oral dose of 300 mg/kg rat/d that has been shown to be pharmacological effective in rats (Circosta et al. 2006;Zhang et al. 2010;Chang et al. 2016). Under the dose conversion between rat and human (Nair and Jacob 2016), 300 mg/kg rat/d is equivalent to 48.4 mg/kg human/d which the dose is within the recommended range for traditional use. ...
Article
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Context: Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), one of the popular Danggui (DG) decoctions, has traditionally been used to nourish ‘qi’ (vital energy) and enrich ‘blood’ (body circulation). DBT may possess performance-enhancing effects. Objective: This work determines whether DBT can improve physical capacity and alter energy expenditure under exercise training. Materials and methods: Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: sedentary (SE), exercise training (ET), ET supplemented with 0.3 g/kg rat/d DG extract, and ET supplemented with 1.8 g/kg rat/d DBT extract. The supplementations were administered via oral gavage. During the 21-day treatment period, the exercised groups were subjected to a protocol of swimming training with a gradually increased load. Physical performance evaluation was assessed using the forelimb grip strength test and an exhaustive swimming test. Muscle glycogen contents and exercise-related biochemical parameters were analysed. Results: Both herbal supplementations remarkably increased the grip strength (DG by 49.7% and DBT by 85.7%) and prolonged the swimming time (DG by 48.4% and DBT by 72.7%) compared with SE. DBT spared a certain amount of glycogen in the muscle cells under exercise training. Regarding the regulation of fuel usage, DBT had a positive impact alongside ET on promoting aerobic glycolysis via significantly decreasing serum lactate by 31.6% and lactic dehydrogenase levels by 61.8%. Conclusions: This study found that DBT could be considered a promising sports ergogenic aid for athletic population or fitness enthusiasts. Future work focussing on isolating the bioactive components that truly provide the ergogenic effects would be of interest.
... Notably, plants rich in phthalides viz., Angelica sinensis and Ligusticum striatum are used traditionally to alleviate gynecological disorders. 59,60 Furthermore, our data revealed the presence of bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate accounting for 3.5% and 3.9% in the PE and CH fractions, respectively. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was previously identified in the PE and CH using UPLC-MS analysis (ESI Table S3) and strong positive correlations was observed with the estrogenic activity (serum estrogen levels, r 2 = 0.634 and % uterine weight, r 2 =0.854) in OPLS result (Table 1). ...
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Phyllanthus emblica L. fruits has long been used in Ayruvedic medicine for its many health benefits. In this study, we present on P. emblica fruits crude extract and fractions effects on the female reproductive system by assesing its estrogenic and gonadotropic activities. Results revealed that non-polar petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited the strongest estrogenic and follicle-stimulating hormone-like [FSH] activity, while n-butanol fraction exhibited a significant luteinizing hormone-like [LH] activity. Ethyl acetate fraction showed neither estrogenic nor gonadotropic activities and in contrast it may impair female fertility suggesting that different metabolite classes contribute to the plant’s overall effect on female fertility. To pinpoint active agents in these extracts, UPLC/ESI-qTOF-MS- was employed for secondary metabolites profiling with 100 metabolites annotated including ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives, terpeneoids, sterols, phthalates and fatty acids. Correlation between extracts/ fraction bioassays with UPLC/MS data was attempted using orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and revealing that guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, phthalates, diterpenes and oxygenated fatty acids that showed positive correlation with estrogenic and gonadotropic activities. Incontrast, mucic acid gallates, gallic acid derivatives and ellagitannins correlated negatively. GC/MS analysis of the non-polar bioactive fractions viz. petroleum ether and chloroform was also attempted and revealing for its enrichment in fatty acids/fatty acyl esters (34%) and phenyl compounds (19.6%). This study provides the first report on the estrogenic and gonadotropic activities of P. emblica fruit in relation to its metabolites fingerprint.
... Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN), one of the herbal crops widely distributed in eastern Asia, has long been utilized as a herbal medicine source. Its root extract in particular has been utilized to treat anemia, hypertension, arthritis, menstrual disorders, etc. (Suzuki et al., 2002;Song et al., 2004;Circosta et al., 2006;Guo et al., 2007;Kil et al., 2008). According to recent researches, roots, stems, and leaves of AGN contain bio-active substances such as pyranocoumarins (decursin, decursinol angelate, prantschimgin, angelinol, agasyllin, etc.), flavonoids, polysaccharides, phenolics, and volatile aromatics (Zhang et al., 2012). ...
Article
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We prepared hybrids consisting of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root or flower extract and layered double hydroxide (LDH) for potential anticancer nanomedicine, as decursin species (DS) in AGN are known to have anticancer activity. Dimethylsulfoxide solvent was determined hybridization reaction media, as it has affinity to both AGN and LDH moiety. In order to develop inter-particle spaces in LDH, a reversible dehydration-rehydration, so-called reconstruction route, was applied in AGN-LDH hybridization. Quantitative analyses on AGN-LDH hybrids indicated that the content of DS was two times more concentrated in the hybrids than in extract itself. Using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta-potential measurement, we found that AGN extract moiety was incorporated into inter-particle spaces of LDH nanoparticles during the reconstruction reaction. Time-dependent DS release from hybrids at pH 7.4 (physiological condition) and pH 4.5 (lysosomal condition) exhibited a pH-dependent release of extract-incorporated LDH hybrids. An anticancer activity test using HeLa, A549, and HEK293T cells showed that the AGN-LDH hybrid, regardless of extract type, showed enhanced anticancer activity compared with extract alone at an equivalent amount of DS, suggesting a nanomedicine effect of AGN-LDH hybrids.
... Une étude réalisée sur des rates ayant subi une ovariectomie et à qui on a administré un extrait d'Angelica sinensis a montré une activité ostrogénique par une modification des taux de LH sanguin ainsi qu'une modification des épithéliums vaginaux et utérins des sujets. Ceci permet une première mise en évidence des usages traditionnels de la racine Dang Gui en médecine traditionnelle chinoise dans les troubles féminins (Circosta C., 2006). Cependant une étude randomisée sur des femmes ménopausées n'a pas montré de meilleure efficacité sur les troubles liés à la ménopause après l'administration d'Angelica sinensis. ...
... Chinese angelica extract or its constituent, ferulic acid, exhibits oestrogenic activity via various mechanisms: it stimulates the growth of both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells in vitro; competitively inhibits binding of oestradiol to ER in vitro; induces transcription activity in oestrogen-responsive cells in vitro; suppresses luteinising hormone (LH) secretion; and influences uterine growth and vaginal cytology in ovariectomised rats. (40,41) Its oestrogenic activity in humans is implicated by a case report of a 35-year-old man who developed gynaecomastia after ingesting 'Dong Quai' pills daily for a month (specific dosage unknown). His hormonal results (oestradiol, testosterone, folliclestimulating hormone and LH levels) were all within normal range. ...
Article
Local healthcare providers often question the possible steroidal activity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs or herbal products and implicate them as a cause for adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome in patients with a history of TCM intake. We conducted a comprehensive database search for evidence of potential glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgenic or oestrogenic activity of herbs or herbal products. Overall, there are not many herbs whose steroidal activity is well established; among these, most cases were based on preclinical studies. Liquorice root may cause pseudoaldosteronism through interference with the steroidogenesis pathway. Although ginseng and cordyceps have some in vitro glucocorticoid activities, the corroborating clinical data is lacking. Deer musk and deer antler contain androgenic steroids, while epimedium has oestrogenic activity. On the other hand, adulteration of herbal products with exogenous glucocorticoids is a recurrent problem encountered locally in illegal products masquerading as TCM. Healthcare providers should stay vigilant and report any suspicion to the relevant authorities for further investigations.
... Une étude réalisée sur des rates ayant subi une ovariectomie et à qui on a administré un extrait d'Angelica sinensis a montré une activité ostrogénique par une modification des taux de LH sanguin ainsi qu'une modification des épithéliums vaginaux et utérins des sujets. Ceci permet une première mise en évidence des usages traditionnels de la racine Dang Gui en médecine traditionnelle chinoise dans les troubles féminins (Circosta C., 2006). Cependant une étude randomisée sur des femmes ménopausées n'a pas montré de meilleure efficacité sur les troubles liés à la ménopause après l'administration d'Angelica sinensis. ...
Research
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Disponible en version papier : BU Pharmacie de Montpellier. Paper Version avalaible Library Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montpellier (France) La médecine traditionnelle a toujours été dans de nombreux pays, un moyen d'accès aux soins pour les populations. La médecine moderne a peu à peu supplanté ces techniques traditionnelles dans les pays développés mais on voit aujourd'hui réapparaître un engouement certain pour ces médecines. Ainsi, leur usage est de plus en plus pris en compte et étudié par les scientifiques contemporains. La médecine traditionnelle chinoise, et notamment sa pharmacopée, a toujours eu une place très importante en Chine où elle possède une place aussi importante que la médecine moderne. Le travail réalisé ici concerne 37 plantes d'origine chinoise (faisant partie des sous-classes des Magnoliidae, Asteridae et Ranunculidae) et étant inscrites à la pharmacopée chinoise. Des échantillons de ces plantes sèches ont été offerts au Laboratoire de Botanique, Phytochimie et Mycologie de la Faculté de Pharmacie de Montpellier et cette thèse d'exercice vise à valoriser cette collection. Une première partie du travail précise l'état de l'utilisation des médecines traditionnelles et de la phytothérapie dans le monde. Une seconde partie consiste en une fiche descriptive botanique et thérapeutique pour chacune des plantes. Ces fiches comportent en premier lieu une partie descriptive de la plante sur le plan botanique ainsi que l'identification de la plante par sa monographie européenne ou française si elle existe. La fiche reprend ensuite l'utilisation thérapeutique de la plante en médecine traditionnelle chinoise, les composés chimiques retrouvés dans la drogue ainsi que les récentes études scientifiques qui tendent à démontrer les effets pharmacologiques et thérapeutiques des plantes. Mots clefs : Plante chinoise, Phytothérapie, Médecine traditionnelle chinoise, Botanique. Key Words: Botany, Chinese Plants, Traditional Chinese Medecine, Phytotherapy.
... Concentrations of 100 and 300 mg/kg of the standardized extract of Angelica sinensis (known to cause estrogenic effects) had been sufficient to produce estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rats. 30 In contrast, in the present study, no estrogenic effects were produced despite the high concentrations of extracts used, reflecting again the low content of phytoestrogens in the samples. ...
Article
Aerial parts of Medicago sativa L. have been used as food and its consumption has been associated with health benefits, one among the most important being menopausal symptoms control. This work was aimed to explore possible pharmacological effects of two new alfalfa-derived products that have recently emerged as daily beverage preparations. In exploring their potential estrogenic effects, they produced no relevant alteration in the uterus. However, lowering glucose levels until normal values without causing further hypoglycemic effect were observed, when rats were treated with 1.5 g/kg/day samples. In vivo acute toxicity was not found when the alfalfa products were tested up to 3 g/kg rat weight. Furthermore, in vitro studies were conducted to assess their possible toxic effects. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase tests were carried out on the Caco-2 cell model to determine cell viability and membrane integrity. A concentration-dependent effect was observed, with a significant decrease in cell viability after exposure to concentrations of alfalfa product up to 100 mg/mL (after 3 h of incubation) and 50 mg/mL (after 24 h of treatment). Although in vitro level, the decrease in cell viability at these still low doses may underlie some toxicity, making necessary additional studies before any recommendation of a sustained consumption of these products by humans. © Copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2016.
... Daily, 300 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 of AS extract (prepared in 100 mg·mL −1 with pure water) was fed once through an oral gavage in the ASG (volume ranged from 0.45 to 0.69 mL, depending on different body weights), and an equal volume of pure water was provided for the CG and EG. The dose of AS extract used here has been demonstrated to be pharmacologically effective for rats (Circosta et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2010). The 4-week strenuous exercise training protocol consisted of two exercise sessions: running on a motorized treadmill and swimming in a water container (Table 1). ...
Article
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Sports anemia is a persistent and severe problem in athletes owing to strenuous exercise-induced oxidative stress and hepcidin upregulation. The roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), a familiar traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for replenishing blood since antiquity. Aim of the study To evaluate the effects of ethanolic AS extract in a 4-week study on sports anemia in female Wistar rats. Materials and methods To induce anemia, a strenuous exercise protocol consisting of running and swimming was employed with increasing intensity. Animals were randomly assigned to the following groups: control group; strenuous exercise group; and strenuous exercise and AS extract-treated group (300 mg·kg−1·d−1). After 4 weeks, rats underwent exhaustive swimming and forelimb grip strength test. The blood biochemical markers and hepatic antioxidant activities were determined. Hepatic interleukin-6 and muscle glycogen were observed through immunohistochemical and Periodic acid–Schiff staining, respectively. Results AS extract (consisting of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and n-butylidenephthalide) treatment improved forelimb grip strength and rescued exercise-induced anemia by significantly elevating the red blood cell counts and hemoglobin concentrations as well as hematocrit levels (p < 0.05). AS modulated the iron metabolism through decreasing serum hepcidin-25 concentrations by 33.0% (p < 0.05) and increasing serum iron levels by 34.3% (p < 0.01). The hepatic injury marker serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were also reduced, followed by increased antioxidant enzyme catalase expression in the liver (p < 0.05). Furthermore, substantial attenuation of hepatic interleukin-6 expression and preservation of muscle glycogen content suggested the additional roles of AS acting on sports anemia and physical performance. Conclusion Our findings evidenced a novel and promising therapeutic approach for AS treatment for rescuing the anemic condition induced following 4 weeks of strenuous exercise.
... Diels (Dong quai, Family: Apiaceae)The root of Angelica sinensis has been introduced into Western herbal medicine from traditional Chinese medicine, in which it is used for tonifying the blood and treating female menstrual disorders (dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea, irregular menstruation) as well as menopausal symptoms132 . Coumarins are among the 70+ compounds isolated and identified from dong quai, although the principal biologically active components are thought to be the essential oil, Z-ligustilide, other phthalides and ferulic acid133 . Studies of its oestrogenic activity reported only weak ER binding8 and no oestrogen-like responses in endometrial thickness or in vaginal maturation 134 . ...
Article
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Evidence for the phytoestrogen containing plants for the treatment of menopausal symptoms was examined in part 1 of this review. Phytotherapeutic agents that may exert estrogenic effects via different mechanisms, and non-hormonally-acting remedies administered for menopause-related complaints in the Anglo-American tradition are reviewed here. The evidence presented is derived from pharmacological and clinical studies.
... 1-2 Several medicinal plants have been evaluated for their estrogenic activity either individually or in the form of polyherbal combination. [3][4][5][6][7][8] There have been very few studies on the pharmacological validation of the plants that are used for the treatment of diseases in North-East India. One such plant is Flemingia vestita Benth (Soh-phlang, Fabaceae); an indigenous plant of Meghalaya, found practically throughout the Himalayas and Khasi Hills up to an elevation of 8,000 ft. 9 The plant is known for its fleshy tubers which are scientifically evaluated against intestinal helminthes infections. ...
Article
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Objective: This study investigates the potential estrogenic activity of the ethanolic extract of Flemingia vestita Benth tubers using ovariectomized rat model. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of F. vestita tubers has been standardized using validated HPLC method in terms of its genistein content (8.43 ± 0.05 mg/g of extract). Three to four week old young albino Wistar female rats were ovariectomized and treated for 14 days post ovariectomy with the standardized ethanolic extract at three different dose levels (100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight) with a positive control of Estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg/day). The parameters evaluated were uterine weight, uterine glycogen, G6PDH, LDH, 17â-estradiol, progesterone, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and histo architecture of uterus. Results: Treatment with the ethanolic extract of F. vestita tubers showed dose dependent increase in uterine weight, glycogen levels, G6PDH levels, estrogen and progesterone levels when compared with the ovariectomized control. Amongst three dose levels, high dose of plant extract showed significant increase in the uterine weight (p < 0.001), uterine glycogen content (p < 0.001), 17-β estradiol and progesterone levels (p < 0.001), G6PDH and LDH levels (p < 0.001) as well as significant decrease in HDL and triglycerides levels (p < 0.001) compared to ovariectomized control. Histopathological evaluation of uteri sections revealed that the high dose of the plant show increase in the endometrial response as indicated by proliferation of endometrial glands and luminal epithelium of the ovariectomized rats. Conclusion: Thus, these data suggests that ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) of F. vestita tubers may exhibit good estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rat model.
... Dong quai is reputed to be estrogenic, based on reports of uterine bleeding with use and uterotropic effects in ovariectomized rats. 76 Human studies, however, have not found any evidence of estrogenic activity. ...
Article
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Objective: To update and expand The North American Menopause Society's evidence-based position on nonhormonal management of menopause-Associated vasomotor symptoms (VMS), previously a portion of the position statement on the management of VMS. Methods: NAMS enlisted clinical and research experts in the field and a reference librarian to identify and review available evidence. Five different electronic search engines were used to cull relevant literature. Using the literature, experts created a document for final approval by the NAMS Board of Trustees. Results: Nonhormonal management of VMS is an important consideration when hormone therapy is not an option, either because of medical contraindications or a woman's personal choice. Nonhormonal therapies include lifestyle changes, mind-body techniques, dietary management and supplements, prescription therapies, and others. The costs, time, and effort involved as well as adverse effects, lack of long-Term studies, and potential interactions with medications all need to be carefully weighed against potential effectiveness during decision making. Conclusions: Clinicians need to be well informed about the level of evidence available for the wide array of nonhormonal management options currently available to midlife women to help prevent underuse of effective therapies or use of inappropriate or ineffective therapies. Recommended: Cognitive-behavioral therapy and, to a lesser extent, clinical hypnosis have been shown to be effective in reducing VMS. Paroxetine salt is the only nonhormonal medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management ofVMS, although other selective serotonin reuptake/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, gabapentinoids, and clonidine show evidence of efficacy. Recommend with caution: Some therapies that may be beneficial for alleviating VMS are weight loss, mindfulness-based stress reduction, the S-equol derivatives of soy isoflavones, and stellate ganglion block, but additional studies of these therapies are warranted. Do not recommend at this time: There are negative, insufficient, or inconclusive data suggesting the following should not be recommended as proven therapies for managing VMS: cooling techniques, avoidance of triggers, exercise, yoga, paced respiration, relaxation, over-The-counter supplements and herbal therapies, acupuncture, calibration of neural oscillations, and chiropractic interventions. Incorporating the available evidence into clinical practice will help ensure that women receive evidence-based recommendations along with appropriate cautions for appropriate and timely management of VMS.
... 47 Dong quai is reputed to be estrogenic owing to reports of uterine bleeding with use and uterotropic effects in ovariectomized rats. 48 Human clinical studies, however, have found no evidence of estrogenic activity. ...
Article
Given the persistent confusion about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy since 2002 and the first publication from the Women's Health Initiative's primary findings, women and health care providers are increasingly motivated to find effective, nonhormonal approaches to treat menopause-related symptoms. Complementary and alternative medicine has grown increasingly popular in the last decade. A wide array of botanic medicines is offered as an alternative approach to hormone therapy for menopause, but data documenting efficacy and safety are limited. None of the available botanicals is as effective as hormone therapy in the management of vasomotor symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Here, we identified a neurobeneficial role of Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR; Dang Gui; the root of Angelica sinensis) against cellular oxidation in cultured neurons. ASR is a well-known Chinese herb that has long been used to harmonize the blood, regulate menstruation, relieve pain, moisten dryness and lubricate the intestines [14][15][16][17], and which is commonly consumed in Asia and Europe. Our findings have revealed the neuroprotective effects of ASR against oxidative stress and delineated part of molecular mechanisms in understanding how ASR is suppressing ROS formation and apoptosis. ...
... Diels, also A. sinensis, from Apiaceae family, has a long history of usage in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This plant is indigenous to China, and locally known as 'Dang gui' (当归). A. sinensis is often called 'female ginseng', as its major usage is in female health related diseases [1,2,3]. In addition to effect in ameliorating female reproductive complications, A. sinensis also possess a number of other medicinal or health beneficial activities [4,5]. ...
Article
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Background Angelica sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant. We have aimed to assess the genetic diversity and relationships in A. sinensis cultivars collected from different locations of China, and also some other Angelica species. Results We have employed an improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique for the amplification of DNA materials form ten Angelica cultivars, and the results were verified by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. Twenty six RAPD primers were used for RAPD, and the amplified bands were found highly polymorphic (96%). Each primer amplified 8-14 bands with an average number of 10.25. The cluster dendrogram showed the index of similarity coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.92. The similarity coefficients were higher between different cultivars of A. sinensis, and lower between different species. Twenty ISSR primers were used for the amplification, and each primer had amplified 6-10 bands with an average number of 7.2 bands per primer. The cluster dendogram showed the index of similarity coefficients ranging from 0.35 to 0.89. Conclusions This study genetically characterized the Angelica species, which might have significant contribution in genetic and ecological conservation of this important medicinal plant. Also, this study indicates the improved RAPD and ISSR analysis are important and potent molecular tools for the study of genetic diversity and authentication of organisms.
... Angelica sinensis (Family Apiaceae), commonly recognized as "dong quai","dong gui" or dang gui (various spellings), is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines (Capasso et al., 2003;Hirata et al., 1997;Kan et al., 2008). Preparations from its roots are used mainly for dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms (Circosta et al., 2006;Hirata et al., 1997). It is also used for the treatment of anemia, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases (Tang et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Background Place of origin is an important factor when determining the quality and authenticity of Angelica sinensis for medicinal use. It is important to trace the origin and confirm the regional characteristics of medicinal products for sustainable industrial development. Effectively tracing and confirming the material’s origin may be accomplished by detecting stable isotopes and mineral elements. Methods We studied 25 A. sinensis samples collected from three main producing areas (Linxia, Gannan, and Dingxi) in southeastern Gansu Province, China, to better identify its origin. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to determine eight mineral elements (K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Al) and three stable isotopes (δ ¹³ C, δ ¹⁵ N, δ ¹⁸ O). Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to verify the validity of its geographical origin. Results K, Ca/Al, δ ¹³ C, δ ¹⁵ N and δ ¹⁸ O are important elements to distinguish A. sinensis sampled from Linxia, Gannan and Dingxi. We used an unsupervised PCA model to determine the dimensionality reduction of mineral elements and stable isotopes, which could distinguish the A. sinensis from Linxia. However, it could not easily distinguish A. sinensis sampled from Gannan and Dingxi. The supervised PLS-DA and LDA models could effectively distinguish samples taken from all three regions and perform cross-validation. The cross-validation accuracy of PLS-DA using mineral elements and stable isotopes was 84%, which was higher than LDA using mineral elements and stable isotopes. Conclusions The PLS-DA and LDA models provide a theoretical basis for tracing the origin of A. sinensis in three regions (Linxia, Gannan and Dingxi). This is significant for protecting consumers’ health, rights and interests.
Article
Introduction Traditional Thai herbal medicine formulations have been used as alternative therapies for menopausal symptoms due to concerns from adverse effects associated with hormone therapy. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of traditional Thai herbal blood and wind tonic formulations used by a traditional Thai medicine doctor, Mr. Somporn Chanwanitsakul, in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods A pilot clinical study was conducted on thirty-five postmenopausal women, referring to Tambon Thung Tam Sao Health Promotion Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla, from October 2019 to March 2020. The participants consumed combined Thai herbal formulations including blood tonic and wind tonic thrice daily for four weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (4 weeks), and follow-up (8 weeks). Pre- and post-treatment measures included menopause rating scale, sleep quality, and quality of life questionnaire. All data were analyzed using SPSS software at the significance level of 0.05. Results Therapeutic effects of Thai herbal medicine formulations on menopausal symptoms intensity were assessed by modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Severity of women's total menopausal symptoms decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at end of treatment and follow-up. Analysis of changes in specific symptoms indicated significantly less moderate headache, mild hot flashes, sweating, emotional instability, irritability, anxiety, sleep problem, lethargy, back pain, joint pain, muscular discomfort, dry skin, dryness of vagina, boring sex, and frequent urination (MRS score 0). In addition, subjective analysis of sleep quality using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) data revealed significant post-treatment improvements in subjective sleep quality and daytime dysfunction over the last month (PSQI score 0). Furthermore, subjective analysis of quality of life using World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief showed significant post-treatment improvement in psychological health (score 23). Conclusion The findings demonstrate that Thai herbal medicine formulations used by a traditional Thai medicine doctor, Mr. Somporn Chanwanitsakul, are effective for treating menopausal symptoms and improve sleep quality and quality of life in postmenopausal women.
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In mammals, sexual hormones such as estrogens play an essential role in maintaining brain homeostasis and function. Estrogen deficit in the brain induces many undesirable symptoms such as learning and memory impairment, sleep and mood disorders, hot flushes, and fatigue. These symptoms are frequent in women who reached menopausal age or have had ovariectomy and in men and women subjected to anti-estrogen therapy. Hormone replacement therapy alleviates menopause symptoms; however, it can increase cardiovascular and cancer diseases. In the search for therapeutic alternatives, medicinal plants and specific synthetic and natural molecules with estrogenic effects have attracted widespread attention between the public and the scientific community. Various plants have been used for centuries to alleviate menstrual and menopause symptoms, such as Cranberry, Ginger, Hops, Milk Thistle, Red clover, Salvia officinalis, Soy, Black cohosh, Turnera diffusa, Ushuva, and Vitex. This review aims to highlight current evidence about estrogenic medicinal plants and their pharmacological effects on cognitive deficits induced by estrogen deficiency during menopause and aging.
Article
Chinesische Arzneidrogen wurden in der Chinesischen Medizin von früh an für Funktionsstörungen und Krankheiten des reproduktiven Systems eingesetzt. Daher verwundert es nicht, dass sich unter diesen viele mit hormonartigen Effekten finden lassen. Diese wurden von der westlichen TCM-Welt bisher so gut wie gar nicht zur Kenntnis genommen. Am meisten untersucht und nachgewiesen sind die Phytoöstrogeneffekte, dazu kommen progesteronartige, androgenartige, ihre jeweiligen antagonistischen Wirkungen sowie weitere. Bei den östrogenartig wirkenden Drogen stellt sich die Frage eines potenziellen Proliferationseffektes bei Mammakarzinomen, zumal viele von ihnen in vitro das Wachstum humaner Mammakarzinomzellen stimulieren. Soja und Sojaisoflavone können in dieser Hinsicht als sicher gelten, jedoch kann man diese Aussage nicht einfach auf andere Drogen mit Phytoöstrogencharakter extrapolieren. Vielmehr bedarf jede Arzneidroge einer gesonderten Betrachtung. Epidemiologische Studien zur Auswirkung einer chinesischen Arzneitherapie auf die Inzidenz oder — bei Einnahme nach Diagnosestellung — auf den Verlauf östrogenabhängiger Tumore liegen nur ganz vereinzelt vor. Diese sprechen nicht für eine erhöhte Inzidenz eines Mammakarzinoms, eines Endometriumkarzinoms oder den ungünstigen Verlauf eines Mammakarzinoms, sondern eher für das Gegenteil. Angesichts der In-vitro- und In-vivo-Ergebnisse und des nicht beweisenden Charakters epidemiologischer Studien ist der Einsatz der in Frage stehenden Arzneidrogen sehr sorgsam gegenüber den Risiken abzuwägen und im Zweifelsfall Zurückhaltung zu üben.
Chapter
The menopause can be associated with a number of symptoms, including hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms), vaginal symptoms, depression, anxiety, irritability and mood swings (psychological effects), joint pains, migraines or headaches, sleeping problems and urinary incontinence. Vasomotor symptoms are the most commonly reported, and these are treated effectively with HRT, but there are a group of women for whom HRT is not suitable, and for these reasons, there is an interest in non-hormonal alternatives.
Article
Estrogen, a steroid hormone, is associated with several human activities, including environmental, industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical fields. In this review paper, estrogenic activity associated with traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is discussed first by focusing on the assays needed to detect estrogenic activity (animal test, cell assay, ligand-binding assay, protein assay, reporter-gene assay, transcription assay and yeast two-hybrid assay), and then, their sources, the nature of activities (estrogenic or anti-estrogenic, or other types), and pathways/functions, along with the assay used to detect the activity, which is followed by a summary of effective chemicals found in or associated with TCM. Applications of estrogens in TCM are then discussed by a comprehensive search of the literature, which include basic study/pathway analysis, cell functions, diseases/symptoms and medicine/supplements. Discrepancies and conflicting cases about estrogenicity of TCM among assays or between TCM and their effective chemicals, are focused on to enlarge estrogenic potentials of TCM by referring to omic knowledge such as transcriptome, proteome, glycome, chemome, cellome, ligandome, interactome and effectome.
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Angelica sinensis (AS), one of the most versatile herbal medicines remains widely used due to its multi-faceted pharmacologic activities. Besides its traditional use as the blood-nourishing tonic, its anti-hypertensive, anti-cardiovascular, neuroprotective and anti-cancer effects have been reported. Albeit the significant therapeutic effects, how AS exerts such diverse efficacies from the molecular level remains elusive. Here we investigate the influences of AS and four representative phthalide derivatives from AS on the structure and function of hemoglobin (Hb). From the spectroscopy and oxygen equilibrium experiments, we show that AS and the chosen phthalides inhibited the oxygenated Hb from transforming into the high-affinity “relaxed” (R) state, decreasing Hb’s oxygen affinity. It reveals that phthalides cooperate with the endogenous Hb modulator, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) to synergetically regulate Hb allostery. From the docking modeling, phthalides appear to interact with Hb mainly through its α1/α2 interface, likely strengthening four (out of six) Hb “tense” (T) state stabilizing salt-bridges. A new allosteric-modulating mechanism is proposed to rationalize the capacity of phthalides to facilitate Hb oxygen transport, which may be inherently correlated with the therapeutic activities of AS. The potential of phthalides to serve as 2,3-BPG substitutes/supplements and their implications in the systemic biology and preventive medicine are discussed.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde, Ashok, is a popular traditional plant used for gynecological disorders. In India, the juice of Ashok flowers is traditionally consumed as a tonic by women in case of uterine disorders. But despite the use, its estrogenic potency is not yet evaluated and thus lacks the scientific recognition and acclaim. Aim of the study: This study is designed to investigate the estrogenic potential of standardized ethanolic extract of Saraca asoca flowers (SAF) using ovariectomized (OVX) female albino Wistar rat model. Materials and methods: Saraca asoca flowers were extracted in ethanol using hot maceration technique and the extract was standardized in terms of content of four phytoestrogens like quercetin, kaempferol, β-sitosterol and luteolin using HPTLC technique. Safety of the extract was evaluated at a dose of 2000mg/kg body weight in female albino Wistar rats as per the OECD guidelines. Bilateral ovariectomy surgery was performed for the excision of both the ovaries. The OVX animals were treated with the ethanolic extract of SAF at three dose levels- 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight in distilled water as a vehicle, orally once a day for two weeks. Estradiol valerate was employed as a modern drug for comparative evaluation of the results. Estrogenic potency was studied by assaying the activities of serum and plasma marker enzymes and hormones viz. G6PDH, LDH, 17β-estradiol, progesterone along with cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL, and vaginal cornification. The uterotrophic effect was evaluated by studying the histoarchitecture of the uterus, effect on uterine weight and changes in the levels of uterine glycogen content. Results: HPTLC revealed the presence of markers like quercetin, kaempferol, β-sitosterol and luteolin from the ethanolic extract of SAF. The content of the four markers was found to be 1.543mg/g, 0.924mg/g, 4.481mg/g and 2.349mg/g, respectively. SAF extract was found to be safe at an oral dose of 2000mg/kg body weight in rats. Among the three doses administered to ovariectomized rats, treatment with high dose was found to be more efficacious when compared with ovariectomized rats. Conclusion: The findings of this study firmly support the estrogenic potency of ethanolic extract of SAF which may be by the reason of phytoestrogens.
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Objectives Medical plant has a big role in Herbal Medicines, and most medical plant has phytoestrogens. Therefore some estrogenic effects have been reported in a lot of Korean Medicine literature. Phytoestrogens should be used carefully in children. The objective of this study is to identify reported phytoestrogenic effects in Herbal Medicines and to evaluate the characteristics of the phytoestrogens in Herbal Medicines. Methods A literature search was done with using 8 databases with a limit of reports until 12/31/2013. The estrogenic effects were summarized by each individual Korean Medicine. The frequency of the phytoestrogens was also investigated depending on the Korean medical categorization by the treatment effect. Results and Conclusions Phytoestrogenic effects were reported in 89 Herbal Medicines. Phytoestrogens were act bidirectionally, and the effect was fairly weak compared to estrogen. Phytoestrogenic effect was variable on different cells and tissues. The most frequent phytoestrogenic effect was in tonifying and replenishing medicinal, the following orders were heat-clearing, exterior-releasing, and blood-activating and stasis-dispelling medicinal. Phytoestrogens were not reported in dampness-resolving, digestant, orifice-opening, emetic medicinal.
Article
A new, rapid analytical method using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate Radix Angelicae sinensis samples from five different geographic origins, and to determine the contents of ethanol extract and ferulic acid in the samples. The scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using principal component analysis (PCA), the grouping homogeneity and sample cluster tendency were visualized. Furthermore, random forests (RF) was applied to select the most effective wavenumber variables from the full NIR variables and to build the qualitative models. Finally, the genetic algorithm optimization combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) was applied to select the most relevant variables and to build the ethanol extract and ferulic acid quantitative models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the models are Rtest = 0.83 for ethanol extract and Rtest = 0.81 for ferulic acid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of chinese herbal medicine.
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To review the efficacy and safety of specific herbal medications that have been used traditionally to treat common conditions in women. Current literature, with emphasis on more rigorously controlled studies. Herbal medicines have long been used in traditional healing systems to treat conditions of particular interest to women, such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menopausal symptoms. For a select number of phytomedicines, including evening primrose oil, black cohosh root extract, dong quai, and chaste tree berry, scientific investigation is elucidating the pharmacologically active constituents, mechanism of action, and clinical value. Based on the available evidence, evening primrose oil and chaste tree berry may be reasonable treatment alternatives for some patients with PMS. Dong quai may have some efficacy for PMS when used in traditional Chinese multiple-herb formulas. For relief of menopausal symptoms, black cohosh root extract and dong quai have good safety profiles, but only black cohosh has demonstrated efficacy for this indication. Safety data, especially during pregnancy and lactation, are still largely lacking for many herbal medications, and recommendations for usage and dosage vary. Pharmacists who wish to recommend herbal products for women's health conditions need to evaluate the scientific literature in order to form their own opinions about appropriate use and safety.
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The volatile oils from the Japanese and North Korean varieties of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, cultivated in Vietnam, were obtained by steam distillation of the fresh leaves and whole flowers. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS and found to contain about 50 compounds. More than 35 constituents have been identified, the major ones being γ-terpinene (59.2% and 44.3% in the Japanese leaf and flower oils; 68.3% and 62.3% in the North Korean oils), and (Z)-ligustilide (11.9% and 33.6%, 6.4% and 13.6%, respectively).
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High-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry has been applied to analyze the chemical constituents of Danggui (the rhizome of Angelica sinensis) and to study chemical changes of Z-ligustilide. Twelve phthalides were unambiguously identified as senkyunolide I (3), senkyunolide H (4), sedanenolide (8), butylphthalide (9), E-ligustilide (13), Z-ligustilide (14), Z-butylidenephthalide (15), Z,Z′-6.8′,7.3′-diligustilide (16), angelicide (17), levistolide A (18), Z-ligustilide dimer E-232 (19) and Z,Z′-3.3′,8.8′-diligustilide (20) in Danggui extract. The existence of 12 other phthalides (2, 5–7, 11, 12, 22–27), ferulic acid (1) and coniferyl ferulate (10) in Danggui extract has also been demonstrated. Phthalides 3, 4, 16–18 and 20 were determined to be the products from chemical change of Z-ligustilide. This is the first report of the existence of 16 compounds (2–8, 10–12, 20, 22–25 and 27) in Danggui extract.
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A novel ligustilide dimer, E-232, was isolated from the roots of Angelica sinensis. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods. It inhibited 3H-nitrendipine binding to the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel with an ic50 of 4 × 10−7 M.
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The Chinese people discovered Dong Quai and used it as a tonic and spice. Women especially have used Dong Quai to protect their health, generation after generation. This paper reviews the pharmacological effect, toxicity and dosage formula of Dong Quai, based on the modern concept.
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The responses of uterus, cervix and vagina to the same dosage (1.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) of cis and trans clomiphene were studied in ovariectomized rats in the presence and absence of estradiol dipropionate (EDP). An overall assessment indicated that both the isomers were estrogenic cum antiestrogenic. However, the estrogenicity of the two compounds relative to each other and to EDP and their antiestrogenic potentials were found to vary depending upon the parameter(s) and the nature of the target organ(s) under consideration. It is suggested that these anomalies might arise from the nuances in the ponderal, histologic and biochemical behavior of the three target organs, and the variation in the threshold doses of the compounds necessary to elicit a certain biochemical response from a particular organ. The inherent ability of a compound to evoke a change over and above that which could be imputed to its estrogenicity/angiestrogenicity might also complicate the issue.
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A competitive protein-binding method for the measurement of progesterone in plasma of human subjects was investigated. The purification steps necessary to achieve good accuracy, precision and specificity were determined. It was found that one paper chromatographic separation of unwashed ethyl acetate plasma extracts was sufficient, providing that the sample contains a minimum of 1 ng. progesterone. Water blank values equivalent to 0·05 ng. progesterone were consistently obtained. The concentrations of progesterone found in plasma during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and in male plasma were 0·14 ± 0·14, 0·82 ± 0·74 and 0·022 ± 0·015 ( s.d. ) μg./100 ml., respectively.
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To study the effect of angelica polysaccharide (AP) on proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells for clarifying the hematonic mechanism of angelica sinensis. The techniques of culture of hematopoietic progenitor cell and hematopoietic growth factor (HGF) assay were used. AP could obviously promote the proliferation and differentiation of BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM and CFU-MK in healthy and aniemic mice. The culture media of splenocyte, macrophage, fibroblast and skeletal muscle treated with AP had much stronger stimulating effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells. AP may enhance hematopoiesis by stimulating directly and/or indirectly macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes in hematopoietic inductive microenvironment and muscle tissue to secrete some HGF (Epo, GM-CSF, IL, and MK-CSF). This is one of the biological mechanisms for hematonic effect of angelica sinensis.
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In this study we report on the content and bioactivity of plant (phyto) estrogens and progestins in various foods, herbs, and spices, before and after human consumption. Over 150 herbs traditionally used by herbalists for treating a variety of health problems were extracted and tested for their relative capacity to compete with estradiol and progesterone binding to intracellular receptors for progesterone (PR) and estradiol (ER) in intact human breast cancer cells. The six highest ER-binding herbs that are commonly consumed were soy, licorice, red clover, thyme, tumeric, hops, and verbena. The six highest PR-binding herbs and spices commonly consumed were oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover and damiana. Some of the herbs and spices found to contain high phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancer cell lines and to induce or inhibit the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase, an end product of progesterone action, in PR (+) cells. In general, we found that ER-binding herbal extracts were agonists, much like estradiol, whereas PR-binding extracts, were neutral or antagonists. The bioavailability of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins in vivo were studied by quantitating the ER-binding and PR-binding capacity of saliva following consumption of soy milk, exogenous progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or wild mexican yam products containing diosgenin. Soy milk caused a dramatic increase in saliva ER-binding components without a concomitant rise in estradiol. Consumption of PR-binding herbs increased the progestin activity of saliva, but there were marked differences in bioactivity. In summary, we have demonstrated that many of the commonly consumed foods, herbs, and spices contain phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins that act as agonists and antagonists in vivo.
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Epidemiologic studies have suggested that consumption of phytoestrogen-rich foods may protect against breast cancer, and phytoestrogens such as genistein have been reported to both inhibit and stimulate the growth of some human breast cancer cells. The phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, and coumestrol were tested and found to inhibit serum-stimulated growth in both T-47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells at 10-100 microM. Extracts of several estrogenic herbs, including hops, black cohosh and vitex, inhibited growth of T-47D cells. These in vitro results suggest that certain herbs and phytoestrogens may have potential in the prevention of breast cancer.
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Polysaccharides X-C-3-III and X-C-3-IV had been obtained from Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels. Their average MW were determined to be 85,000 and 65,765 by gel chromatography after the hydrolysates of X-C-3-III and X-C-3-IV, the compositions of them were identified by silanization method and capillary gas chromatography. X-C-3-III and X-C-3-IV are composed of galacose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. The molar ratio of those sugars were determined as 24.3:15.8:4.2:3.1:52.6 and 12.6:10.7:7.2:8.3:61.2, respectively.
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Women are increasingly turning to herbal therapies in an effort to manage their menopausal symptoms. In this study, we investigate the estrogenic activity of four selected herbs commonly used in menopause, namely dong quai, ginseng, black cohosh, and licorice root. We investigated the effect of these selected herbs on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line. We also assessed their estrogenic activity in a transient gene expression assay system using HeLa cells co-transfected with an estrogen-dependent reporter plasmid in the presence of human estrogen receptor ER alpha or ER beta cDNA. Finally, we investigated the estrogenic activity of these herbs using a bioassay in mice. Dong quai and ginseng both significantly induced the growth of MCF-7 cells by 16- and 27-fold, respectively, over that of untreated control cells, while black cohosh and licorice root did not. The herbs tested failed to show transactivation of either hER alpha or hER beta and had no effect on uterine weight in vivo when administered orally to mice for a period of 4 days. Our studies show that dong quai and ginseng stimulate the growth of MCF-7 cells independent of estrogenic activity. Because of the lack of efficacy and the potential for adverse effects, use of these herbs in humans warrants caution pending further study.
The biology of steroidal contra-ceptives. In The Chemical Control of Fertility Marcel Dekker: New York, 537. Hardy ML. 2000. Herbs of special interest to women
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Edgren RA, Calhoun DW. 1957. The biology of steroidal contra-ceptives. In The Chemical Control of Fertility, Edgren RA (ed.). Marcel Dekker: New York, 537. Hardy ML. 2000. Herbs of special interest to women. J Am Pharm Assoc 40: 234 – 242.
DOI: 10.1002 Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symp-toms
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  • Christophe P S Amato
  • Mellon
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Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 20, 665–669 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. 2002. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symp-toms. Menopause 9: 145 –150.