Neonatal nephrocalcinosis: Long term follow up

Southern General Hospital, Govan Road, Govan, Glasgow G51 4TF, Scotland, UK.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition (Impact Factor: 3.12). 09/2006; 91(5):F333-6. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2006.094755
Source: PubMed


To assess the spontaneous resolution of neonatal nephrocalcinosis and its long term effects on renal function.
Fourteen very low birthweight preterm babies with nephrocalcinosis were followed up at 5-7 years of age; 14 controls were matched for sex, gestation, and birth weight. Height, weight, blood pressure, and renal symptomatology were recorded, and a renal ultrasound scan was performed. Early morning urine osmolality and creatinine ratios of albumin, phosphate, calcium, oxalate and beta microglobulin were determined. Urea and electrolytes in the study group were determined, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and TmP/GFR (tubular reabsorption of phosphate per GFR) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed on a group basis using the Mann-Whitney confidence interval.
Mean age was 6.9 years (range 5.81-7.68). An early morning urine osmolality >700 mOsm/kg was achieved in all cases. In two cases and four controls, the calcium/creatinine ratio was >0.7 mmol/mmol. In all cases, the GFR was normal (median 132.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (range 104.1-173.1)). Median TmP/GFR was 1.22 mmol/l (0.73-1.61), with two having levels below the normal range. These did not have persisting nephrocalcinosis. Nephrocalcinosis was found in three of the 12 cases scanned and one control. There were no significant differences in urine biochemistry.
Resolution of nephrocalcinosis occurred in 75% of cases. No evidence was found to suggest that nephrocalcinosis is associated with renal dysfunction in the long term. There was evidence of hypercalciuria in the cases and controls, suggesting that prematurity may be a risk factor.

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