Vasiljeva O, Papazoglou A, Kruger A, Brodoefel H, Korovin M, Deussing J et al.. Tumor cell-derived and macrophage-derived cathepsin B promotes progression and lung metastasis of mammary cancer. Cancer Res 66: 5242-5250

Institut für Molekulare Medizin und Zellforschung and Institut für Biometrie und Medizinische Informatik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 06/2006; 66(10):5242-50. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4463
Source: PubMed


Proteolysis in close vicinity of tumor cells is a hallmark of cancer invasion and metastasis. We show here that mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic mice deficient for the cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB) exhibited a significantly delayed onset and reduced growth rate of mammary cancers compared with wild-type PyMT mice. Lung metastasis volumes were significantly reduced in PyMT;ctsb(+/-), an effect that was not further enhanced in PyMT;ctsb(-/-) mice. Furthermore, lung colonization studies of PyMT cells with different CTSB genotypes injected into congenic wild-type mice and in vitro Matrigel invasion assays confirmed a specific role for tumor-derived CTSB in invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, cell surface labeling of cysteine cathepsins by the active site probe DCG-04 detected up-regulation of cathepsin X on PyMT;ctsb(-/-) cells. Treatment of cells with a neutralizing anti-cathepsin X antibody significantly reduced Matrigel invasion of PyMT;ctsb(-/-) cells but did not affect invasion of PyMT;ctsb(+/+) or PyMT;ctsb(+/-) cells, indicating a compensatory function of cathepsin X in CTSB-deficient tumor cells. Finally, an adoptive transfer model, in which ctsb(+/+), ctsb(+/-), and ctsb(-/-) recipient mice were challenged with PyMT;ctsb(+/+) cells, was used to address the role of stroma-derived CTSB in lung metastasis formation. Notably, ctsb(-/-) mice showed reduced number and volume of lung colonies, and infiltrating macrophages showed a strongly up-regulated expression of CTSB within metastatic cell populations. These results indicate that both cancer cell-derived and stroma cell-derived (i.e., macrophages) CTSB plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis.

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Available from: Olga Vasiljeva
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    • "Furthermore, the importance of the mammary TME in MMTV–PyMT-induced tumorigenesis has been well-described. Alterations in signaling from the endothelium (46), fibroblasts (41, 47, 48), immune cells (49–52), and adipocytes (53–55) have all been shown to alter tumor growth and/or metastatic progression in these mice. Moreover, increased stromal collagen deposition hastens MMTV–PyMT tumor development and metastatic spread (56). "
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) expression in breast cancer is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype, yet the mechanism for how PKCβ is pro-tumorigenic in this disease is still unclear. Interestingly, while it is known that PKCβ mediates angiogenesis, immunity, fibroblast function and adipogenesis, all components of the mammary tumor microenvironment (TME), no study to date has investigated whether stromal PKCβ is functionally relevant in breast cancer. Herein, we evaluate mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) induced mammary tumorigenesis in the presence and absence of PKCβ. We utilize two model systems: one where PKCβ is deleted in both the epithelial and stromal compartments to test the global requirement for PKCβ on tumor formation, and second, where PKCβ is deleted only in the stromal compartment to test its role in the TME. MMTV-PyMT mice globally lacking PKCβ live longer and develop smaller tumors with decreased proliferation and decreased macrophage infiltration. Similarly, when PKCβ is null exclusively in the stroma, PyMT-driven B6 cells form smaller tumors with diminished collagen deposition. These experiments reveal for the first time a tumor promoting role for stromal PKCβ in MMTV-PyMT tumorigenesis. In corroboration with these results, PKCβ mRNA (Prkcb) is increased in fibroblasts isolated from MMTV-PyMT tumors. These data were confirmed in a breast cancer patient cohort. Combined these data suggest the continued investigation of PKCβ in the mammary TME is necessary to elucidate how to effectively target this signaling pathway in breast cancer.
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    • "Results obtained on transgenic animals further confirm the active role of Cat X in tumour progression. It was suggested that Cat X, not being dependent on the degradation of extracellular matrix, a typical event for cathepsin B, may compensate the malignant effects of cathepsin B [24,41] by changing the migration mode of tumour cells. Only mice with excluded expression of both cathepsin B and Cat X exhibited significantly lower tumour growth and metastasis formation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin X is a cysteine protease involved in mechanisms of malignant progression. It is secreted from tumour cells as a proenzyme and may serve to predict the disease status and risk of death for cancer patients. In a previous, pilot, study on 77 colorectal patients we demonstrated the correlation of higher serum levels with shorter overall survival. 264 patients with colorectal cancer were included in a prospectively accrued multi-centre observational cohort study with the aim of testing novel biomarkers. Blood samples were collected before preoperative large bowel endoscopy and total cathepsin X was measured in sera by ELISA. As a control group we selected at random 77 subjects who had no findings at endoscopy and reported no co-morbidity. The mean level of cathepsin X in cancer patients did not differ from the control levels (23.4 ng/ml +/- 6.4 SD vs. 18.8 ng/ml +/- 11.4 SD, p > 0.05) and there was no association with age, gender, disease stage, tumour location or CEA. In univariate analysis no association between cathepsin X levels and overall survival was demonstrated for the entire set of patients, however, cathepsin X was associated with survival in a group of patients with local resectable disease (stages I-III) (HR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.03-2.75, p = 0.03). For this group, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed an association (HR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.37-7.18, p = 0.003) between high cathepsin X levels and shorter overall survival for patients who did not receive chemotherapy, whereas, for patients who received chemotherapy, there was no association between cathepsin X and survival (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.20-1.33, p = 0.88). Association of cathepsin X levels with overall survival was not confirmed for an entire set of 264 colorectal patients, but for patients in stages I-III with local resectable disease. The significant association of cathepsin X with survival in a group of patients who received no chemotherapy and the absence of this association in the group who received chemotherapy, suggest the possible predictive value for response to chemotherapy. The results have to be confirmed in a further prospective study.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "The prodrug is inactive when there is little CTSB activity, such as normal tissues and peripheral blood, thus avoiding the side effects on normal tissue. During cancer invasion, activated CTSB is over expressed on the exterior membrane of the invading cancer cells [19,20], which cleaves the Ac-Phe-Lys dipeptide at the Lys-PABC bond [16]. Then the exposed PABC spacer can self-hydrolyze upon deacylation [21] and free DOX molecules are released, resulting in direct killing of the invading cancer cells [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n = 10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n = 10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n = 10) and the DOX (n = 10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0 mg/kg or DOX 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, after CRS + HIPEC. The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p < 0.001) and further extended by 40% in the DOX (p = 0.029) and by 58% in the PDOX (p = 0.021), and the PC severity was decreased in the HIPEC and further decreased in the PDOX and DOX. Animals receiving DOX treatment showed hematological toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX. PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Molecular Cancer
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