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Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence.

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... Although there seems to be a general awareness that IPV is harmful, it is less clear whether there is awareness of the diverse range of behaviors that may constitute abuse. This may be especially relevant for nonphysical IPV (Power et al., 2006). To explore which behaviors are core components of peoples' mental frameworks (schemas) of IPV, we conducted two studies to identify common elements of individuals' IPV schemas and whether these elements differ depending on the type of abuse. ...
... Nonphysical IPV in heterosexual relationships can be misattributed to gender roles, passion, love, and protectiveness (Chung, 2005;Power et al., 2006;Towns & Adams, 2016). Although some may view jealous behaviors as denoting ownership and therefore, unwelcome, and undesirable in a romantic relationship (Towns & Scott, 2013), others may find certain monitoring or controlling behavior, and possessiveness and hostility about rivals as indicative of true love and passion (Hartwell et al., 2015;Power et al., 2006). ...
... Nonphysical IPV in heterosexual relationships can be misattributed to gender roles, passion, love, and protectiveness (Chung, 2005;Power et al., 2006;Towns & Adams, 2016). Although some may view jealous behaviors as denoting ownership and therefore, unwelcome, and undesirable in a romantic relationship (Towns & Scott, 2013), others may find certain monitoring or controlling behavior, and possessiveness and hostility about rivals as indicative of true love and passion (Hartwell et al., 2015;Power et al., 2006). These beliefs are labeled "romantic jealousy." ...
Article
While substantial research has been conducted on intimate partner violence (IPV), comparatively little research has examined peoples’ perceptions of which behaviors comprise this form of abuse. Early identification of IPV is critical to ending abuse, however, forms of IPV that typically occur earlier in a relationship (e.g., nonphysical abuse) may not be core components of peoples’ mental frameworks (schemas) of IPV and may therefore be less commonly identified as abusive. To explore this, in Study 1 participants from an Australian University ( N = 86) separately described the relationships with IPV and nonphysical IPV. Analyses identified control, power imbalance, stereotypical gender dynamics (male perpetrator, female victim), physical abuse, and having a low socioeconomic status abuser as common components of participants’ IPV schema when not prompted with type of abuse. However, participants largely failed to describe nonphysical IPV behaviors, suggesting limited awareness of the specific behaviors that constitute abuse. To explore this in Study 2, participants from an Australian University ( N = 305) were asked to categorize a range of specific behaviors (including physically abusive, nonphysically abusive, and nonabusive behaviors) as definitely, maybe, or never abusive. Drawing on the known positive association between gender and romantic beliefs with the experience of abuse, we also assessed the relationship of identification of IPV behaviors to these beliefs. Moderated multilevel modeling showed that nonphysical IPV behaviors were generally perceived as less abusive than physical IPV behaviors. In addition, stronger endorsement of romantic jealousy was associated with evaluating nonphysical IPV as less abusive. However, romantic jealousy beliefs were not significantly associated with the perceived abusiveness of physical IPV behaviors. Findings support the conclusion that individuals’ IPV schemas contribute to a failure to identify nonphysical IPV behaviors as abusive, and this is particularly true for people who more strongly endorse romantic jealousy.
... One study (Dziegielewski, Campbell, & Turnage, 2005) explores the barriers that prevent women from leaving their abusive partners, with romantic love being one factor. One study (Power, Koch, Kralik, & Jackson, 2006) discusses the conventions of romantic love in the formation of relationships, and one study (Smith, Nunley, & Martin, 2013) investigates women's definitions of love following violent relationships. An annotated bibliography is presented in Table 4. ...
... It is argued by Power et al. (2006) that the innate desire to love and be loved in many people may originate from common cultural representations of love stories and fairy-tales that consume our childhoods. These constructions attempt to define what romantic love is like, not aided by popular media outlets reinforcing this stereotype; from the adoring Prince (2003) Cavanagh (2003) Dziegielewski, Campbell, and Turnage (2005) Keeling and Fisher (2012) Power, Koch, Kralik, and Jackson (2006) Smith, Nunley, and Martin (2013) Wood (2001) Data analysis Tape (2003) Cavanagh (2003) Dziegielewski, ...
... 1562). Power et al. (2006) explain that the story of "Prince Charming" who saves the 'princess' informs our cultural understanding of typical gender roles. Dziegielewski et al. (2005, p. 19) illuminate the sudden change in behavior experienced by many women. ...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crime encompassing physical, psychological, financial, emotional, and sexual abuse by a current or former partner. The presence of love in abusive relationships tends to be marginalized in healthcare discourses. The authors' aim in this qualitative systematic literature review was to explore the interplay between IPV and romantic love and their impacts on women. The review provides a rare (but much needed) explanation and acknowledgement that love does sometimes exist in abusive relationships. These insights will assist healthcare workers in offering empathic care to women, based on understandings of the complex and highly unsettled nature of love in abusive relationships.
... Jealousy has also been identified as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and domestic abuse [36]. Nevertheless, jealousy is frequently romanticized in popular media, and research has confirmed that individuals often view jealousy as a sign of passion and investment in a romantic relationship [39,40,49]. ...
... Endorsement of these unrealistic beliefs about love has been shown to be negatively related to relationship satisfaction [45] and positively related to relational conflict [46]. Furthermore, the endorsement of romantic beliefs has been conceptually associated with the belief that jealousy is a sign of true love [39], and people who believe that there is only one true love often interpret their partner's jealousy as a sign of commitment and passion [7]. ...
... Jealousy may be linked to perceptions of love, but the notion that jealousy is a sign of true devotion has been implicated as part of the set of cultural beliefs that have the potential to normalize relationship violence [40,49]. Cultural representations of love and sexuality in the media heavily influence what behaviors are expected and considered acceptable in romantic relationships [39,52]. For example, in the love triangle from the popular book and movie series Twilight, Edward and Jacob both displayed preventative and reactive jealousy over their shared love interest, Bella [34]. ...
Article
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Despite negative relationship consequences associated with jealousy, it is often romanticized and seen as a sign of passion and investment in romantic relationships. In Study 1, we developed the ten-item Jealousy is Good Scale (JIGS) to assess pro-jealousy attitudes and examined its association with existing constructs among a sample of women. JIGS scores were related to endorsement of traditional romantic beliefs and gender norms. They were also related to desiring a partner displaying jealousy and endorsing traditional norms of masculinity, including violence. In Study 2, the structure of the JIGS was confirmed for both women and men, and there was no difference in the extent to which men and women endorsed pro-jealousy beliefs. JIGS scores were again related to the endorsement of traditional romantic beliefs as well as to sexist beliefs for both men and women. Though seemingly romantic, valuing jealousy may have problematic consequences.
... For example, the above-mentioned French newspaper headlines illustrate the spontaneous relationship that people make between IPV and romantic love in the social field. However, romantic love has often been considered as a peripheral aspect of the IPV phenomenon in literature (Power, Koch, Kralik, & Jackson, 2006). Thus, our objective in the present study was to tackle the question of the effect of adherence to romantic love, ambivalent sexism, and domestic violence myths on IPV legitimization. ...
... For instance, the romance narrative portrays women as needing to be rescued by man and as needing to be complete and fulfilled, while men are portrayed as naturally strong, full of power, and sure of themselves (Vincent & McEwen, 2004;Wood, 2001). An important aspect of romantic love is therefore to contribute to the definition of gender roles in couple relationships (Rudman & Glick, 2008), in particular, by reducing women's identity to their feelings of love as well as making love into a destiny they must achieve (Chung, 2005;Power et al., 2006). ...
... In others words, this suggests that, behind the adherence to romantic love, the legitimization of IPV is determined by the internalization of patriarchal ideologies defining gender-symbolic roles and justifying male domination. These results stand out from those of other studies exploring the relationships between romantic love and IPV, which have focused more on love as a reason to stay and not seeking help (see Anderson et al., 2003;Dziegielewski, Campbell, & Turnage, 2005;Towns & Adams, 2000) or to justify early signs of IPV (Frías & Agoff, 2015;Power et al., 2006;Pyles, Katie, Mariame, Suzette, & DeChiro, 2012). Indeed, we shed light on another aspect of adherence to romantic love ideology: how romantic love favors the acceptance of IPV by reinforcing the adherence to patriarchal ideologies. ...
Article
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Romantic love in heterosexual relationship is recognized as an important aspect to be considered in the psychosocial mechanisms associated to the persistence of intimate partner violence and to the help-seeking barriers faced by victims. However, few researches have explored the processes underlying the relationship between this form of love and attitudes toward this kind of violence. To do this, the current study aims to analyse the relationship between the adherence to romantic love and the legitimization of intimate partner violence (i.e., perceived severity of violence, victim blame and exoneration of the perpetrator). It was also to test the mediating effect of patriarchal ideologies (i.e., ambivalent sexism and domestic violence myths) on this relationship. Two hundred and thirty-five French adults (51.1% women) were surveyed. The data were analysed with structural equation models in order to study the mediations between the variables considered. Consistent with our hypotheses, the results showed that the more the participants adhered to romantic love, the more they blamed the victim and exonerated the perpetrator. They also showed a positive relationship between romantic love, ambivalent sexism, and domestic violence myths. Finally, the results demonstrated that the link between romantic love and the legitimization of violence is mediatized by ambivalent sexism and domestic violence myths. The findings illustrate the need to deconstruct romantic love ideology and the psychosocial logics underlying the legitimization of intimate partner violence.
... In media representations of heterosexual romance, love often occurs within the context of jealousy, control, and violence (Bonomi et al. 2013;Collins and Carmody 2011;Hayes 2014). The prevalence of Bviolent romance^in the media may encourage some women to conflate controlling behaviors with signs of intimacy and love (Chung 2005;Donovan andHester 2010 Fraser 2005;Hayes 2014;Power et al. 2006). For example, many young women report that a man telling his girlfriend what to wear or how to behave shows that he cares for her and that words such as Bownership^and Bprotectorâ re used to communicate intimacy and dedication (Chung 2005). ...
... Another aspect of romantic beliefs is the notion that a woman's social identity is constructed on the basis of her being in a relationship and that romantic relationships are the most important thing in a woman's life (Chung 2005;Mahalik et al. 2005). Gender stereotypes enforce the notion that women are missing something if they do not have a partner, which may make them desperate for a man (Power et al. 2006). Women are also seen as responsible for succeeding romantically, implying they are responsible if the relationship fails (Anderson et al. 2003;Donovan and Hester 2010;Fraser 2005;Power et al. 2006;Wood 2001). ...
... Gender stereotypes enforce the notion that women are missing something if they do not have a partner, which may make them desperate for a man (Power et al. 2006). Women are also seen as responsible for succeeding romantically, implying they are responsible if the relationship fails (Anderson et al. 2003;Donovan and Hester 2010;Fraser 2005;Power et al. 2006;Wood 2001). When women place a great deal of importance on being in romantic relationships, they may hold the belief that, when they find love, they should Bmake it work, no matter what^ (Wood 2001, p. 253). ...
Article
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Romance and control are often conflated by the media, and individuals may believe that certain controlling or jealous behaviors by men toward women are romantic and can be a sign of love and commitment in heterosexual relationships. The current study explored three types of romantic beliefs among women: endorsement of the ideology of romanticism, highly valuing romantic relationships, and the belief that jealousy is good. The goal was to determine whether these beliefs would be related to finding controlling behaviors romantic as well as to reported experiences of both physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV). We surveyed 275 heterosexual-identified women, aged 18 to 50, and measured their endorsement of romantic beliefs, the extent to which they romanticized controlling behavior, and experiences of physical and psychological abuse within their current or most recent romantic relationship. Romantic beliefs were related to romanticizing controlling behaviors, which, in turn, was related to experiences of IPV. There was also a significant indirect relationship between romantic beliefs and experiences of IPV. The data indicate that seemingly positive romantic ideologies can have insidious negative effects. Findings may be useful for clinicians and those who advocate for prevention of IPV as they illustrate a need to refocus traditional ideas of healthy relationships at the societal level.
... The behaviours that can constitute IPV are physical force such as hitting and kicking, emotional abuse including isolation or exclusion, financial deprivation and sexual and verbal abuse (Outlaw 2009). IPV is known to have deleterious health outcomes, with previous research suggesting it is associated with poorer general health status (Campbell & Soeken 1999, Coker et al. 2000, Campbell et al. 2002, Power et al. 2006, higher risk for suicidal behaviour (Kaslow et al. 1998) and increased chronic health problems (Lown & Vega 2001, Tolman & Rosen 2001. It is also associated with physical injury, gynaecological problems and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Russo & Pirlott 2006). ...
... This could likely reflect cultural attitudes to IPV and resonates with other literature focussing on migrant and minority women and IPV (Nash 2005, Ahmad et al. 2009). The West African women in this study perceived their IPV experience as borne out of their social positioning as women, which supports traditional theories that emphasise the role of patriarchal societal norms on initiation and maintenance of IPV (Dobash & Dobash 1979, Power et al. 2006. These women's notion of IPV as a gender-based violence is, however, contrary to Ehrensaft's (2008) view who argued that apart from gender other factors such as personality pathology and developmental issues contribute to the perpetration of IPV. ...
Article
This study reports the intimate partner violence experiences of West African women living in Australia. Increasing diversity in Australia's population presents new and complex challenges to nurses and other health care providers, particularly in relation to the health needs of immigrant women. A qualitative naturalistic inquiry design was used. A convenience sample of 21 West African immigrant women in Australia who were 18 years and over were engaged in face-to-face, in-depth interviews and asked to talk about their health experiences. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Intimate partner violence was revealed as a major theme in this analysis. Data revealed that eighteen of the women had experienced intimate partner violence. The women's accounts of intimate partner violence were dominated by two subthemes 'suffering in silence' and 'reluctance to seek help.' Findings revealed intimate partner violence as a significant issue for the newly migrated African women who participated in this study. Intimate partner violence is associated with significant adverse physical and psychological health outcomes. It is important that nurses understand the cultural barriers that can impede immigrant women's ability to seek out and receive appropriate support and intervention and provide opportunities for women to disclose experiences of intimate partner violence.
... Given its all encompassing and star-crossed nature, it is not surprising to find that many of the behaviours associated with expressions of romantic love are also characteristic of IPA. More specifically, possessive and controlling behaviour is arguably violence or abuse, but within the romantic discourse it can become distorted as a demonstration of true love and commitment (Donovan & Hester, 2011;Fraser, 2005;Karan & Keating, 2007;Power, et al., 2006;Wood, 2001). Consequently, when one partner wants to know the whereabouts of the other every minute of the day, makes numerous phone calls to them throughout the day, exhibits jealousy or encourages the exclusion of pre-existing friendships so that every waking moment can be spent together this may be interpreted as an endearing demonstration of love rather than a 'red flag' suggestive of IPA (Power, et al., 2006: 177). ...
... Ruth's abusive partner had suffered at the hands of her father and brothers and Ruth felt that she could help her in some way to overcome the anguish of her childhood. Here we see Ruth accessing scripts of romantic love as well -the notion that one can 'save' one's true love from hurt and pain, indeed, that one has a duty to do so (Evans, 2002;Power et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how different discourses of intimate partner abuse (IPA) may impact women’s decisions to stay or leave their partners. More specifically, we ask: 1) what narratives are available to and used by heterosexual and non-heterosexual female survivors of IPA to make sense of their experiences? 2) How might these narratives impact women’s ability, or lack thereof, to disengage from their abusive partners? Prior literature suggests that there are four possible discourses on which women may draw including psychological (victim and offender), gendered political, and the narrative of romantic love. Analysis of discussion forums from online social networking sites revealed that while each of these discourses are utilised by women, scripts of romantic love may provide the strongest motivation for accepting and maintaining an abusive relationship. In contrast, understanding the psychological motivations of their abusers may empower female survivors to extricate themselves from the violence.
... Jealousy is a major source of relationship dissatisfaction, manifesting as conflicts, separations, aggression, and violence, all of which are aimed at shaping the responses and limiting the autonomy of the partner (Wilson et al., 2001;Yoshimura, 2004;Fleischmann et al., 2005;Power et al., 2006). Jealous individuals tend to prefer to sacrifice quality for intensity of the bonding, putting the relationship first (Öner, 2001). ...
... However, this is rather speculative and further examination of this issue in larger samples is required. Completing the picture, participants with PJ were dissatisfied with their relationship, confirming findings from previous studies (Fleischmann et al., 2005;Öner, 2001;Power et al., 2006), and experienced angry or aggressive feelings more frequently than members of the control group. ...
... Given its all encompassing and star-crossed nature, it is not surprising to find that many of the behaviours associated with expressions of romantic love are also characteristic of IPA. More specifically, possessive and controlling behaviour is arguably violence or abuse, but within the romantic discourse it can become distorted as a demonstration of true love and commitment (Donovan & Hester, 2011;Fraser, 2005;Karan & Keating, 2007;Power, et al., 2006;Wood, 2001). Consequently, when one partner wants to know the whereabouts of the other every minute of the day, makes numerous phone calls to them throughout the day, exhibits jealousy or encourages the exclusion of pre-existing friendships so that every waking moment can be spent together this may be interpreted as an endearing demonstration of love rather than a 'red flag' suggestive of IPA (Power, et al., 2006: 177). ...
... Ruth's abusive partner had suffered at the hands of her father and brothers and Ruth felt that she could help her in some way to overcome the anguish of her childhood. Here we see Ruth accessing scripts of romantic love as well -the notion that one can 'save' one's true love from hurt and pain, indeed, that one has a duty to do so (Evans, 2002;Power et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how different discourses of intimate partner abuse (IPA) may impact women’s decisions to stay or leave their partners. More specifically, we ask: 1) what narratives are available to and used by heterosexual and non-heterosexual female survivors of IPA to make sense of their experiences? 2) How might these narratives impact women’s ability, or lack thereof, to disengage from their abusive partners? Prior literature suggests that there are four possible discourses on which women may draw including psychological (victim and offender), gendered political, and the narrative of romantic love. Analysis of discussion forums from online social networking sites revealed that while each of these discourses are utilised by women, scripts of romantic love may provide the strongest motivation for accepting and maintaining an abusive relationship. In contrast, understanding the psychological motivations of their abusers may empower female survivors to extricate themselves from the violence.
... Romantic love can mask behaviours that are signs of domestic violence. In the study of Power et al. (2006) women revealed that the ideal of romantic love underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for intimate partner violence. The achievement of romantic goals has been described as an imperative to ensure social respect, value and credibility as women. ...
Article
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Introduction Violence against women is a global health problem, and gender violence is a multifactorial phenomenon generally attributed to the fact of living in a patriarchal culture setting. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis conducted in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, LILACS, MEDES, Web of Science, CUIDEN, ENFISPO, IBECS, Dialnet and Cuidatge. Inclusion criteria: quantitative design, Spanish population, Spanish, English, Portuguese and/or French language, no time restriction and use of the Myths about Love Scale. Data was collected and analysed from July to October 2020. A total of 146 records were identified, of which, after applying the eligibility criteria, 12 studies were included, and 6 met the criteria for the meta-analysis. The descriptive and prevalence analysis was performed by means of StatsDirect. In all the analyses, statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and the CIs, at 95%. Results The most accepted myths were those related to love idealization: the eternal passion , marriage , omnipotence and perfect match myths. The least accepted myths were those of the couple , jealousy and love-maltreatment link . Men and women accepted the myths in a similar manner, although the former showed more participation in jealousy and in love-maltreatment link . Conclusions The study contributes a current perspective about the beliefs regarding the love myths that can be a conditioning factor in love relationships and a risk factor for gender violence. The bet is on preventive education and socialization at all levels, as well as on the deconstruction of the concept of romantic love and its myths to foster healthy and egalitarian relationships.
... For women, it was asserted, romantic love is associated with the disruption and denigration of the self, an 'invention of patriarchy' designed to obscure gender inequalities and women's oppression (Donovan & Hester, 2011). Power et al. (2006) argue that 'romantic love' continues to be one of the most powerful discourses shaping ideas of femininity and masculinity. It establishes desires that women are responsible for achieving even when there might be evidence for caution. ...
Article
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Those fleeing domestic violence often have complex and diverse needs but central for all is access to a ‘place of safety’. Caring for victims/survivors is largely predicated on the availability of secure housing but an absence of stock together with competition in the private rented sector has significantly reduced the chances of victims of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) being housed. In this paper, I explore the ‘cultures of care’ that shape responses to the housing needs of victims/survivors of DVA by those working in housing and other support services, showing that, in an environment of limited resource, an understanding of the experiences and choices of victims/survivors becomes highly significant. Drawing on research undertaken in the UK, I argue that attitudes towards victims/survivors of DVA are shaped by notions of romantic love and constructions of the abused body as unruly, unpredictable and self-destructive. Within this context survivors’ ‘poor choices’ may serve to limit their access to safe housing and to wider cultures of care and support. The paper provides a theoretically informed contribution to understandings of the relationship between violence, love and care and how this plays out in safe housing provision.
... IPV can occur on a continuum of economic, psychological and emotional abuse, through to physical and sexual violence (Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, 2004). Much of the literature around IPV relates to violence between heterosexual partners, with women more likely to be subjected to it (World Health Organization, 2005;Power et al., 2006;Resienhofer and Seibold, 2007). ...
... Como hemos dicho anteriormente, aceptar estas creencias como ciertas puede conllevar determinados problemas, como por ejemplo, la aceptación del maltrato dentro de la pareja. Se ha demostrado que existe relación entre los mitos del amor romántico y la violencia de género en el entorno de pareja (Power, Koch, Kralik y Jackson, 2006). Más concretamente, estos mitos podrían estar actuando como mantenedores del problema, ya que la violencia sería considerada como algo normal e inherente a las relaciones (Rubio-Garay, Carrasco, Amor y López-González, 2015). ...
Article
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INTRODUCCIÓN: Los mitos del amor romántico abordan maneras estereotipadas de sentir y comportarnos en las relaciones afectivo-sexuales. Las investigaciones demuestran cómo puntuaciones superiores en romanticismo parecen relacionarse con un mayor rechazo al uso del preservativo y a otros métodos anticonceptivos. Por este motivo, sería necesario estudiar cómo influyen estos mitos en el comportamiento sexual de los jóvenes para diseñar intervenciones preventivas eficaces. METODOLOGÍA: Se evaluó a 654 jóvenes (M=20,63; DT=2,267), mediante el Cuestionario sobre Mitos del Amor Romántico (Ferrer y cols., 2010). Los participantes fueron distribuidos en 2 grupos: GR-Grupo de Riesgo (no siempre usan preservativo) y GNR-Grupo de No Riesgo (siempre usan preservativo). RESULTADOS: Los análisis diferenciales indican que los jóvenes que realizan conductas sexuales de riesgo muestran mayor acuerdo en casi todos los mitos del amor romántico, siendo significativos a nivel estadístico, el mito de la pasión intensa (p=0,006) y el de la justificación de la violencia (p=0,049). CONCLUSIONES: Los jóvenes presentan creencias distorsionadas sobre el amor y la pareja, lo que influye en sus primeras relaciones. Estos mitos y, principalmente aquellos relacionados con la visión de las emociones, podrían actuar como factores de riesgo en el desarrollo sexual y en la propia salud, puesto que se observan diferencias entre el grupo que realiza prácticas sexuales desprotegidas y el que refiere tener sexo seguro. Sería necesario incorporar estos resultados en los programas de promoción salud sexual.
... Consistent with Copp and colleagues' conceptualization of the level of "intimate self-disclosure" as a 'barometer' of the quality of a given relationship (Jourard, 1971), we include a measure of self-disclosure that operationalizes closeness and intimacy. Though some studies have found that feelings of passionate love or feelings of heightened emotionality are related to adult IPV (Abowitz, Knox, & Zusman, 2010;Power, Koch, Kralik, & Jackson, 2006;Scheffer Lindgren & Renck, 2008), other studies have found no relationship between ratings of love and IPV (Arias, Samios, & O'Leary, 1987) or a relationship marked by negative characteristics or abuse (Marcus, 2012). The current study investigates adolescents' reports of passionate love on subsequent ARA outcomes in a national sample. ...
Article
This study examines the longitudinal association between baseline adolescent romantic relationship characteristics and later adolescent relationship abuse (ARA). Data are from the first two waves of the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV). Girls and boys ages 10 to 18 were recruited randomly from the children of adults participating in a larger national household probability sample panel. About three quarters of the sample identified as White, non-Hispanic. Controlling behavior by a romantic partner consistently predicted later ARA. Higher levels of controlling behavior in the relationship was associated with higher rates of sexual and/or physical ARA victimization and higher rates for similar acts of perpetration. More controlling behavior by the partner was also associated with higher rates of psychological ARA victimization (and higher rates for psychological ARA perpetration). Our results suggest that ARA prevention programs should have explicit discussions of the deleterious effects of controlling behavior with adolescents. Respondents reporting higher feelings of passionate love were also at higher risk of experiencing sexual and/or physical ARA victimization. This finding will need to be considered by clinicians and prevention specialist in their work with youth as a potential risk marker for ARA. Baseline reports of at least one form of ARA were predictive of 1-year follow-up rates of ARA in all of our models, underscoring a long line of research that past aggressive or violent behavior is one of the strongest predictors of current aggressive or violent behavior. We also observed that female respondents were twice as likely to be perpetrators of physical and/or sexual ARA as male respondents. Prevention messaging often is focused on girls as ARA victims and our results imply that messaging should also be directed toward girls as perpetrators.
... [1] IPV together with other forms of violent behavior against women are frowned at and condemned by various international human right treaties or conventions such as the United Nations Various ambiguous terms, such as domestic violence, spousal abuse, relationship violence, and partner violence, have been used to describe the concept of IPV. [4] It can happen within the context of marriage, dating relationship, and among cohabiting partners. [2] The health effects are often quite debilitating and can persist in the absence of proper treatment, support, and essential control measures. ...
Article
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Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnancy is of great public health importance because it involves two lives (mother and fetus). It is a range of behavior exhibited by a current or former partner with the potential of causing physical, emotional, or sexual harm to the receiver. This study aims to establish the prevalence and predictors of IPV and its association with fertility-related characteristics and behaviors. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 322 consenting pregnant women. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 30.8 ± 4.5 years with parity ranging from 0 to 5. The prevalence of IPV was higher (81.0%) among respondents who had children compared to those who had no children (19.0%). The common forms of IPV experienced by the women in this study were shouting (86.7%), verbal abuse (76.2%), and slapping (57.1%). Other serious forms of IPV experienced included forced sex (14.3%) and threats to the life of the respondents (4.8%). Polygamy and low educational attainment were strong predictors of IPV risk (P < 0.05). Contraceptive use before pregnancy and husband's support of its use were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: IPV is an unpalatable event. The prevalence rate of IPV was 6.5% in this study with the most common forms being shouting and verbal abuse. Polygamy and low educational attainment were significant risk factors for IPV. The desire for conception in this study was 76.2% with IPV prevalence slightly higher in respondents with children (7.9%). Educating the girl child would bring stability to the home by reducing the prevalence of IPV.
... Several studies indicate that in many cultures violence is perceived as an expression and proof of affection (Hayes & Jeffries, 2013;Power, Koch, Kralik, & Jackson, 2006;Puente, & Cohen, 2003;Rotimi, 2007) and that certain "ideals" of love and relationships legitimize partner abuse (Jackson, 2001;Hayes & Jeffries, 2013;Leisring, 2013). That means that culturally constructed expectations, beliefs, or notions about love influence the way violence is interpreted, performed, and emotionally experienced by those involved in violent relationships (e.g., Borochowitz & Eisikovits, 2002;Towns & Adams, 2000). ...
Article
The present study aims to identify and analyze the interpretative repertoires on love and intimate relationships used by wife batterers, exploring how the repertoires may influence the development and experience of violent intimate relationships, and how this is linked to the identity issues. Twelve wife batterers participated in the study, answering to an individual interview on their lives’ love story. Through a discourse analysis of the data, five distinct interpretative repertoires were identified—romantic, companion, passionate, pragmatic and game-playing love—and their meaning construction was analyzed. It is discussed what repertoires reveal about gender roles prescribed by the model of masculinity, and how these gender roles constrain the construction of the identity, the personal growth and the self-actualization of the batterers.
... Even within contexts of abuse and violence, love is believed by many to be a key driver for establishing and maintaining enduring relationships (Graham, 2011). Power, Koch, Kralik, and Jackson (2006) contend that "romantic love" occurs within the private domain of couples and how it is constructed and plays out remains largely unseen. While love is a universal concept, the nature of what comprises love appears to be diverse. ...
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Māori women (Aotearoa New Zealand’s Indigenous women) experience a high burden of harm and homicide associated with intergenerational family violence, complicated by the ongoing effects of colonialism. Also, the historical, social, and cultural complexities, such as poverty and structural racism, challenge further Māori women seeking help. In this project, we sought to answer two questions: What are Māori women’s sociocultural constructions of “love” within relationships with violent partners? What roles do traditional cultural values play in their relationships? Using Kaupapa Māori (by Māori, for Māori) methodology, we conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 27 Māori women and analyzed them using thematic analysis. We identified three core themes that explain how Māori women enter into, stay in, and leave a relationship with a violent partner: (a) it begins with a connection, (b) downplaying the signs, and (c) needing to leave. We found that Māori women’s compassion and caring for their partner was underpinned by their recognition that partners had the potential to be nonviolent and resembled Māori cultural concepts of aroha (compassion, empathy, and respect) and manaakitanga (hospitality, sharing, and caring for others). Through sharing their stories, these women revealed the strength of cultural imperatives that include the importance of whakapapa (genealogy) and whanaungatanga (connections) of which aroha and manaakitanga are integral parts. Our findings highlight the complexity and competing tensions underpinning Māori women’s decision-making when entering and exiting violent relationships. These cultural imperatives are essential for understanding how these influence the decision-making of Māori women, which can position them at odds with those who would tell them they must walk away and not look back.
... In research by Hayes and Jeffries (2013) they discussed how the discourses about what constitutes romantic love are very powerful and are a huge part of the female-gendered experience in the Western culture. This discourse pervades society and is embedded in media, movies, books, television, art, music and magazines (Power, Koch, Kralik & Jackson, 2006). The discourse implies there is a fine line between pleasure and pain, love and hate. ...
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ABSTRACT This research explores how women are affected by a long term, intimate relationship with a suspected narcissistic male partner. There has been very little empirical research, other than case studies, into women’s experiences in this area, and I have not located any similar research within the New Zealand cultural context. Practitioner research methodology was used to gain an in-depth understanding of women’s experiences with a view to improving my therapeutic counselling practice. Six women, whose ex-partners (from long-term relationships) were judged to have met specific criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder, were interviewed using a semi-structured interview method. The inquiry focused on their experiences at three stages of the relationship (beginning, during and post) and how they were affected. Transcripts were then analysed using thematic analysis which showed women were subjected to ongoing and repeated physical and psychological aggression, coercion, social isolation and financial exploitation throughout their relationship. They lost their independence and agency, and the relationships had a significantly detrimental effect on them in most areas of their lives, i.e. mentally, physically, socially, sexually, spiritually and financially. This abuse was insidious, and the women lived in fear for their safety and the safety of their children. The research shows that the deterioration of these relationships happens gradually, it ultimately erodes and annihilates the sense of self, which makes it almost impossible to leave. The negative effects on the women were immense and continued long after the relationships had ended. Despite what they endured, they showed enormous strength, courage and resiliency. Recovery was a long process, often self-directed, including seeking help from counsellors. Implications from the findings are discussed, and it is concluded that the experience of living long-term with a partner with strong narcissistic behaviours produces some outcomes of domestic abuse that may not be typical for other victims of domestic abuse. I discuss how these women become annihilated and trapped in these relationships and make recommendations on how response-based therapy and narrative therapy could be used to help these women rebuild their lives and sense of self.
... The relationship between the myths of romantic love and the expression and tolerance of dating violence seems to be well founded [37][38][39]. However, romantic love has often been considered as a peripheral aspect of the IPV phenomenon in the literature [31,40]. Gius and Lalli (2014) [41] found that the frame of romantic love is used in the news media to justify the MFIPV and rarely described the males as aggressors. ...
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(1) Background: General beliefs and attitudes toward Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence (MFIPV) play a fundamental, critical role in the expression of violent behaviors in relationships during both adolescence and adulthood. The objective of the present study was to contrast the degree of myth acceptance regarding MFIPV, based on the sex and age of Spanish teenagers and emerging adults. (2) Methods: A sample of 1580 participants aged between 15 and 24 took part in the study. The subjects were enrolled in 34 secondary schools and two university centers spread across Seville (Spain). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was carried out for the data analysis. (3) Results: Overall, males had a higher level of myth acceptance than females in all the dimensions considered in the study. In the case of significantly high levels of myth acceptance, males quintupled females. The research dimension that revealed the greatest differences was romantic love. Regarding age, a degree of stability was observed in the age period of 15–17 years and 18–20 years, but this subsequently decreased for the age range of 21–24 years. (4) Conclusions: Efforts should be focused on promoting actions to challenge male mandates and narratives concerning romantic or true love.
... In heteronormative discourse, intimacy tends to be idealised as a highly desirable goal that naturally develops over time in successful romantic relationships (Gaia, 2002). While some research has clearly shown that violence is implicated as a form of romance in the accounts of women in opposite-sex IPV (Papp et al., 2017;Power et al., 2006), Ryan articulates violence as a means to, rather than an adjoining characteristic of intimacy. Therefore, in Ryan's talk, discourses of violence and intimacy overlap, casting the former in a desirable light. ...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been identified as a significant public health concern by a large body of international research. Such studies are largely focused on heterosexual relationships where men are frequently perpetrators and woman the victims of IPV as a function of systemically gendered inequality embedded in pervasive forms of patriarchy. However, IPV is also a concern in same sex relationships. While the forms and functions of sexuality and gender in talk about IPV in heteronormative relationships are well-documented, research on the ways that these key social markers feature in accounts of Same Sex Intimate Partner Violence (SSIPV) has been limited. The current study advances this important area of violence scholarship by exploring the ways in which self-identified gay men describe violence in their intimate relationships. Our critical discourse analysis of accounts of IPV elicited through in-depth, semi-structured interviews demonstrates the ways in which the participants framed violence as unintimidating, tolerable, natural, erotic or even actively sought-after as part of an overarching strategy aimed at making claims on agency and resisting victimhood. The analysis suggests that researchers and policy makers should take cognisance of the local meanings and range of moral positions used by gay men to account for IPV when setting scholarship agendas and developing interventions.
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious global issue that mainly affects women. Power and control are among the driving forces behind IPV, and are endorsed within conservative gender regimes that constitute the social ecologies within which women live and love. Socially constructed ideals of love contribute to women’s commitment to forming and remaining in relationships, even if they are abusive. This article draws on data from a study carried out at a selected South African university campus. It highlights evidence of resilience amongst female students through their questioning and redefinition of love in the context of IPV. In this qualitative study, 15 female students were purposefully selected because they live at the campus residences. The main methods of generating data were focus group discussions and individual semi-structured interviews. The findings suggest that young women are alert to love being a gendered discourse that contributes to the prevalence of, and the maintenance of IPV. Specifically, in this study, some of the young women demonstrated resilience by rejecting commonly held disempowering notions of romantic love that many women are invested in, and instead redefined their meanings of love in a less self-sacrificing way.
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Research suggests that a lack of financial resources contributes to victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) both remaining in and returning to abusive intimate relationships. Requesting financial assistance via crowdfunding has emerged as a new alternative for victims of IPV to access financial assistance. Therefore, our study explores how victims of IPV frame requests for financial assistance via the crowdfunding website GoFundMe.com. We qualitatively analyze a sample of 27 women’s requests. We find that victims of IPV may internalize the stigma of seeking assistance and therefore actively work to redefine their character in a positive manner. We also discover that victims’ requests speak to guidelines reflected in aid-based organizations and to judgments they anticipate facing when requesting help from informal social ties. Our findings suggest that seeking financial assistance through crowd funding may reflect similar challenges of accessing help through more traditional avenues.
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Using existential-phenomenological interview procedures, two women who killed their husbands during an altercation were asked to share their experiences. Analysis of individual transcripts was done within the context of a hermeneutical approach. Their stories are divided into three distant phases of their life: (1) choosing to fight back in order to live, (2) dealing with the legal system, and (3) the emotional aftermath. Hopefully, these women's stories will help healthcare providers become more diligent in assessing for intimate partner violence, more cognizant of the emotional needs of women who have killed their intimate partners, and more understanding when women continue to proclaim their love for their abusive partner.
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The objectives of this research were to analyze data from literature based on studies of battered women to determine (a) the correlation of domestic violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (b) the best treatment strategies for PTSD, and (c) the evidence of PTSD treatment effectiveness with battered women. Findings were (a) symptoms of battered women are consistent with PTSD symptoms; (b) certain populations are at higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms; (c) intensity, duration, and perception of the battering experience is a significant factor in the severity of the PTSD symptoms; (d) demographic variables influence PTSD severity; (e) standardized PTSD assessment is needed by professionals working with women experiencing domestic violence; (f) there is a need for greater public health involvement for prevention, identification, and medical treatment of domestic violence and PTSD; and (g) certain treatment strategies are recommended for PTSD but lack rigorous testing of their efficacy.
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The study of women's relationships has been guided by cultural scripts that are deeply heterosexist. In this article, the impact of cultural scripts on the research agenda is explored concerning two aspects of romantic and friend relationships: sexuality and relationship development. Research on lesbians is used to demonstrate how the inclusion of sexual orientation in relationship research challenges heterosexist assumptions and provides new directions for research.
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This review of the family literature on domestic violence suggests that two broad themes of the 1990s provide the most promising directions for the future. The first is the importance of distinctions among types or contexts of violence. Some distinctions are central to the theoretical and practical understanding of the nature of partner violence, others provide important contexts for developing more sensitive and comprehensive theories, and others may simply force us to question our tendency to generalize carelessly from one context to another. Second, issues of control, although most visible in the feminist literature that focuses on men using violence to control “their” women, also arise in other contexts, calling for more general analyses of the interplay of violence, power, and control in relationships. In addition to these two general themes, our review covers literature on coping with violence, the effects on victims and their children, and the social effects of partner violence. She wandered the streets, looking in shop windows. Nobody knew her here. Nobody knew what he did when the door was closed. Nobody knew. (Brant, 1996, pp. 281)
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This article reviews literature on the prevalence of mental health problems among women with a history of intimate partner violence. The weighted mean prevalence of mental health problems among battered women was 47.6% in 18 studies of depression, 17.9% in 13 studies of suicidality, 63.8% in 11 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 18.5% in 10 studies of alcohol abuse, and 8.9% in four studies of drug abuse. These were typically inconsistent across studies. Weighted mean odds ratios representing associations of these problems with violence ranged from 3.55 to 5.62, and were typically consistent across studies. Variability was accounted for by differences in sampling frames. Dose-response relationships of violence to depression and PTSD were observed. Although research has not addressed many criteria for causal inferences, the existing research is consistent with the hypothesis that intimate partner violence increases risk for mental health problems. The appropriate way to conceptualize these problems deserves careful attention.
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The assumption that it is contradictory for women to love men who abuse them physically, psychologically and sexually is sometimes used in cross-examination of women who have been in abusive relationships to suggest that they are lying about the abuse, or to impinge their credibility as witnesses. This article challenges that assumption by considering selected dominant discourses of romantic love that constrain women's narratives of love and integrate domestic violence as part of love. The article then invokes the spectre of the jurisdiction of women's Courts of Love, highlighting the common law's repression of jurisdiction over matters of love, its lack of precedent within which to interpret women's statements of love, and its focus on relationships as functions of property. The constraints of discourses of love, the lack of common law precedents, and the paradoxical project of asserting agency in the act of constructing oneself as an object of love, all circulate in the courtroom dynamic in which women make statements of love about abusive men. The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the journal, Melbourne University Law Review, (c) 1999 Nan Seuffert
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Despite its popularity, qualitative research is inappropriately utilized, because it is often seen as useless. Means to enhancing its utility include improving the practice and criticism of qualitative research, mining existing qualitative data via secondary analyses, and synthesizing findings.
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Secondary analysis of qualitative data is a valid mode of clinical inquiry. However, there is limited information available on its use in nursing. This article describes the use of secondary analysis for a study of family caregivers of relatives with dementia. The advantages, limitations, and application of secondary analysis are outlined; data management, analysis, and rigor are also discussed. The article concludes that this method is cost-effective, decreases respondent burden, and is a useful research method for students. However, the secondary analyst must be aware of the limitations of using secondary analysis of qualitative data.
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Intimate partner violence, which describes physical or sexual assault, or both, of a spouse or sexual intimate, is a common health-care issue. In this article, I have reviewed research on the mental and physical health sequelae of such violence. Increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynaecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are well documented by controlled research in abused women in various settings. Intimate partner violence has been noted in 3-13% of pregnancies in many studies from around the world, and is associated with detrimental outcomes to mothers and infants. I recommend increased assessment and interventions for intimate partner violence in health-care settings.
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