The longitudinal effects of social support and hostility on depressive tendencies

National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Finland.
Social Science & Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 10/2006; 63(5):1374-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.036
Source: PubMed


This 14-year longitudinal study examined the independent association between perceived social support and the 5-year progression of depressive tendencies while taking into account the potential effects of childhood/adolescent anger and later hostility. From the on-going population based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns", 553 male and 860 female participants responded to a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory in 1992 and 1997. Hostility and perceived social support were assessed by self-rated questionnaires in 1992. Childhood/adolescent anger was assessed by parent-reports in 1983. Our results showed that higher levels of perceived social support were associated with the decrease of depressive tendencies after 5 years and lower levels of depressive tendencies prospectively and after 5 years. This association persisted after adjusting for childhood/adolescent anger and later hostility. In addition, hostility was strongly related to the 5-year increase of depressive tendencies and higher levels of depressive tendencies. Social support may therefore be a long-term protective factor from depression irrespective of personality characteristics, such as hostility and anger.

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    • "In previous studies, hostility (Mao, Bardwell, Major, & Dimsdale, 2003) and hostility/anger (Stewart, Fitzgerald, & Kamarck, 2010 ) have been linked to depression, while anger experience is related to GAD and social anxiety disorder, even after controlling for depression (Hawkins & Cougle, 2011). In general, most studies confirm the relationship between hostility and related constructs and depression (Heponiemi et al., 2006; Mao et al., 2003; Rude, Chrisman, Burton Denmark, & Maestas, 2012; Stewart et al., 2010) and anxiety (Vandervort, 1995). In addition, social anxiety correlates positively with hostile feelings toward others, even after controlling for depression (DeWall, Buckner, Lambert, Cohen, & Fincham, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied
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    • "In turn, employment/unemployment duration, measured retrospectively, could serve as a predictor of accumulated advantages/disadvantages and SWB, referring to the present time. As to income, occupational security, and perceived social support, they have all been shown to influence SWB or mental health in general prospectively (Hellgren & Sverke, 2003; Heponiemi et al., 2006; Mentzakis & Moro, 2009), although bidirectional effects are also possible (Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, Bakker, Schaufeli, & van der Heijden, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The negative impact of unemployment on subjective well-being (SWB) is well known, but the role of age in this relationship remains unclear. We suggest that cumulative advantage (or disadvantage) associated with the duration of current employment status may produce an age-related divergence in SWB between employed and unemployed individuals. We used cross-sectional data on employed (n = 1382) and unemployed (n = 254) Germans (age 18-42) surveyed in 2005. We found that, among currently employed individuals, relatively older age predicted longer employment duration (tenure), which was related to higher SWB via higher income and higher perceived occupational security. Among currently unemployed individuals, age predicted longer unemployment duration, which was associated with lower SWB via lower perceived social support. Thus, age was indirectly related to higher SWB in employed individuals and to lower SWB in unemployed individuals. In this way, cumulative advantage of long-term employment and cumulative disadvantage of long-term unemployment contributed to the age-related divergence in SWB between employed and unemployed Germans already in the first half of working life.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
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    • "A small scale cross-sectional study ( ) conducted among undergraduate students found cynical hostility to be strongly associated with Felsten, 1996 inserm-00406805, version 1 -23 Jul 2009 Author manuscript, published in "Psychological Medicine 2009;:1-9" DOI : 10.1017/S0033291709990432 depressive mood. Another study ( ) examining the longitudinal effects of hostility on depressive tendencies among Heponiemi , 2006 et al. 1413 men and women found cynical hostility to be related to an increase in depressive tendencies after 5 years. Depressive mood may reinforce hostile feelings and behaviours toward others ( ), or influence the assessment of cynical hostility ( Painuly , 2005 et al. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The psychosocial vulnerability model of hostility posits that hostile individuals, given their oppositional attitudes and behaviours, are more likely to have increased interpersonal conflicts, lower social support, more stressful life events (SL-E) and higher likelihood of depression. However, little research has tested this hypothesis using large-scale prospective samples. The present study aims to assess the predictive value of hostility for depressive mood.MethodData are from 3399 participants in the Whitehall II cohort study, aged 35-55 years at baseline (phase 1 1985-1988). Cynical hostility was measured at phase 1. Depressive mood was assessed at phase 7 (2002-2004). Sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, common mental disorders and antidepressant medication intake were assessed at phase 1. SL-E and confiding/emotional support were measured at phases 1, 2 (1989-1990) and 5 (1997-1999). RESULTS: Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of cynical hostility, those in the highest quartiles were more likely to have depressive mood [second quartile: odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.20; third quartile: OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.03-3.77; fourth quartile: OR 4.66, 95% CI 3.41-6.36] in analysis adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. This graded association was somewhat attenuated (18%) but remained robust to adjustments for the covariates measured at baseline and follow-up. The association was also evident in participants free of mental health difficulties at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Cynical hostility is a strong and robust predictor of depressive mood. Consideration of personality characteristics may be crucial to the understanding and management of depression.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Psychological Medicine
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