Article

When is sleepiness a disease? How do we measure it?

Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 07/2006; 7(4):310-1. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2006.02.002
Source: PubMed
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  • No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Sleep Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders are a major problem in today's society with a lack of sleep being associated with lost productivity and accidents. There is a need to improve the sleep disorder diagnosis process and this paper describes the work in progress for the development of a patient data gathering system and decision support system. This system is designed to support a sleep physician's diagnosis of sleep disorders. To facilitate acceptance by physicians a participatory research approach to development was taken, involving physicians and a psychologist. This approach has produced a system which integrates into a physician's work flow.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was designed to be self-completed by the patient. However, it may not be understood by all, and unrecognised problems with literacy can impair the process. The ESS has been translated into a pictorial version for use in those with normal or diminished literacy skills. An evaluation of the patients' ability to self-complete the ESS was undertaken in sleep and non-sleep respiratory clinics. Errors or problems encountered were recorded on a standard questionnaire. With the aid of a medical artist, pictorial representations of the eight ESS questions were developed and the new pictorial ESS was offered to patients alongside the traditional ESS. The two scales were compared for agreement with a kappa statistic, and patients were asked to record a preference for either the written or the pictorial scale. Evaluation of the traditional ESS showed that 33.8% (27/80) of ESS-naive patients made errors and 22.5% (18/80) needed help completing the questionnaire. The translated pictorial ESS showed good agreement with the traditional ESS on most questions; median kappa score 0.63, IQR 0.04. Fifty-five per cent reported a preference for the pictorial scale compared with the standard written ESS. Despite the fact that errors were frequently made on the traditional ESS, 96.8% of participants in the second study reported both scales to be easy to complete. More people (75.6%) reported the pictorial ESS to be very easy, in comparison with (64.6%) the worded ESS questionnaire. Errors are common when patients self-complete the traditional written ESS. Pictures with words have been shown to enhance the understanding and translation of medical information, and a pictorial translation of the ESS produces scores comparable with the traditional ESS and may be a suitable alternative for those with normal or diminished literacy.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Thorax
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