Article

Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes

Anna University, Chennai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Fish & Shellfish Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 11/2006; 21(4):372-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2006.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Thavasimuthu Citarasu
  • Source
    • "A diet enriched with the extract of polyvinylpyrolidone from Clinacanthus nutans protected black tiger prawns from YHV infection (Direkbusarakom et al., 1996b,c). The extracts of five different herbal plants appeared to protect black tiger prawns from WSSV infection (Citarasu et al., 2006). Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants showed strong antiviral activity against WSSV in the form of petroleum ether, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extraction (Balasubramanian et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been known as immunostimulants for thousands of years. The application of medicinal plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The growing interest in these plants has increased world-wide because they are easy to prepare, cheap, and have few side effects on animals and the environment. A wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, spices, seaweeds, herbal medicines, herbal extracted compounds, traditional Chinese medicines, and commercial plant-derived products has been studied in various aquatic animals. The whole plant or its parts viz. roots, leaves, seeds, flowers or extract compounds can be used. The extraction process is simple, with ethanol and methanol being commonly used. Various chemicals used to extract compounds may lead to different degrees of effects on aquatic animals. Application methods can be either single or in combination, or even in a mixture with other immunostimulants, via water routine or feed additives and enrichment, where single administrations are as practical as combinations. The dosages and duration of time varies and the optimal levels have not been considered. Medicinal plants show their main properties as growth promoters, immune enhancers, where they act as antibacterial and antiviral agents to the host immune system. Unfortunately, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, most authors did not recommend that their results be used directly, while suggestions are proposed for further investigations.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Aquaculture
  • Source
    • "The oral administration of nucleotide and brewer's yeast were reported to increase proPO and respiratory burst activities in the freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (Shankar et al., 2012; Parmar et al., 2012). Additionally, the dietary administration of herbal immunostimulants also shown increased RB and proPO activities in M. rosenbergii (Kumari et al., 2004) and Penaeus monodon (Citarasu et al., 2006). Furthermore, we found that 0.75% chitin supplemented diet fed M. rosenbergii had significantly enhanced immune response and disease resistance compared to 0.5% and 1% chitin-diet fed group. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chitin is one of the natural biopolymer found abundantly in the shells of crustaceans, insects and in cell walls of fungi. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary administration of 0.5, 0.75 and 1% chitin on the immune response and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, challenged against Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). We observed a significantly enhanced immune response, indicated as higher prophenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst of hemocytes, in 0.75% chitin-diet fed prawns compared to the chitin-free-diet fed prawns. Importantly, the relative percent survival (RPS) following challenge with white muscle disease (WTD) viruses was found relatively high in M. rosenbergii fed with diet containing 0.75% chitin (63.16%), suggesting an increased resistance to disease susceptibility. These results indicate that the incorporation of chitin in prawn diet would be beneficial in stimulating the immune response and thereby developing resistance against diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
  • Source
    • "A diet enriched with the extract of polyvinylpyrolidone from Clinacanthus nutans protected black tiger prawns from YHV infection (Direkbusarakom et al., 1996b,c). The extracts of five different herbal plants appeared to protect black tiger prawns from WSSV infection (Citarasu et al., 2006). Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants showed strong antiviral activity against WSSV in the form of petroleum ether, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extraction (Balasubramanian et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been known as immunostimulants for thousands of years. The application of medicinal plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The growing interest in these plants has increased world-wide because they are easy to prepare, cheap, and have few side effects on animals and the environment. A wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, spices, seaweeds, herbal medicines, herbal extracted compounds, traditional Chinese medicines, and co mm erc i al pl ant- der i ved pr odu cts ha s bee n st udie d in var ious aqu at ic ani mal s. The who le pla nt or i ts parts viz. roots, leaves, seeds, flowers or extract compounds can be used. The extraction process is simple, with ethanol and methanol being commonly used. Various chemicals used to extract compounds may lead to different degrees of effects on aquatic animals. Application methods can be either single or in combination, or even in a mixture with other immunostimulants, via water routine or feed additives and enrichment, where single admin-istrations are as practical as combinations. The dosages and duration of time varies and the optimal levels have not been considered. Medicinal plants show their main properties as growth promoters, immune enhancers, where they act as antibacterial and antiviral agents to the host immune system. Unfortunately, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, most authors did not recommend that their results be used directly, while suggestions are proposed for further investigations. ©
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Aquaculture
Show more