Article

ANTISTREPTOLYSIN CONTENT OF THE BLOOD SERUM IN RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Antibodies against streptolysin "O" are formed in response to infection with the hemolytic streptococcus and for this reason measurement of antistreptolysin "O" has proved a useful test for indicating recent infection with the hemolytic streptococcus. Among the earlier important investigations of the antistreptolysin "O" titer in patients with hemolytic streptococcal infection, rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis were those of (3), Myers and Keefer (1934) (4), Blair and Hallman (1935) (5), Wilson, Wheeler, and Leask (1935) (6), Coburn ally can be demonstrated during the second and third week following an acute hemolytic streptococcal infection and a titer above 200 units generally has been considered as serological evidence of a recent infection with the hemolytic streptococcus. ...
... Antibodies against streptolysin "O" are formed in response to infection with the hemolytic streptococcus and for this reason measurement of antistreptolysin "O" has proved a useful test for indicating recent infection with the hemolytic streptococcus. Among the earlier important investigations of the antistreptolysin "O" titer in patients with hemolytic streptococcal infection, rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis were those of (3), Myers and Keefer (1934) (4), Blair and Hallman (1935) (5), Wilson, Wheeler, and Leask (1935) (6), Coburn ally can be demonstrated during the second and third week following an acute hemolytic streptococcal infection and a titer above 200 units generally has been considered as serological evidence of a recent infection with the hemolytic streptococcus. ...
... Antistreptolysin "O" The source of the streptolysin "O" was a strain of beta hemolytic streptococcus known as 089. 4 The method used to determine the antistreptolysin "O" content of sera was that described by Todd (2) and modified by Hodge and Swift (39). 4This organism was furnished through the courtesy of Dr. Benedict Massell, House of the Good Samaritan. ...
Chapter
Das rheumatische Fieber stellt eine entzündliche Systemerkrankung des Bindegewebes dar, dessen ubiquitäres Vorkommen den vielfältigen Organbefall im Verlauf der Erkrankung verständlich macht. Die klinische Bedeutung des interindividuell wechselnden Organbefalls hat in der Nomenklatur bisher keinen allgemein anerkannten Niederschlag gefunden. So war in Deutschland die Bezeichnung „akute Polyarthritis“ für das Gesamtbild akuter rheumatischer Erscheinungen bis vor kurzem üblich. Erst in den jüngsten Publikationen findet sich die Bezeichnung „rheumatisches Fieber“ in Analogie zum anglo-amerikanischen „rheumatic fever“. Auch diese Bezeichnung ist nicht ganz befriedigend, da in der Anamnese zahlreicher eindeutiger rheumatischer Herzfehler ein Fieber nicht zu eruieren ist, jedoch berücksichtigt der erneut vorgeschlagene Name „rheumatische Infektion“ zu wenig den allergischen Faktor in der Pathogenese dieser Erkrankung, deren Initiator ohne Zweifel ein A-Streptokokken-Infekt ist. Die weltweite Verbreitung des Begriffes „rheumatic fever“ läßt es unzweckmäßig erscheinen, nach anderen Bezeichnungsweisen zu suchen.
Article
Review of the development of etiologic and pathogenetic concepts of rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the beginning of clinical bacteriology to the discovery of antibiotics. Analysis of English and German language publications pertaining to bacteriology and "rheumatism" between the 1870s and 1940s. Early in the 20th century there was a widely held belief that a microbial cause would eventually be found for most diseases. This encouraged pursuit of the intermittent findings of positive blood and synovial fluid cultures in cases of RF and RA. Development of a streptococcal agglutination test supported the erroneous belief that RA is a streptococcal infection, while the simultaneous development of other immunologic tests for streptococci suggested that a hemolytic streptococcus was etiologic in RF. Table 1 provides a chronology of major events supporting and retarding resolutions. Much of the conflicting data and inferences regarding the etiology of RF and RA can be attributed to the absence or inadequacy of controls in observations of clinical cohorts and laboratory experiments.
Article
The prevention of acute rheumatic fever by penicillin therapy of acute streptococcal respiratory infections was attempted in this study. Procaine penicillin G in oil containing 2 per cent aluminum monostearate was injected intramuscularly according to one of three dosage schedules in 1,178 patients with exudative tonsillitis or pharyngitis while 1,162 patients remained untreated and served as controls.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die drei grossen Infektionskrankheiten, Tuberkulose, Lues und Rheumatismus, weisen gewisse gemeinsame klinische Zügr auf. Die Ursache dessen ist darin zu erblicken, dass zahlreiche dominicrende klinische Manifestationen hier nichts anderes sind als Sekundarmanifestationen des Krankheitsgeschehens, allergische odcbr hyperergische Reaktionen. Die gemeinsamen Züge und Syndrom sind die ausgeprägt hyperergischen. Der Unterschied zwischen den klinischen Bildern beruht hingegen auf den ätiologischen Momenten. Immer mehr Umstände sprechen dafür, dass der Streptokokkusals der Urheber derrheumatischen Infektion zu gelten hat; einerderselben ist die Tatsache, dass an der Rheuma-Abteilung des Lunder Krankenhauses in einem hohen Prozentsatz der Fäille pathologische Antistreptolysin- und Antifibrolysintiter vorgefunden worden sind.Bei der rheumatischen Infektion ist es indessen, in noch höherenm Masse als bei den anderen, nicht so sehr das ätiologische Moment, als vielmehr die Sekundärreaktion, die allergische Reaktion, bisweilenzu einer metallergischen oder einer anderen pathergischen Reaktion erweitert, die den klinischen Bildern das Gepräge gibt, und diese Allergie ist nicht bei allen klinischen Bildern gleich stark ausgesprochen. Wir sehen hier in der Klinik die ganze Tonleiter von derstürmischsten Hyperergie bis hinunter zur reinen Anergie Die hösten Töne, die stürmischste Hyperergie, liegen im Bereich des rheumatischen Fiebers, aber die lange Skala der abtönenden allergischen Reaktion bis hinunter zur reinen Anergie finden wir in der grossen Krankheitsgruppe der chronischen rheumatischen Infektarfhritis, und dies ist die Ursache der grossen Buntheit der klinischen Krankheitsbilder.Der hyperergische Zug äussert sich vor allem in einer Zirkulationsstörung der angegriffenen Gewebe und Organe während des aktiven Stadiums der rheumatischen Infektion; diese Störung ist Vorübergehender Natur und verschwindet oder nimmt ab, wenn die Aktivitatder Infektion abnimmt. Symptome dieser Störung sind die kalten Hände und Füsse, die Muskelatrophie, die Kalkatrophie des Skeletts, der niedrige Grundumsatz, die depressive Sekretionsanomalie des Magens, die deprimierte T-Zacke des EKGs.
Article
In the first two papers findings were presented which point to a close relationship between the incidence of rheumatic fever and the distribution of Streptococcus hemolyticus. The fact was emphasized that in the rheumatic subject a recrudescence of the disease process is usually preceded by pharyngeal infection with hemolytic streptococci. These organisms conspicuous in the throat flora during the period of infection preliminary to an attack of acute rheumatism fell into six antigenic groups and produced toxins which in 70 per cent were neutralized by a monovalent streptococcus antiserum. In the present study, four series of observations have been presented, demonstrating the development of immune bodies to hemolytic streptococcus during the course of rheumatic fever. The agglutination and complement fixation reactions of sera from patients with acute rheumatism suggest recent infection with streptococcus. Precipitin tests indicate that at the time of appearance of the rheumatic attack, individuals develop, in their blood, precipitins to the protein fractions of hemolytic streptococcus. That these precipitins may not be entirely specific is recognized from their cross-reactions with antigens of chemically related organisms. The studies made in association with E. W. Todd of England have demonstrated that at the onset of an attack of acute rheumatism, there occurs in each instance a rise in the antistreptolysin titer of the patient's serum. This titer is much higher than that observed in normal subjects or in patients with bacterial infection other than hemolytic streptococcus. This presence of antistreptolysin with an N.D. of 0.005 cc. is considered strong evidence of recent infection by hemolytic streptococcus. In conclusion, the relationship between the incidence of hemolytic streptococcus and the geographical distribution of rheumatic fever, the relationship between the recrudescence in the rheumatic subject and infection of the throat with hemolytic streptococcus, the development of immune bodies for hemolytic streptococcus at the onset of the rheumatic attack and the apparently specific relationship of antistreptolysin formation to infection with hemolytic streptococcus,-together this combined evidence indicates that the infectious agent initiating the rheumatic process is Streptococcus hemolyticus.
Article
1. Normal serum, used in cultures for preparation of the streptolysin, modifies the properties of the streptolysin, causing delayed hemolysis, increased filterability, resistance to oxidation or reduction, and absence of antigenicity. 1. Streptolysin prepared without serum is an active antigen. 3. Similar temperatures are required to destroy the antigenic activity of serum-free streptolysin and the skin reactivity of Dick toxin. 4. Scarlet fever antitoxin contains antistreptolysin which does not neutralise serum streptolysin and which can be detected only by titration against serum-free streptolysin. 5. The antihemolysin which neutralises serum-free streptolysin is species-specific but not type-specific.
Article
Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (295K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 957
Article
Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (576K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 624 625
Serological reactions with hemolytic streptococci in acute bacterial infections
  • W S Tillett
  • T J Abernethy
Tillett, W. S., and Abernethy, T. J., Serological reactions with hemolytic streptococci in acute bacterial infections. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 1932, 50, 270.
Precipitin reactions in the blood of rheumatic patients following acute throat infections. Quart
  • B Schlesinger
  • A G Signy
Schlesinger, B., and Signy, A. G., Precipitin reactions in the blood of rheumatic patients following acute throat infections. Quart. J. Med., n.s., 1933, 2, 255.