Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography

Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada.
Physical Review E (Impact Factor: 2.29). 05/2006; 73(4 Pt 2):046610. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046610
Source: PubMed


We demonstrate an approach for fabricating photonic crystals with large three-dimensional photonic band gaps (PBG's) using single-exposure, single-beam, optical interference lithography based on diffraction of light through an optical phase mask. The optical phase mask (OPM) consists of two orthogonally oriented binary gratings joined by a thin, solid layer of homogeneous material. Illuminating the phase mask with a normally incident beam produces a five-beam diffraction pattern which can be used to expose a suitable photoresist and produce a photonic crystal template. Optical-phase-mask Lithography (OPML) is a major simplification from the previously considered multibeam holographic lithography of photonic crystals. The diffracted five-beam intensity pattern exhibits isointensity surfaces corresponding to a diamondlike (face-centered-cubic) structure, with high intensity contrast. When the isointensity surfaces in the interference patterns define a silicon-air boundary in the resulting photonic crystal, with dielectric contrast 11.9 to 1, the optimized PBG is approximately 24% of the gap center frequency. The ideal index contrast for the OPM is in the range of 1.7-2.3. Below this range, the intensity contrast of the diffraction pattern becomes too weak. Above this range, the diffraction pattern may become too sensitive to structural imperfections of the OPM. When combined with recently demonstrated polymer-to-silicon replication methods, OPML provides a highly efficient approach, of unprecedented simplicity, for the mass production of large-scale three-dimensional photonic band-gap materials.

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    • "Interference lithography based on four non-coplanar beams can generate diamond-like with beams from all space (360°), and that means the sample should be transparent. Five-beam holographic lithography is able to give the diamond-like structure if the polarization and the phase shift relation is well controlled, and desirable over 4 beams since all beams come from the same half space [15] [16] [21] . "
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    ABSTRACT: We report a new design and fabrication of an integrated two-layer phase mask for five-beam holographic fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal templates. The fabricated phase mask consists of two layers of orthogonally oriented gratings produced in a polymer. The vertical spatial separation between two layers produces a phase difference among diffractive laser beams, which has enabled a holographic fabrication of diamond-like photonic crystal templates through single-beam and single-exposure process. The reported method simplifies the fabrication of photonic crystals and is amendable for massive production and chip-scale integration of three-dimensional photonic structures.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    • "Another implementation of laser lithography allows simultaneous recording of large 3-D samples using periodic intensity patterns resulting from multiple-beam interference , or from transmission through a phase mask [20]. The interference (or holographic) recording method allows realization of PhC structures with periodic symmetries favorable for the opening of spectrally-wide and structurally-robust PBGs, provided that sufficient index contrast is achieved by infiltration [21], [22]. Availability of these versatile 3-D PhC templating techniques was recently supplemented by the procedure for template infiltration by high refractive index materials. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes femtosecond laser lithography of 3-D photonic crystal templates in commercial photoresist SU-8 and replication of these templates with silicon. Using this approach, silicon-based photonic crystals having 3-D square spiral architecture and exhibiting photonic stop gaps near the 2.5- mum wavelength were fabricated. Possibilities to use a multiple-beam interference technique for two-photon absorption templating of photonic crystals are explored.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
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    • ", a carefully designed OPM can generate a diamondlike intensity pattern which leads to large PBG formation [11]. We demonstrate the ability of a three-layer OPM, as shown in Fig. 1, to achieve the target intensity pattern. "
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a simple and efficient approach for fabricating diamond architecture photonic crystals using single-exposure, single-beam, optical interference lithography based on diffraction of light through an optical phase mask.
    Preview · Article · May 2007
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