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Skin reactions to nucleoproteins of streptococcus scarlatinae in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever

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Chapter
Begriff der Allergie. Bei dem Bestreben, den Erscheinungsbereich, der heute durch das Wort Allergie ausgedrückt wird, richtig zu umfassen und dann klar zu umreißen, welcher Komplex von Krankheitserscheinungen in diesem Buch mit der Bezeichnung Allergie zusammengefaßt werden soll, ist es notwendig, auf den Vater des Wortes v. Pirquet 1 zurückzugehen und uns seine vor 52 Jahren geprägte erste Definition vor Augen zu halten. Wir müssen uns weiterhin fragen, wie sich der Begriff Allergie zu dem der Anaphylaxie verhält. Dadurch wird erforderlich, daß von den Erkenntnissen v. Pirquets ausgehend, näher auf eine Reihe von grundlegenden Tatsachen der experimentellen Anaphylaxie- und Allergieforschung, vor allem nach der Zeit v. Pirquets eingegangen wird. Es ist notwendig, obschon in diesem Buch, wie der Titel besagt, in erster Linie die praktisch klinische Diagnostik und Therapie der sogenannten allergischen Krankheiten und solchen, die sicher oder wahrscheinlich mit allergischen Begleiterscheinungen einhergehen, dargestellt werden soll. Erst durch einen solchen Überblick über die in den letzten Jahren besonders intensive experimentelle Allergie- und Anaphylaxieforschung sind wir in der Lage, herauszuheben, was für das Verständnis klinischer Beobachtungen besonders wesentlich erscheint und uns bei den einzelnen Krankheitsschilderungen da und dort auf die in den ersten Abschnitten dargestellten grundlegenden Forschungsergebnisse zu beziehen.
Chapter
In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollen die Erkenntnisse über die Bedeutung von Streptokokkeninfektionen in der Pathogenese der akuten Polyarthritis und der akuten Nephritis dargestellt werden. Die Arbeit befaßt sich vorwiegend mit klinischen und serologischen Fragen. Die Darstellung berücksichtigt die in der Literatur mitgeteilten Befunde und eigene Untersuchungsergebnisse des Verfas­sers, besonders über Antikörper gegen hämolytische Streptokokken und gelbe hämolytische Staphylokokken.
Article
Review of the development of etiologic and pathogenetic concepts of rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the beginning of clinical bacteriology to the discovery of antibiotics. Analysis of English and German language publications pertaining to bacteriology and "rheumatism" between the 1870s and 1940s. Early in the 20th century there was a widely held belief that a microbial cause would eventually be found for most diseases. This encouraged pursuit of the intermittent findings of positive blood and synovial fluid cultures in cases of RF and RA. Development of a streptococcal agglutination test supported the erroneous belief that RA is a streptococcal infection, while the simultaneous development of other immunologic tests for streptococci suggested that a hemolytic streptococcus was etiologic in RF. Table 1 provides a chronology of major events supporting and retarding resolutions. Much of the conflicting data and inferences regarding the etiology of RF and RA can be attributed to the absence or inadequacy of controls in observations of clinical cohorts and laboratory experiments.
Article
1. Skin reactions to the nucleoprotein of streptococcus seem to indicate a somewhat nonspecific allergic state of the individuals tested with this substance which seems to be common at least to various streptococci, and are not an indication of a specific relationship with certain streptococci. The fact that the allergy to the N.P. runs parallel to the immunity to the essential toxin is due to the structure of Streptococcus scarlatinae of which the N.P. and the essential toxin are the two components. But that both are not necessarily parallel to each other seems to depend upon the fact that nucloproteins are widely common to various sorts of streptococci while only a limited variety of streptococci can produce essential toxin and that the rapidity of development of immunity to the essential toxin and of allergy to the N.P. does not run parallel to each other. 2. An explanation of many data reported by various authors on the Dick test contrary to the Dicks' theory may be found in the fact that the ordinary Dick toxin (culture filtrate) in addition to the essential toxin contains N.P. which is also capable of evoking allergic reactions on human skins. The culture filtrate which contains a considerable amount of N.P. seems to have given results inconsistent with the toxin-antitoxin theory. 3. For the standardization of the Dick toxin for the Dick test it is not sufficient to determine its skin units, but the nucleoprotein content of it must be considered. In this respect, the Washington standard toxin was very satisfactory, but the use of the purified toxin free fron N.P. is most reasonable. 4. In order to determine skin units of ordinary culture filtrate very young children with strongly positive reaction to the scarlatinal toxin are preferred, as they scarcely have a positive reaction to the nucleoproteins. If we utilize weak positive reactors and place the importance on the percentage of positive reactors, this will likely lead us into error, owing to the positive reactions to the N.P. 5. The divergence of the results reported by many authors on the age distribution of positive reactors seems to depend upon the different content of nucleoproteins in the filtrate used.
Article
1. Agglutination and precipitation by the specific substance of Streptococcus viridans are parallel phenomena. Separate specific substances have been extracted from strains which are distinct by ordinary serological tests. Preliminary chemical examination indicates that the specific substances may be complex carbohydrates. 2. A close relationship between nucleoproteins from different strains of Streptococcus viridans is suggested by the existence of a certain amount of cross-precipitation and a larger degree of cross-complement fixation. But the occurrence of stronger reactions with homologous nucleoproteins than with heterologous indicates that there is some degree of individual difference in proteins from separate strains. 3. Two distinct antibodies are present in the sera antibacterial for Streptococcus viridans: one of high titer implicated in the parallel phenomena of agglutination and precipitation by the soluble specific substance, the other usually of low titer and involved in precipitation by nucleoproteins but probably little, if at all, in agglutination. The significance of these results obtained from the study of antibacterial sera will be considered in the general discussion of the antigenic components of Streptococcus viridans after the results from the study of antinucleoprotein sera have been presented in the succeeding paper.
Article
1. Agglutination and precipitation by the specific substance of Streptococcus viridans are parallel phenomena. Separate specific substances have been extracted from strains which are distinct by ordinary serological tests. Preliminary chemical examination indicates that the specific substances may be complex carbohydrates. 2. A close relationship between nucleoproteins from different strains of Streptococcus viridans is suggested by the existence of a certain amount of cross-precipitation and a larger degree of cross-complement fixation. But the occurrence of stronger reactions with homologous nucleoproteins than with heterologous indicates that there is some degree of individual difference in proteins from separate strains. 3. Two distinct antibodies are present in the sera antibacterial for Streptococcus viridans: one of high titer implicated in the parallel phenomena of agglutination and precipitation by the soluble specific substance, the other usually of low titer and involved in precipitation by nucleoproteins but probably little, if at all, in agglutination. The significance of these results obtained from the study of antibacterial sera will be considered in the general discussion of the antigenic components of Streptococcus viridans after the results from the study of antinucleoprotein sera have been presented in the succeeding paper.
Article
It was impossible to demonstrate a condition of specific joint sensitization to non-hemolytic streptococci by first injecting the joints of rabbits with small doses of killed non-hemolytic streptococci, or with extracts of these organisms, and subsequently inoculating the rabbits intravenously with homologous living bacteria. Joints so treated were no more liable to involvement than were other untreated joints of the same animals.
Article
By a process of sensitization described it was found possible to cause arthritis in rabbits constantly after one intravenous injection of the streptococcus. This reaction is specific. By intravenous inoculation, without previous sensitization, of the streptococcus used in these experiments it was possible to cause arthritis in rabbits only after three or more injections. An analogy is suggested between the arthritis induced by sensitization and the relapses in human rheumatic fever. A further analogy is suggested between the development in rabbits of arthritis after repeated intravenous injections and the development of the primary lesion in human rheumatic fever.
Article
Scintigraphic images of the cardiac blood pool were displayed in color, with red indicating tracer distribution during diastole and green indicating systole. This display permits easy identification of vascular structures.
Article
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xlii, 784. of Rheumatic Subjects to Streptococcus Filtrates; Its Relationship to Rheumatic Fever
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