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The spermatogenic and ovogenic effects of chronically administered Shilajit to rats

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This study examined the possibility of using Shilajit as a fertility agent. The effects of Shilajit on spermatogenesis and ovogenesis were studied using male and female rats. Shilajit was administered orally to 7-week-old rats over a 6-week period. In the male rats, the number of sperms in the testes and epididymides was significant higher than in the control. A histological examination revealed an apparent increase in the number of seminiferous tubular cell layers in the testes of the treated rats. However, there were no significant differences in the weights of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, brain, testes and epididymides. In the female rats, the effect of Shilajit was estimated by the ovulation inducing activity. Over a 5-day, ovulation was induced in seven out of nine rats in the Shilajit administration group and in three out of nine rats in the control. It was estimated that Shilajit had both a spermiogenic and ovogenic effect in mature rats.

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... Different natural sources alone as well as in combination are used as antifertility agents since ancient times but there have been fewer efforts to develop materials from natural sources to enhance the fertility (Park et al., 2006;Zhao et al., 2014). Shilajit is a natural mineral and its botanical name is asphaltum; it is also described as mineral pitch in different traditional literature (Mittal et al., 2009;Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012) and has been used as folk medicine. ...
... Shilajit is a natural mineral and its botanical name is asphaltum; it is also described as mineral pitch in different traditional literature (Mittal et al., 2009;Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012) and has been used as folk medicine. Asphaltum contributes a vital role with elevated economic value in common medicine of Tibetan pharmacology, former Soviet Union and in traditional medicine of India (Park et al., 2006;Pradhan et al., 2015). In some countries such as former Soviet Union, asphaltum has been considered so much valuable that its export is banned and it is declared as a "treasure of Country" by the Government (Garedew et al., 2004;Wilson et al., 2011;Stohs, 2014). ...
... Results of the present study indicate that number of CL and implantation sites were observed significantly (P<0.05) higher in group E. Asphaltum, selenium and vitamin E are known to be powerful antioxidants and their administration stimulates steroidogenesis and induces the anterior pituitary gland to secrete gonadotropins and initiate folliculogenesis in the ovaries (Politis et al., 1996;Park et al., 2006;Sallam et al., 2015). There was a nonsignificant increase in number of recovered fetuses at 12 th and 24 th day of gestation in group B treated with only asphaltum. ...
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Aim of this study was to find out the effects of asphaltum alone and in combination with vitamin E and Se, on reproductive parameters of female rabbits. Female rabbits (n=30) were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E). Group A was kept as a control, while group B, C, D and E were given asphaltum (50 mg/kg/BW), Se with asphaltum (0.45+50 mg/kg/BW), vitamin E with asphaltum (150+50 mg/kg/BW) and asphaltum, Se and vitamin E (50+0.45+150 mg/kg/BW), respectively for 32 days. Clinical signs were observed twice daily. Three animals from each group were euthanized at 12th day and the remaining at 24th day of gestation, serum samples were collected for progesterone concentration determination. Ovaries of each animal were examined for the presence of CL, while uterus was observed for number of implantation sites and viable fetuses. Weight of embryo, placental fluid and total (embryo+placental fluid) were also recorded. In group E, a significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the number of CL, implantation sites, recovered fetuses, fetal weight, placental fluid and total weights at 12th and 24th day of gestation as compared to all other groups. In group C, a significant (P<0.05) increase was observed only in the number of implantation sites and recovered fetuses as compared to control group. However, significantly higher concentrations of serum progesterone were observed in all treated groups as compared to group A at 12th as well as at 24th day of gestation. It was concluded that the asphaltum has no toxic effects on reproductive parameters, however, if asphaltum is used in combination with vitamin E and Se, it potentiates female reproduction. (c) 2015 PVJ. All rights reserved
... Shilajit includes benzoic acid, fatty acids, and vitamins, such as B1 and B12, and various other anti-oxidant agents [21][22][23]. For thousands of years, shilajit has been used to treat a wide range of diseases, such as hypertension, anemia, emesis, and various neurological diseases, and as an immune-modulator and also has anti-oxidative, spermatogenic and ovogenic effects [24][25][26]. The safety of the shilajit is well studied and is generally regarded as a safe substance [27,28]. ...
... It is believed that the main physiological effects of shilajit depend on the presence of fulvic acid, humic acid, and dibenzo-a-pyrones, which are carrier molecules for active components [21]. Recently it was reported that it has both spermatogenic and ovogenic effects in animals [25,26]. It was shown to trigger follicular development and differentiation and increase the frequency of ovulation [25]. ...
... Recently it was reported that it has both spermatogenic and ovogenic effects in animals [25,26]. It was shown to trigger follicular development and differentiation and increase the frequency of ovulation [25]. ...
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Purpose: Canc er is the second leading cause of death in children in developed countries and most of childhood malignancies can be treated with chemo-radiotherapy. Although radiation therapy is a successful treatment modality in cancer patients, it has various adverse effects. Especially the gonads are very sensitive and prone to radiation-related damage. Radiation impairs the ovaries by triggering apoptosis of follicular cells and chromosomal damage and oxidative stress. Shilajit, a traditional medicinal agent in India, Russia, and other parts of the world, contains various antioxidant agents and has ovogenic effects. To evaluate the ability of shilajit to prevent radiation-induced ovarian damage. Methods: Forty Wistar albino female rats were divided into four groups as: Control group, shilajit group, radiation only group, and radiation + shilajit group. Four days after radiation exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the ovaries were removed and evaluated immuno-histopathologically. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in follicle counts (primordial, primary, preantral, antral, and atretic follicles) between the groups (p < 0.001). Almost all follicles at all stages were atretic in the radiation only group whereas normal-looking primordial follicles were detected in the radiation + shilajit group. In radiation + shilajit group, p53, Bax and caspase 3 expression was less intense than that in the radiation only group follicles. Conclusion: This is the first reported study evaluating the effects of shilajit on radiation-related ovarian damage prevention. Shilajit decreased the expression of p53, Bax, and caspase 3, thereby blocking the apoptotic pathways. Shilajit was found to be especially protective of primordial follicles.
... 14 It has been shown to increase sperm count in rats after dietary supplementation. 15 It also alters hematological parameters and serum biochemical metabolites in rams. 16 Similarly, after the oral administration of asphaltum, there is a notable increase of ovulation in female rats and epidydimal sperm in male rats. ...
... 16 Similarly, after the oral administration of asphaltum, there is a notable increase of ovulation in female rats and epidydimal sperm in male rats. 15 In a very recent study, daily oral administration of asphaltum increased the spermatogenesis, weight of reproductive organs, and activities of testicular enzymes in rats. 17 In Murrah sub-fertile buffalo bulls, dietary supplementation of asphaltum along with other herbs improved the post-thaw semen quality parameters such as motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, mitochondrial activities, livability, acrosome, and plasma membrane integrity. ...
... The spermatogenic effects of asphaltum are evidenced in a study on oligospermic patients 14 that reported increased sperm count in rats after dietary supplementation. 15 Similarly, the oral administration of asphaltum showed a remarkable increase in the number of epidydimal sperm in male rats and the number of ovulations in female rats. 15 Based on the spermatogenic effects of asphaltum and high cryo-sensitivity of buffalo sperm, we hypothesized that direct supplementation of asphaltum to the buffalo semen extender may improve its post-thaw quality. ...
Article
Asphaltum, a mineral exudate from the mountains, is an ayurvedic medicine believed to be a panacea for male reproductive health issues. The objective of the study was to evaluate asphaltum in terms of phytochemical components, radical scavenging activity (RSA), in vitro dose tolerability, and cryosurvivability of buffalo sperm. Asphaltum was procured from an authentic source and confirmed for the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, and glycosides. It showed good RSA as confirmed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. In vitro dose tolerability of buffalo sperm (n = 3, replicate = 4, ejaculates = 24) for asphaltum was assessed at 0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25%, 3.0%, 3.75%, 4.5%, 5.25%, and 6.0% (w/v). Buffalo sperm showed good tolerance up to 3% of asphaltum in terms of sperm progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity. Buffalo semen (n = 3, replicates = 4, ejaculates = 24) was cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 0.0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25%, and 3.0% (w/v) asphaltum and sperm quality was assessed at post-dilution, post-cooling, and post-thaw. After dilution motility, viability and livability; post-cooling motility and plasma membrane integrity; and post-thaw motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability, livability, DNA integrity, sperm RSA, sperm total lipids, sperm mitochondrial activity, and total antioxidant activity of semen were improved by 3%. In conclusion, asphaltum supplementation in an extender at 3% improves the post-thaw quality and antioxidant activity of buffalo semen.
... [13,14] Considering its unique composition as a phytocomplex, very rich in fulvic acid, researchers hypothesize that Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from species such as Euphorbia royleana and Trifolium repens. [15,16] Various pharmacological properties for shilajit including anti-inflammatory [17] anti-oxidant, [18] immunomodulatory, [17] aphrodisiac [18] are well documented. In the CNS, it primarily acts as a memory enhancer, [19] neuroprotective, [19] and anxiolytic [20] agent. ...
... [13,14] Considering its unique composition as a phytocomplex, very rich in fulvic acid, researchers hypothesize that Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from species such as Euphorbia royleana and Trifolium repens. [15,16] Various pharmacological properties for shilajit including anti-inflammatory [17] anti-oxidant, [18] immunomodulatory, [17] aphrodisiac [18] are well documented. In the CNS, it primarily acts as a memory enhancer, [19] neuroprotective, [19] and anxiolytic [20] agent. ...
... [24] Ashwagandha may also act as anxiolytic by reducing the levels of tribulin, an endocoid marker of clinical anxiety and corticotrophin in the brain. [18] Shilajit known for its anxiolytic and nootropic actions may increase neuronal dopamine levels partly responsible for its anxiolytic actions. [40][41][42] Their amelioration of withdrawal anxiety was comparable to diazepam. ...
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Background: Alcohol addiction is a social problem leading to both loss of health and economic prosperity among addicted individuals. Common properties of anti‑addictive compounds include anti‑anxiety, anticonvulsants, anti‑depressant, and nootropic actions primarily through modulation of gamma‑aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonergic systems. Objective: Here, we screen ashwagandha and shilajit known ethnopharmacologically as nervine tonic and adaptogenic herbs for possible anti‑addictive potential. Materials and Methods: Effect of ashwagandha churna and shilajit was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze. Role of ashwagandha and shilajit on chronic ethanol consumption (21 days) was measured using two bottle choice protocol of voluntary drinking. We also measured the effect of the above herbs on corticohippocampal GABA, dopamine, and serotonin levels. Results: Both ashwagandha and shilajit were found to reduce alcohol withdrawal anxiety in a dose‑dependent manner. These herbs alone or in combination also decreased ethanol intake and increased water intake significantly after 21 days of chronic administration. Chronic administration of ashwagandha was found to significantly increase GABA and serotonin levels whereas shilajit altered cortico‑hippocampal dopamine in mice. Conclusion: These central nervous system active herbs alone or in combination reduced both alcohol dependence and withdrawal thus showing promising anti‑addictive potential.
... [13,14] Considering its unique composition as a phytocomplex, very rich in fulvic acid, researchers hypothesize that Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from species such as Euphorbia royleana and Trifolium repens. [15,16] Various pharmacological properties for shilajit including anti-inflammatory [17] anti-oxidant, [18] immunomodulatory, [17] aphrodisiac [18] are well documented. In the CNS, it primarily acts as a memory enhancer, [19] neuroprotective, [19] and anxiolytic [20] agent. ...
... [13,14] Considering its unique composition as a phytocomplex, very rich in fulvic acid, researchers hypothesize that Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from species such as Euphorbia royleana and Trifolium repens. [15,16] Various pharmacological properties for shilajit including anti-inflammatory [17] anti-oxidant, [18] immunomodulatory, [17] aphrodisiac [18] are well documented. In the CNS, it primarily acts as a memory enhancer, [19] neuroprotective, [19] and anxiolytic [20] agent. ...
... [24] Ashwagandha may also act as anxiolytic by reducing the levels of tribulin, an endocoid marker of clinical anxiety and corticotrophin in the brain. [18] Shilajit known for its anxiolytic and nootropic actions may increase neuronal dopamine levels partly responsible for its anxiolytic actions. [40][41][42] Their amelioration of withdrawal anxiety was comparable to diazepam. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Alcohol addiction is a social problem leading to both loss of health and economic prosperity among addicted individuals. Common properties of anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsants, anti-depressant, and nootropic actions primarily through modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonergic systems. Objective: Here, we screen ashwagandha and shilajit known ethnopharmacologically as nervine tonic and adaptogenic herbs for possible anti-addictive potential. Materials and Methods: Effect of ashwagandha churna and shilajit was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze. Role of ashwagandha and shilajit on chronic ethanol consumption (21 days) was measured using two bottle choice protocol of voluntary drinking. We also measured the effect of the above herbs on corticohippocampal GABA, dopamine, and serotonin levels. Results: Both ashwagandha and shilajit were found to reduce alcohol withdrawal anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. These herbs alone or in combination also decreased ethanol intake and increased water intake significantly after 21 days of chronic administration. Chronic administration of ashwagandha was found to significantly increase GABA and serotonin levels whereas shilajit altered cortico-hippocampal dopamine in mice. Conclusion: These central nervous system active herbs alone or in combination reduced both alcohol dependence and withdrawal thus showing promising anti-addictive potential. SUMMARY Withinia Somnifera alone and in combination with Shilajeet prevented ethanol withdrawal and alcohol addiction Abbreviations used: GABA: Gama aminobutyric acid, CNS: Central Nervous System, CPP:Condition place preference, DA: Dopamine, 5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA:N-methyl-D-aspartate Sugato Banerjee
... Different natural sources alone as well as in combination are used as antifertility agents since ancient times but there have been fewer efforts to develop materials from natural sources to enhance the fertility (Park et al., 2006; Zhao et al., 2014). Shilajit is a natural mineral and its botanical name is asphaltum; it is also described as mineral pitch in different traditional literature (Mittal et al., 2009; Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012) and has been used as folk medicine. ...
... Shilajit is a natural mineral and its botanical name is asphaltum; it is also described as mineral pitch in different traditional literature (Mittal et al., 2009; Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012) and has been used as folk medicine. Asphaltum contributes a vital role with elevated economic value in common medicine of Tibetan pharmacology, former Soviet Union and in traditional medicine of India (Park et al., 2006; Pradhan et al., 2015). In some countries such as former Soviet Union, asphaltum has been considered so much valuable that its export is banned and it is declared as a "treasure of Country" by the Government (Garedew et al., 2004; Wilson et al., 2011; Stohs, 2014). ...
... of the present study indicate that number of CL and implantation sites were observed significantly (P<0.05) higher in group E. Asphaltum, selenium and vitamin E are known to be powerful antioxidants and their administration stimulates steroidogenesis and induces the anterior pituitary gland to secrete gonadotropins and initiate folliculogenesis in the ovaries (Politis et al., 1996; Park et al., 2006; Sallam et al., 2015 ). There was a nonsignificant increase in number of recovered fetuses at 12 th and 24 th day of gestation in group B treated with only asphaltum. ...
... It is the end product of plant matter trapped within the rocks in Himalayan Mountains, and ejects from crevices of rocks in the lower Himalayas and Nepal during hot weather. MP is composed of gums, albuminoids, calcium, potassium, nitrogen, silica, resin, vegetable matter, magnesium, sulfur, iron, chloride, phosphorous, iodine, glycosides, tannic acid, benzoic acid and a number of vitamins and enzymes (Park et al., 2006). Dibenzo-a-pyrones along with humic and fulvic acids, which act as carrier molecules for the active ingredients, have been found responsible for the major physiological action of MP (Ghosal, 1990;Ghosal et al., 1993). ...
... The objective of this study was to investigate in-depth the immune-regulatory mechanisms of an aqueous solution of MP in the murine model. MP, also known as shilajit, is a sulfur-containing compound, which tested positive for sterols, tannins, amino acids and carbohydrates (Tables 5 and 6), an observation consistent with the literature (Khanna et al., 2008;Park et al., 2006). The HPTLC profile of the aqueous extract of MP revealed the presence of nine components (Figure 1). ...
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Context: Mineral pitch (MP), a traditional medicine, is proposed to boost immunity in conditions that suppress Th1 cytokines such as AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and cancer. Objective: This study investigates the immunoregulatory mechanisms of MP in innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Materials and methods: Mice given MP (100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg, orally) for 10 consecutive days were immunized intravenously with goat RBC or ovalbumin, and investigated for plaque-forming cells (PFC), hemagglutination titer, hypersensitivity response, lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage function. Results: MP increased PFC (330.2 versus 182.2/10⁶ splenocytes) in mice immunized with goat RBC and elicited ovalbumin-specific IgG titer at 400 mg/kg. Increase in Th1 immunity was correlated with the increased level of IFN-γ (724 versus 470 pg/ml) and decreased IL-4 (96 versus 178 pg/ml). CD4⁺/CD3⁺ ratio and delayed-type hypersensitivity response also increased to, respectively, 20.62 ± 0.59 (versus 16.47 ± 0.72) and 1.59 ± 0.12 (versus 0.87 ± 0.10 mm) in MP-treated mice. MP increased lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 ± 0.60 versus 5.81 ± 0.40 SI) and macrophage phagocyte response (0.24 ± 0.02 versus 0.15 ± 0.009), expressed as absorbance at 570 nm, but decreased nitrite production (17.4 ± 1.10 versus 24.3 ± 1.30 µM/10⁶ cells). We also observed an increased bone marrow cellularity (24.5 ± 1.10 versus 17.10 ± 0.70 cells/femur) and WBC count (12 667 ± 377 versus 9178 ± 213 cells/mm³) following MP treatment. There was no sign of toxicity at 400 mg/kg, 1/12th of reported LD₅₀. Conclusion: MP elicits a dose-dependent Th1 immune response.
... Nootropic: Shilajit at a dose of 50 mg/kg, p.o has significant nootropic activity as shown by passive avoidance learning and retention. It was found that processed shilajit and its active constituents (total ethyl acetate fraction and fulvic acids) significantly increased the learning acquisition and memory retention in old albino rats [14,15] . Anti-anxiety: Shilajit at a dose of 10 mg/kg, p.o has significant anti-anxiety activity as proved by elevated plus-maze test which is comparable to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o) [14] . ...
... The use of Shilajit for renewing vitality. The administration of Shilajit to rats showed a remarkable increase in the number of sperm of the epidydimus in male rats and in the number of ovulation induced rats in females [15] . Antifungal Activity: Methanolic extract of Shilajit at the concentration of 5000µg/ml was having excellent inhibitory activity against Alternaria cajani (95.12 % spore inhibition) [16] . ...
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Shilajit is an ancient Ayurveda medicine used as a Rejuvenating substance to support youthfull long lifespan.Shilajit is type of a resin that oozes out from the cracks in the layers of the rocks on the Himalayan mountains During summer, the temperature of the mount gets warm, making the resin less viscous and flow. The resin is light-brown to dark blackish brown. It is water-soluble. Shilajit contains over 85 minerals in ionic form, Fulvic acid, Humic acid, Hippuric acid, and Benzopyrones.in the present time shilajit use as Antidiabetic, Immunomodulatory, Nootropic, Anti-anxiety, Antiviral activity, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic etc.
... ). In oriental medicines of Asian countries, Shilajit has also been ascribed as a potent aphrodisiac and used to treat male sexual dysfunction(Agrawal et al., 2007;Park et al., 2006). It has been reported that Shilajit increases serum testosterone level and sperm number in rat and man(Park et al., 2006;Biswas et al., 2009). ...
... In oriental medicines of Asian countries, Shilajit has also been ascribed as a potent aphrodisiac and used to treat male sexual dysfunction(Agrawal et al., 2007;Park et al., 2006). It has been reported that Shilajit increases serum testosterone level and sperm number in rat and man(Park et al., 2006;Biswas et al., 2009). Further, in a study we found that shilajit improves the reproductive indices in cadmium-induced infertile Parkes (P) strain mice. ...
... In this study, it was clearly envisaged that PS could potentially control oxidative stress, which is reflected by lowered MDA levels and may stimulate spermatogenesis (Gomez et al., 1998;Jeong et al., 2006). This evidence is supplemented by significant increment of both testosterone and FSH, the two marker hormones that can directly induce spermatogenesis (Table 2). ...
... The serum testosterone level was also found to be significantly high in Shilajit-treated rats. The changes of serum LH and FSH were negligible compared with those of the control animals (Jeong et al., 2006). ...
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The safety and spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit (PS) were evaluated in oligospermic patients. Initially, 60 infertile male patients were assessed and those having total sperm counts below 20 million ml(-1) semen were considered oligospermic and enrolled in the study (n = 35). PS capsule (100 mg) was administered twice daily after major meals for 90 days. Total semenogram and serum testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated before and at the end of the treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, content of semen and biochemical parameters for safety were also evaluated. Twenty-eight patients who completed the treatment showed significant (P < 0.001) improvement in spermia (+37.6%), total sperm count (+61.4%), motility (12.4-17.4% after different time intervals), normal sperm count (+18.9%) with concomitant decrease in pus and epithelial cell count compared with baseline value. Significant decrease of semen MDA content (-18.7%) was observed. Moreover, serum testosterone (+23.5%; P < 0.001) and FSH (+9.4%; P < 0.05) levels significantly increased. HPLC chromatogram revealed inclusion of PS constituents in semen. Unaltered hepatic and renal profiles of patients indicated that PS was safe at the given dose. The present findings provide further evidence of the spermatogenic nature of Shilajit, as attributed in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly when administered as PS.
... Shilajit, found mainly in the Altai Mountains, Himalayas, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine. 31 It was also reported to be a potent and safe dietary product with potential for use in several diseases, including hard tissue diseases. 24,31,32 Raw Shilajit was collected, frozen for 1 h at −20°C, and then lyophilized (freeze-dryer, Ilshin Lab. ...
... 31 It was also reported to be a potent and safe dietary product with potential for use in several diseases, including hard tissue diseases. 24,31,32 Raw Shilajit was collected, frozen for 1 h at −20°C, and then lyophilized (freeze-dryer, Ilshin Lab. Co.) to obtain powdered Shilajit. ...
Article
Osteoporosis causes severe bone damage, posing potential risks to human health, patient quality of life, and society. Calcium has been widely studied to enhance bone density and prevent osteoporosis-related bone fractures. Here, we focused on the calcium salt and its possible therapeutic effect for osteoporosis. In particular, we developed a nanoscale calcium salt from a natural origin and formulated nanocomposite tablets with the addition of vitamin D, herb (Rhodiola rosea) and natural mineral substance (Shilajit), which are also known to be anti-osteoporotic. The calcium salt nanocomposites revealed no toxicity, and stimulated the osteogenic differentiation, in particular, for the formulation with R. rosea. The calcium salt nanocomposites inhibited the osteoclastic activity including RANKL expression by decreasing TRAP positive cells. When administered orally to an osteoporotic rat for 45 days, the calcium salt nanocomposites reduced bone resorption as evidenced by the significantly higher bone volume and density as well as the increased osteoblasts with reduced osteoclasts compared to the non-treated control. The systemic administration exhibited no severe stomach toxicity or damage and no renal stone growth over the test period. Based on the significant bilateral effects on the osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition, and the resultant efficacy in an osteoporotic model, the nanocomposite tablets composed of calcium salt and natural products are considered as novel nanotherapeutics for the osteoporosis treatment.
... These results are consistent with the above animal studies and provide mechanistic information regarding the increased energy and higher ATP levels. The effects of shiljit on spermatogenesis and ovogenesis in rats were investigated (Park et al., 2006). Shilajit administration daily for 6 weeks resulted in a significant increase in sperm count. ...
Article
Shilajit (mumie; moomiyo, mummiyo) has been used for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions for many years. However, relatively few well-controlled human studies have been conducted on the effects of shiliajit, although a growing number of studies have been published in recent years involving animal and in vitro systems. The safety of shilajit is well documented based on animal and human studies. Various research studies indicate that shilajit exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic, immunomodulatory, and anti-dyslipidemic properties. Animal and human studies indicate that shilajit enhances spermatogenesis. Furthermore, animal and human data support its use as a 'revitalizer', enhancing physical performance and relieving fatigue with enhanced production of ATP. Key constituents in shilajit responsible for these effects appear to be dibenzo-α-pyrones and fulvic acid and their derivatives. Various mechanistic studies provide support for the above observed effects. Additional well-controlled human and animal studies involving the use of standardized products are needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... By having many bioactive minerals and plant active principles, such as fulvic acid (low molecular weight substances like uronic acids, phenolic glycosides and amino acids), humic acid (low molecular weight substances like phenolic acids, anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers) and free and conjugated dibenzo-alpha-pyrones, Shilajit is known to exert multiple pharmacological actions. Some of these actions include antibacterial, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-hyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-radical, spermatogenic and ovogenic, anti-aging and energetic properties [28,38,40,[43][44][45][46][47]. Shilajit has been used for both preventative health and for treating many diseases (such as allergies, diabetes, hypertension, loss of memory, immune dysfunction, arthritis, loss of libido, etc) for more than 3000 years. ...
... [10] It has also demonstrated spermiogenic and ovogenic effects in mature rats. [11] Although many herbomineral preparations aimed to treat hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy use shilajit studies related to its effect on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy have not been reported so far which prompted the present investigations. ...
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Shilajit is a mineral-rich complex organic compound used in the traditional system of Ayurvedic medicine for treating hypertension and improving the cardiac function with many herbomineral preparations. However, very little experimental evidence is available about its effect on the cardiac function. We used Daphnia as a model organism for observing the effect of shilajit on its heart due to its myogenic properties and its response to number of cardioactive drugs that are known to affect human heart function. Genome of Daphnia shows the strongest homology with the human genome. These characteristics of Daphnia make it an ideal organism for biomedical research. Our results suggest that this complex organic compound lowers the heart beats as its concentration increases from 1.0 to 100 ppm. The beats come to near normal condition at 1000 ppm. Above 1000 ppm, the beats are very fast and impossible to count. These results indicate a negative chronotropic effect on the Daphnia heart at low concentrations and a positive chronotropic effect to arrhythmia and finally failure at increasing higher concentrations of shilajit.
... The administration of Shilajit to rats showed a remarkable increase in the number of sperm of the epidydimus in male rats and in the number of ovulation induced rats in females. [28] Antifungal activity Methanolic extract of Shilajit at the concentration of 5000µg/ml was having excellent inhibitory activity against Alternaria cajani (95.12 % spore inhibition). [30] Protection of mast cells from degranulation The effects of fulvic acids,4-methoxy-6carbomethoxy biphenyl and 3,8-dihydroxy-pyrone were studied in relation to the degranulation of mast cells against noxious stimuli. ...
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Shilajit is a rejuvenator ('Rasayana') of traditional Hindu Ayurvedic origin, which clearly has attracted considerable interest in India. Shilajit is a blackish-brown exudation of variable consistency exuding from layers of rocks in many mountain ranges of the world, especially the Himalayas and Hindukush ranges of the Indian subcontinent. Shilajit has been used as a folk medicine for general physical strengthening, anti-aging, blood sugar stabilization, urinary tract rejuvenation, enhanced brain functioning potency, kidney rejuvenation, immune system strengthening, arthritis, hypertension as well as for treating many other conditions. Shilajit (botanical name: Asphaltum), also known as mineral pitch, is a natural exudate oozed from rocks during hot weather. Shilajit is a compact mass of vegetable organic matter, which is composed of a gummy matrix interspersed with vegetable fibers and minerals. INTRODUCTION Shilajit is a rejuvenator ('Rasayana') of traditional Hindu Ayurvedic origin, which clearly has attracted considerable interest in India. Ayurvedic pharmacology classifies medicinal substances into different groups (e.g. 'Rasayana') according to their actions. Rasayana medicines improve the quality of 'Rasa' (plasma) and thus strengthen or promote the health of all tissues of the body. [1] Shilajit is blackish-brown exudation of variable consistency obtained from the steep rocks of different formation found in the Himalayas at altitudes between 1000-1500 m, from Arunachal Pradesh in the East, to Kashmir in the West. Shilajit is also found in other mountain ranges of the world, e.g., Afghanistan (Hinduksh, Badakh-Shan), Australia (Northern Pollock Ranges) and in the former USSR (Tien-Shan, Pair, Cancasus, Ural). [2-5] Shilajit has urinous odour and slight bitter, saline, somewhat pungent and astringent taste. The purified substance is nearly completely soluble in water and has an acid reaction. [2] Shilajit is not a rock but a complex mixture of organic humic substances and humic nature, plant and microbial metabolites occurring in the rock rhizospheres. [6-9]
... Other uses of Shilajit are as a lithotriptic, antiseptic, [17] anodyne, anti asthmatic agent, [22,39,47] and in the treatment of AIDS, [34] parasitic infections, [16,17] chronic fever, jaundice, [25] obesity, [25,39] sexual disorders, [17,34,54] and thyroid disorders. [55] Astanga Hradaya also states that it is the best rejuvenator. ...
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High altitude problems like hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, insomnia, tiredness, lethargy, lack of appetite, body pain, dementia, and depression may occur when a person or a soldier residing in a lower altitude ascends to high-altitude areas. These problems arise due to low atmospheric pressure, severe cold, high intensity of solar radiation, high wind velocity, and very high fluctuation of day and night temperatures in these regions. These problems may escalate rapidly and may sometimes become life-threatening. Shilajit is a herbomineral drug which is pale-brown to blackish-brown, is composed of a gummy exudate that oozes from the rocks of the Himalayas in the summer months. It contains humus, organic plant materials, and fulvic acid as the main carrier molecules. It actively takes part in the transportation of nutrients into deep tissues and helps to overcome tiredness, lethargy, and chronic fatigue. Shilajit improves the ability to handle high altitudinal stresses and stimulates the immune system. Thus, Shilajit can be given as a supplement to people ascending to high-altitude areas so that it can act as a "health rejuvenator" and help to overcome high-altitude related problems.
... By having many herbo-minerals and bioactive principles, such as humic acid (low molecular weight substances like phenolic acids, anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers) and dibenzo-α-pyrones (DBPs), DBP-chromoproteins and fulvic acids with DBP core, Shilajit is known to exert multiple pharmacological actions by having antibacterial, anti-arthritic, antiulcerogenic, anti-hyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-radical, spermatogenic and ovogenic, anti-aging and energetic properties [52][53][54][55][56][57]. Shilajit has been used for both preventative health and for treating many diseases (such as allergies, diabetes, hypertension, loss of memory, immune dysfunction, arthritis, loss of libido, etc) for more than 3000 years. ...
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The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Crominex-3+ (a complex of trivalent chromium, Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) extract and purified Shilajit) in moderately arthritic dogs. Eleven client-owned moderately arthritic dogs in a randomized double-blinded study received placebo or Crominex-3+ twice daily for a period of 150 days. On a monthly basis, each dog was evaluated for arthritis associated pain (overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation and pain after physical exertion) and a full physical exam (body weight, body temperature and heart rate). At the same time intervals, dogs serum samples were examined for biomarkers of kidney (BUN and creatinine), liver (bilirubin, ALT and AST) and heart and skeletal muscle (CK) functions. Findings of this investigation revealed that dogs receiving Crominex 3+ (1000 µg chromium, 15 mg Amla extract and 15 mg purified Shilajit per day in two divided doses) exhibited a significant (P<0.05) reduction in arthritic pain noted as early as after 90 days with a maximum reduction after 150 days of treatment. Pain level remained the same or slightly increased in the dogs receiving placebo. No significant change occurred in physical parameters or serum biomarkers in dogs on placebo or Crominex 3+, which suggested that Crominex 3+ was well tolerated by arthritic dogs. In conclusion, Crominex 3+ significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated arthritic pain and improved quality of life without causing any untoward effects in moderately arthritic dogs.
... In oligospermic patients there was distinct improvement in the quality of semen [10]. Administration of Shilajit to male rats showed a remarkable increase in the number of sperm of the epididymis [11]. . Kazhuneer kaadi is rice water with sour taste due to fermentation [13]. ...
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Gomutra Silasathu is one of the ingredients in many herbo-mineral formulations. It tonifies the activity of the seven body constituents (Saptha Thathus) namely plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, bone marrow and reproductory fluids of the body. In Siddha system of Medicine, it is used to treat Nabunjagam (Erectyle dysfunction], to improve spermatogenesis, impotence and sexual desire. Silasathu parpam is prescribed for sopana skalitham [Nocturnal emission], megam [Veneral disease], premegam [Gonorrhea], koruku [Contagious ulcers], kiranthi [Glandular swelling]. In the present study Physico chemical analysis and siddha specification for Gomutra silasathu parpam was studied as a step forward to standardization. ICP-OES elemental analysis and the presence of carbon through CHN analysis were studied to support the spermatogenic activity and the therapeutic potential of the medicine.
... Mineral pitch (MP), also known as shilajit, salajit, shilajatu, mumie, or mummiyo is a herbo-mineral drug, which comes from layers of rocks in many mountains of the world (Agarwal et al. 2007). The components of MP are as follows: gums, albuminoids, calcium, potassium, nitrogen, silica, resin, vegetable matter, magnesium, sulfur, iron, chloride, phosphorous, iodine, glycoside, tannic acid, benzoic acid and several vitamins, enzymes and carrier molecules including dibenzo-a-pyrones along with humic, and fulvic acids (Ghosal 1990;Park et al. 2006). In addition to the traditional use of MP, preclinical researches have also been done on its activities, and its therapeutic effects such as antiinflammatory and antioxidant roles, antiviral and antifungal activities, analgesic effect, and protection of mast cells from degranulation have been identified (Acharya et al. 1988;Ghosal et al. 1989Ghosal et al. , 1995Goel et al. 1990;Bhattacharya et al. 1995;Rachana 2009). ...
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Injury from the severe burn is exacerbated by a persistent inflammatory response. This response is mediated by cytokines and chemokines, which are released from various immune cells, including mast cells. In this study, the ability of the acellular ovine small intestine submucosa (AOSIS) to load and release of Mineral Pitch (MP) was first investigated, and it was found that the preparation of the scaffold by a modified method enables it to load and release water-soluble drugs. Then, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, a third-degree burn was created, and except for the control group, the others were treated with: AOSIS, WJ-MSCs seeded AOSIS, or AOSIS loaded with WJ-MSCs and MP. Wound sampling on the 5th day after treatment showed that the number of intact and degranulated mast cells in the treatment groups was associated with a decrease compared to the control group. In the last group, this decrease was the largest (and statically significant (p < 0.05)). Also, by measuring the level of inflammatory factors in blood serum, it was found that in the treatment groups compared to the control group, IL-10 was associated with an increase, and TNF-α was associated with a decrease. The changes in inflammatory factors were more significant (p < 0.05) in the last group. So, our results indicate that AOSIS loaded with WJ-MSCs and MP could be used as an innovative tissue-engineered device to control inflammatory condition during burn wound healing.
... Some recent reports also have elucidated that Shilajit has anti-inflammatory activity (16) and anxiolytic effects (19), and eliminates free radicals (5). Apart from these effects, Shilajit has been found to enhance fertility by improving spermatogenesis (8,24). Despite the wealth of information available for treatment of various ailments by Shilajit, no information is so far available on the Shilajit-mediated current via membrane receptors, and its significant role on hypothalamic neurons. ...
Article
Shilajit, a mineral pitch, has been used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine to treat many human ailments, and is reported to contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form. This study examined the possible mechanism of Shilajit action on preoptic hypothalamic neurons using juvenile mice. The hypothalamic neurons are the key regulator of many hormonal systems. In voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -60 mV, and under a high chloride pipette solution, Shilajit induced dose-dependent inward current. Shilajit-induced inward currents were reproducible and persisted in the presence of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting a postsynaptic action of Shilajit on hypothalamic neurons. The currents induced by Shilajit were almost completely blocked by 2 μM strychnine (Stry), a glycine receptor antagonist. In addition, Shilajit-induced inward currents were partially blocked by bicuculline. Under a gramicidin-perforated patch clamp mode, Shilajit induced membrane depolarization on juvenile neurons. These results show that Shilajit affects hypothalamic neuronal activities by activating the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor with α₂/α₂β subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that Shilajit contains some ingredients with possible glycine mimetic activities and might influence hypothalamic neurophysiology through activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor-mediated responses on hypothalamic neurons postsynaptically.
... Modern scientific research has systematically validated a number of properties and has proven that Shilajit is truly a panacea in folk medicine (1). In oriental medicines of Asian countries, Shilajit has also been ascribed as a potent aphrodisiac and used to treat male sexual dysfunction (3,1). ...
Article
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Asphaltum (Shilajit) is a blackish-brown exudation available in different consistency which deposits on the rocks of different mountain ranges especially Hindukash and Himalayas in Indian subcontinent. It is composed of 220 mineral and metal substances used in traditional Indian medical systems. Shilajit provides beneficial effects for physical strengthening, improving urinary tracks functioning and stabilizes blood sugar. It also has immune-modulation effects, increases brain potency, anti-arthritis, anti-aging and anti-hypertension activity. In oriental medicines of Asian countries, Shilajit has also been ascribed as a potent aphrodisiac and used to treat male sexual dysfunction. It has been reported that Shilajit increases serum testosterone level and sperm number in male rat and human. ÖZET Asphaltum (Shilajit), özellikle Hindistan karaparçasındaki Hindikuş ve Himalaya dağlarındaki kayalarda bulunan, değişik kıvamda olabilen, siyahımsı-kahverengi bir maddedir. Asphaltum, geleneksel Hindistan Tıbbı'nda kullanılan 220 kadar mineral ve madde içerir. Shilajit, fiziksel olarak iyi hissetme, üriner sistem fonksiyonlarında iyileşme ve kan şekerinin stabil hale gelmesi gibi faydalı etkilere neden olur. İlave olarak, immün modülasyon, beyin fonksiyonlarında artış, anti-artritik, yaşlanma karşıtı ve antihipertansif etkileri vardır. Shilajit, Asya ülkelerinin geleneksel tıbbında afrodizyak olarak bilinir ve erkek seksüel bozukluklarının tedavisinde kullanılır. Shilajit'in erkek ratlarda ve insanlarda sperm sayısını ve serum testosterone seviyesini arttırdığı rapor edilmiştir.
... The administration of Shilajit to rats showed a remarkable increase in the number of sperm of the epidydimus in male rats and in the number of ovulation induced rats in females. [28] Antifungal activity Methanolic extract of Shilajit at the concentration of 5000µg/ml was having excellent inhibitory activity against Alternaria cajani (95.12 % spore inhibition). [30] Protection of mast cells from degranulation The effects of fulvic acids,4-methoxy-6carbomethoxy biphenyl and 3,8-dihydroxy-pyrone were studied in relation to the degranulation of mast cells against noxious stimuli. ...
... It improves semen characteristic and nutritional performance in rabbit 58,59 . Mineral Pitch (Shilajit) cantain antioxidant, antiinflammatory, adaptogenic, immunomodulatory and antidyslipidemic properties, it increases serum testosterone level and sperm number in rat and man 60,61 . Curculigo orchioides (Black musli) cantain hepatoprotective, immune-stimulant, and antioxidant properties, it enhances sexual activity in male rats 62 . ...
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India has variety of medicinal plants and these plants used as a traditional knowledge to treat the animals. Post partum gynecological disorders like anoestrus, endometritis, metritis, pyometra, repeat breeding or even permanent infertility in female and reduced fertility or infertility due to impaired semen quality in male can be treated by using these plants medicines. Synthetic chemical drugs/medicines/hormones are being frequently used to treat the reproductive disorders; its use may cause public health hazard and severe side effects on the animal reproduction. But the herbal drugs have fewer side effects and more benefits and have less health hazards. This paper describes the herbal medicines/plants which are used in animal reproduction to cure reproductive disorders. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
... The effects of shilajit on spermatogenesis and ovogenesis in rats were investigated (Park et al., 2006). Shilajit administration daily for 6 weeks resulted in a significant increase in sperm count. ...
Chapter
Shilajit (mumie, moomiyo, mummiyo, mumijo, salajeet) is a resinous phyto-mineral exudate found in sedimentary rocks that has been used for many years for a wide variety of illnesses and health benefits. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been published involving humans, animal, and in vitro systems in support of its uses and health-related effects. Animal and human studies support its use as a “revitalizer,” promoting physical and mental energy, enhancing physical performance, and relieving fatigue in association with enhanced ATP production. Various published research studies indicate that shilajit exhibits adaptogenic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, and neurological properties. Studies also show that shilajit enhances spermatogenesis. Based on animal and human studies, the safety of shilajit is well documented. Shilajit is standardized to fulvic acids, and key constituents in shilajit responsible for its effects appear to be fulvic acids comprising oxygenated dibenzo-a-pyrones (DBPs) and their derivatives. The current literature regarding the efficacy and safety of shilajit is reviewed.
... PS serbest radikal seviyesinin baskılanması üzerine de önemli derecede katkı yapmaktadır. Polimerizasyona neden olan hidroksil radikaline karşı, metil metakrilat korumasını sağladığı ve etkili bir biçimde nitrik oksit serbest radikallerinin etkisini azalttığı ifade edilmiştir (13)(14)(15)(16). Çalışmamızda, antioksidan özelliği olan PS' nin, kemoterapi tedavisi almış olan erkek bireylerin üreme sisteminde oluşabilecek yan etkilerin önlenmesinde, sağlayacağı katkılar açısından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. ...
... In a clinical study shilajit improves the quality and quantity of the semen with out altering hepatic and renal profiles of oligospermic patients. (Biswas, et. al. 2010) Shilajit showed spermiogenic and ovogenic activity in mature male rats (Park, et. al. 2006). ...
... Mineral pitch could induce a dose-related increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in the frontal cortex and striatum of rats ( Bhattacharya and Sen, 1995). It was estimated that mineral pitch had both a spermiogenic and ovogenic effect in mature rats ( Park et al., 2006). Coal tar is a viscous black liquid that is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal (Azpíroz, 2008). ...
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Mineral pitch, a form of mineral dripping from the cracks of the rocks, has been historically used through topical and oral administrations for health benefits. Its biological activities and safety have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidative activity, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and heavy metal determination of mineral pitch in comparison to coal tar. The total phenolic content and antioxidative activity of mineral pitch were higher than those of coal tar. Antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli and Candida albicans of mineral pitch were less than coal tar. A dichloromethane extract of mineral pitch could inhibit the growth of those three microbes, while the butanol extract showed the growth inhibition on S. aureus and C. albicans . From the MTT assay, mineral pitch was notably toxic to normal human lung fibroblast (MRC-5), human breast carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231), human lung carcinoma cells (A549), human cervical carcinoma cells (Hela), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (SW-620), human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV-3) and human hepatocarcinama cells (HepG2). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated the high content of heavy metals, especially, As, Hg, and Pb in mineral pitch which might relate to the cytotoxicity.
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Infertility is a growing problem all over the world. About 13–18% of couple suffers from it and approximately in 39% cases, semen analyzed as abnormal. There are several causes of male infertility i.e. Hypogonadism, Drugs, alcohol, smoking, Bad semen quality, Teratospermia, Oligospermia, Azoospermia, genetic factors, Vas deference obstructions, Testicular Torsion, impotence etc. There are several therapeutic approaches to alleviate male infertility problem including Allopathy, ayurveda, Unani etc. The present review provides an overview of the prevalence, causes, treatment of male infertility using herbal medicines. Screening techniques to find the activity of drugs in male infertility is also added in this review.
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Background Shilajit (mumie), a natural multi-component herbomineral ethnomedicinal food, is used as a traditional medicine for enhancing the quality of life and for management of health ailments in many countries of the world. Use of Shilajit as an adaptogen, aphrodisiac, rejuvenator and anti-aging substance is mentioned in many ancient texts. This review aims to provide comprehensive insights into its biochemical aspects, microbial role in biosynthesis, bioactivities and to establish correlation between traditional uses and scientifically validated research findings. Methods Scientific literature and ethnopharmacological information were compiled from the published peer-reviewed articles, unpublished materials, thesis, books, patent databases, clinical trial registries and from the websites of research councils of traditional medicine. The scientific databases, thesis repositories and books databases were searched with keywords Shilajit, mumie, mumijo, salajeet, asphaltum, fulvic acid, dibenzo-alpha-pyrones etc. Results Scientifically validated research and ancient texts suggest multifaceted benefits of Shilajit. It is endowed with anti-stress, memory and energy enhancing, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, spermatogenic, neuroprotective, antiulcer and wound healing activities. These pharmacological effects are mainly attributed to the presence of humic acid, fulvic acid, dibenzo-α-pyrones, dibenzo- α-pyrones chromoproteins and trace elements. Conclusion This review summarizes the traditional importance of Shilajit for the treatment and prevention of several acute and chronic diseases and health ailments. Despite numerous health claims, there are still major gaps in our understanding of its mechanism of action, variability in efficacy and toxicity profile. Therefore, a coordinated interdisciplinary approach is needed to establish the underlying mechanisms of action, comprehensive toxicological profile, pharmacokinetics parameters and effects on different organ systems. Regulatory and governmental impetus to basic and clinical research, safety testing and formulations quality control is warranted.
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Shilajit is claimed as a Vajikarak (aphrodisiac) and used for the treatment of male infertility by traditional healers of the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to assess the effectiveness of Shilajit for treatment of male infertility resulting from exposure to perilous chemicals. Effect of daily oral administration (p.o.) of Shilajit (50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/Kg BW) was investigated for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in cadmium‐induced (2 mg/Kg BW, p.o. for 35 days) infertile adult (12–14 week) swiss male mice. Shilajit treatment increased weights of reproductive organs, testicular daily sperm production, activities of testicular Δ5 3β‐HSD and 17 β‐HSD enzymes and serum level of testosterone. Histopathological evaluation of testis revealed that Shilajit restored spermatogenesis as reflected by a gradual augmentation in germ cell layers with increased doses of Shilajit compared to cadmium‐treated mice. Further, Shilajit treatment reverted back the adverse effects of cadmium on motility and concentration of spermatozoa. Secretory activities of the epididymis and seminal vesicle and libido, fertility and the number of litters per female were also improved by Shilajit in cadmium‐treated mice. Results thus suggest the potent androgenic nature of Shilajit and its role in fertility improvement against cadmium‐induced infertility.
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Background and Aim: Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases that is caused by an imbalance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays an active role in inhibiting osteoclasts by binding to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The balance in the OPG/RANKL ratio is important in bone remodeling. The current study investigated and compared the effects of mumie extract and chemical drugs on cell proliferation, expression of OPG and RANKL in MG63 cells. Materials and Methods: The effects of 100, 200 and 300 μg/ml of mumie extract on cell proliferation, expression of OPG and RANKL in MG63 cells were investigated in experimental groups, positive and negative control groups. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results: Significant increases were observed in the proliferation of MG63 cells after exposure to 100 and 200 μg/ml concentrations of mumie extract. 200 μg/ml concentration of the extract significantly decreased the expression of RANKL and increased the expression of OPG. It also increased OPG/RANKL ratio significantly in the experimental groups, compared to those in the negative control groups. Although the effects of 100 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml concentrations were similar to each other, they showed no significant effects on the variables. 300 μg/ml concentration of the extract showed a reverse and insignificant effect. Conclusion: 200 μg/ml concentration of mumie extract had a significant effect on the expression of two important factors in bone remodeling. Therefore, individuals susceptible to osteoporosis can use mumie extract as an alternative to chemical drugs.
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The effect of Shilajit was investigated for putative nootropic and anxiolytic activity, and its effect on rat brain monoamines using Charles Foster strain albino rats. Nootropic activity was assessed by passive avoidance learning and active avoidance learning acquisition and retention. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by the elevated plus-maze technique. Rat brain monoamines and monoamine metaboliteswere estimated bya HPLC technique. The results indicated that Shilajit had significant nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The biochemical studies indicated that acute treatment with Shilajit had insignificant effects on rat brain monoamine and monoamine metabolite levels. However, following subacute (5days) treatment, there was decrease in 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentrations and an increase in the levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid and 3.4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetic acid concentrations, with insignificant effects on noradrenaline and 3-methoxy-4- hydroxyphenylethylene glycol levels. The observed neurochemical effects induced by Shilajit, indicating a decrease in rat brain 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover, associated with an increase in dopaminergic activity, helps to explain the observed nootropic and anxiolytic effects of the drug.
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Male rats given 250 mug oestradiol benzoate by subcutaneous injection on Day 4 of postnatal life showed a marked delay in the onset of the pubertal increase in the weight of the testes and seminal vesicles and in spermatogenesis but not a complete failure of sexual development. The increase in plasma testosterone concentration at puberty was also delayed in oestrogen-treated males but the eventual increase in seminal vesicle weight was closely related in time to the delayed increase in plasma testosterone concentration. Both plasma LH and FSH concentrations were reduced for about 10 days after oestrogen administration as compared to control values. After 22 days of age, plasma LH concentration did not differ significantly from the control values. The plasma FSH concentration of the oestrogen-treated males showed a delayed rise to values equal to or higher than those of controls of the same age. The delayed rise in plasma FSH concentration in the oestrogen treated males preceded the delayed rise in plasma testosterone in these animals. The decrease in plasma FSH concentration from the high prepubertal values to the lower values in adults occurred at different ages in the control and in oestrogen-treated rats but in both groups the decrease occurred as plasma testosterone levels were increasing and the first wave of spermatogenesis was reaching completion. The increase in plasma FSH concentration after castration was reduced in oestrogen-treated males during the period throughout which FSH levels in the intact animals were subnormal but the levels in oestrogen-treated males castrated after the delayed rise in FSH had occurred did not differ from control values. It is suggested that the delayed sexual maturation of male rats treated with high doses of oestrogen in the neonatal period is related principally to abnormalities in the secretion of FSH.
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In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study we investigated whether high-dose oral treatment with vitamins C and E for 56 days was able to improve semen parameters of infertile men. Ejaculate parameters included semen volume, sperm concentration and motility, and sperm count and viability. Thirty-one patients without genital infection but with asthenozoospermia (< 50% motile spermatozoa) and normal or only moderately reduced sperm concentration (> 7 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) (according to WHO criteria) were examined. To investigate the influence of the epididymal storage period on semen parameters, the patients were asked to deliver two semen samples with abstinence times of 2 and 7 days both before and at the end of vitamin treatment. After randomization, the patients received either 1000 mg vitamin C and 800 mg vitamin E (n = 15) or identical placebo capsules (n = 16). No changes in semen parameters were observed during treatment, and no pregnancies were initiated during the treatment period. Combined high-dose antioxidative treatment with vitamins C and E did not improve conventional semen parameters or the 24-h sperm survival rate. Prolonged abstinence time increased ejaculate volume (P < 0.05), sperm count (P < 0.05), sperm concentration (P < 0.05) and the total number of motile spermatozoa (P < 0.05).
Article
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study we investigated whether high-dose oral treatment with vitamins C and E for 56 days was able to improve semen parameters of infertile men. Ejaculate parameters included semen volume, sperm concentration and motility, and sperm count and viability. Thirty-one patients without genital infection but with asthenozoospermia (<50% motile spermatozoa) and normal or only moderately reduced sperm concentration (>7×106 spermatozoa/ml) (according to WHO criteria) were examined. To investigate the influence of the epididymal storage period on semen parameters, the patients were asked to deliver two semen samples with abstinence times of 2 and 7 days both before and at the end of vitamin treatment. After randomization, the patients received either 1000 mg vitamin C and 800 mg vitamin E (n = 15) or identical placebo capsules (n = 16). No changes in semen parameters were observed during treatment, and no pregnancies were initiated during the treatment period. Combined high-dose antioxidative treatment with vitamins C and E did not improve conventional semen parameters or the 24-h sperm survival rate. Prolonged abstinence time increased ejaculate volume (P < 0.05), sperm count (P < 0.05), sperm concentration (P < 0.05) and the total number of motile spermatozoa (P < 0.05).
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The radicophilicity (antiradical–antioxidant effects) of processed shilajit (SJP) to oxygen-derived free radicals and nitric oxide (NO), and the attendant H2O2 cleaving effect were evaluated. SJP provided complete protection to methyl methacrylate (MMA) against hydroxyl radical-induced polymerization and acted as a reversible NO-captodative agent. SJP (20 and 50 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 21 days) induced a dose-related increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in frontal cortex and striatum of rats. The data were comparable to those of (−)-deprenyl (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 21 days) in respect of SOD and CAT activities. These findings are consistent with the therapeutic uses of shilajit as an Ayurvedic rasayan (rejuvenator) against oxidative stress and geriatric complaints.
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Effects, in albino rats, of a processed shilajit (Sh-P), native shilajit (Sh-N) (unprocessed water-soluble fraction), and a preparation consisting of a mixture of ethyl acetate extractives (EE) and fulvic acids (FAs) from Sh-P, were evaluated in (i) an active avoidance, (ii) elevated plus-maze and (iii) open-field behaviour paradigms. This study was undertaken to appraise the validity of use of shilajit as an Ayurvedic medha rasayan (enhancer of learning and memory). Sh-P and its active constituents (EE-FAs) significantly augmented learning acquisition and memory retrieval in the battery of tests, designed for this purpose, according to accepted tenets. Sh-N, on the other hand, produced erratic responses (both augmentative and retardative) in the above parameters. The U-shaped dose-responses shown by Sh-P and EE-FAs are reminiscent of agents that improve cognitive functions. Additionally, Sh-P and EE-FAs, in high doses (25-50 mg/kg p.o.), produced significant antianxiety effect in the open-field behaviour test. The present and earlier findings seem to suggest that the action of shilajit is mediated by facilitating communication between the immune and the central nervous systems. These findings reinforce our earlier postulate that purification of shilajit is an imperative necessity to ensure its optimum therapeutic effect. This would also safeguard from potential health risks associated with prolonged ingestion of raw shilajit containing free radicals and fungal toxins.
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In folk medicine, shilajit has been used to treat diverse clinical conditions ranging from peptic ulcer to bone healing. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory activities of shilajit obtained from the rocky mountains of Zarlek, Badekshan, Afghanistan. Shilajit increased the carbohydrate/protein ratio and decreased gastric ulcer index, indicating an increased mucus barrier. Shilajit was found to have significant antiinflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced acute pedal oedema, granuloma pouch and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The results of the present study thus substantiate the use of shilajit in peptic ulcer and inflammation.
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Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated with epichlorohydrin (ECH) by oral gavage (males: 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day; females: 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day) for 21 and 14 days, respectively, prior to mating trials with untreated animals. Treated females were further dosed until delivery. Fertility was assayed in the high-dose males only and was found to be totally impaired. No measured parameters of female reproduction were changed relative to controls. Treated males showed normal copulatory behavior. Sperm morphology and percentage motile sperm were not statistically different from control values in both ejaculated and cauda epididymal samples from ECH-treated animals. The number of sperm in ejaculates was normal while cauda epididymal sperm count was slightly decreased in males at the 50 mg ECH/kg dose level. Mean curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and amplitude of lateral head displacement of cauda epididymal sperm were significantly reduced by ECH at 12.5 mg/kg/day and above. Sperm track linearity was also reduced, but only at 50 mg/kg/day. Beat/cross frequency of sperm was significantly increased at 12.5 mg/kg/day and above. All of the above sperm motion parameters showed dose-dependent trends. These effects are consistent with the spermatozoal metabolic lesions reported for α-chlorohydrin, a metabolite of ECH.
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Arginine is considered a nonessential amino acid yet it is indispensable to normal protein synthesis and its deficiency is first manifested in those tissues in which mitosis is frequent, such as testicular tissue. 178 patients with various degrees of oligospermia and oligoastenospermia were treated with arginine. A daily oral dose of 4 g of the pure powder dissolved in water was given to each patient. A marked increase in sperm count and motility was achieved in 111 patients (62.3%) and 28 pregnancies resulted. In 21 cases (12.3%) there was a moderate increase in sperm count and motility and in 46 cases (25.4%) no improvement was noted.
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In sperm cells, the majority of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) an energy promoting agent and antioxidant, is concentrated in the mitochondria of the midpiece, so that the energy for movement and all other energy-dependent processes in the sperm cell also depend on the availability of CoQ10. The reduced form of CoQ10-ubiquinol also acts as an antioxidant, preventing lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on sperm motility in vitro, after incubation with 38 samples of asthenospermic and normal motility sperm, and to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 administration in vivo in 17 patients with low fertilization rates after in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for male factor infertility. All 38 sperm samples from patients registered in our infertility clinic had normal concentrations and morphology. Of these, 16 patients had normal motility (mean 47.5%) and 22 patients were asthenospermic (mean motility 19.1%). Sperm samples were divided into four equal parts and incubated for 24 h in: HAM's medium alone, in HAM's medium with 1% DMSO and HAM's with 5 microM or 50 microM CoQ10. While no significant change in motility after incubation was observed in the samples with initial normal motility, a significant increase in motility was observed in the 50 microM CoQ10 subgroup of sperm from asthenospermic men, with a motility rate of 35.7 +/- 19.5%, as compared to 19.1 +/- 9.3% in the controls (P < 0.05). The 17 patients with low fertilization rates after ICSI were treated with oral CoQ10, 60 mg/day, for a mean of 103 days before the next ICSI treatment. No significant change was noted in most sperm parameters, but a significant improvement was noted in fertilization rates, from a mean of 10.3 +/- 10.5% in their previous cycles, to 26.3 +/- 22.8% after CoQ10 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the administration of CoQ10 may result in improvement in sperm functions in selective patients. Further investigation into the mechanisms related to these effects is needed.
Article
To determine whether the decline in selenium intake and selenium status in men in the West of Scotland might be a contributory factor to male subfertility. Two semen samples were collected from patients attending a subfertility clinic and those patients with samples showing reduced motility were invited to participate in an ethically approved double-blind clinically controlled trial with informed consent. Sixty-nine patients were recruited and received either placebo, selenium alone or selenium plus vitamins A, C and E daily for 3 months. A further semen sample was collected at the end of the trial. Plasma selenium status was determined at the beginning and end of the trial period, as was total sperm density and motility. Plasma selenium concentrations were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in both selenium-treated groups than in controls. No significant effect of treatment on sperm density was recorded. Sperm motility increased in both selenium-treated groups, in contrast to a slight decline in the placebo group, but the difference was not significant. However, as the provision of additional vitamins had no effect on any variable measured it was considered justified to combine the two selenium-treated groups and compare them with the placebo treatment. On this basis, selenium treatment significantly (P < 0.002) increased plasma selenium concentrations and sperm motility (P = 0.023) but sperm density was again unaffected. Five men (11%) achieved paternity in the treatment group, in contrast to none in the placebo group. This trial confirms the result of an earlier study, that selenium supplementation in subfertile men with low selenium status can improve sperm motility and the chance of successful conception. However, not all patients responded; 56% showed a positive response to treatment. The low selenium status of patients not supplemented again highlights the inadequate provision of this essential element in the Scottish diet.
Treatment of oligospermia with vitamin B12
  • Sandler
Sandler, B., Faragher, B., 1984. Treatment of oligospermia with vitamin B12. Infertility 7, 133–138.
LHRH bioas-say with a parameter of ovulation-induction in the diestrous rat Quantitative study of the cell population of the seminiferous tubles in immature rats
  • I Yamazaki
  • H Nakagawa
  • K Yoshida
  • R Nakayama
Yamazaki, I., Nakagawa, H., Yoshida, K., Nakayama, R., 1977. LHRH bioas-say with a parameter of ovulation-induction in the diestrous rat. Journal of Fertility and Sterility 22, 136. Yves, C., Bernard, P.C., 1969. Quantitative study of the cell population of the seminiferous tubles in immature rats. American Journal of Anatomy 100, 241–260.
LHRH bioassay with a parameter of ovulation-induction in the diestrous rat
  • Yamazaki