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When does size not matter? Effects of stimulus size on affective modulation

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Abstract

Motivationally relevant stimuli have been shown to receive prioritized processing compared to neutral stimuli at distinct processing stages. This effect has been related to the evolutionary importance of rapidly detecting dangers and potential rewards and has been shown to be modulated by the distance between an organism and a faced stimulus. Similarly, recent studies showed degrees of emotional modulation of autonomic responses and subjective arousal ratings depending on stimulus size. In the present study, affective modulation of pictures presented in different sizes was investigated by measuring event-related potentials during a two-choice categorization task. Results showed significant emotional modulation across all sizes at both earlier and later stages of processing. Moreover, affective modulation of earlier processes was reduced in smaller compared to larger sizes, whereas no changes in affective modulation were observed at later stages.

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... Both pleasant and unpleasant images increase the amplitude of the LPP above the level measured for neutral images 15,[17][18][19][20][21] . The LPP modulation has high temporal stability 22 , is particularly pronounced for highly arousing pictures (e.g., erotica or mutilations) 21,23 , and is resistant to manipulations affecting perceptual composition [24][25][26] , exposure time 27 , and stimulus repetition 28,29 . These results indicate that the LPP amplitude mainly reflects the extent to which a visual stimulus engages the motivational brain circuits [30][31][32] . ...
... In the present study, pleasant and unpleasant stimuli elicited similar LPP responses in women and men. Given the characteristics of the LPP (i.e., its high temporal stability 22 , it resistance to manipulations affecting perceptual composition 24,25 , exposure time 27 , and stimulus repetition 28,29 ), this result suggests no gender differences in attentional and motivational processing of emotional visual stimuli. Our findings are in line with two fMRI meta-analyses indicating that men and women have very similar patterns of activation in the presence of both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli: The only trends highlighted by these meta-analyses were a somewhat larger response of women (compared to men) to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in inferior temporal (IT) cortex, and, only for unpleasant stimuli, in the amygdala 56,57 . ...
... cigarette-related, erotic, romantic, food, neutral, accidents, sad people, and mutilations. These stimuli were selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) 72 , from collections of smoking related images 73,74 , and from other collections used in previous studies [24][25][26]39 . During the slideshow, the stimuli appeared in pseudo-random order, with no more than two consecutive pictures from the same category. ...
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When trying to quit, women are less likely than men to achieve long-term smoking abstinence. Identifying the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying women’s higher relapse vulnerability will help clinicians to develop effective tailored smoking cessation interventions. Here we used event-related potentials (ERPs), a direct measure of brain activity, to evaluate the extent to which neurophysiological responses to cigarette-related and other emotional stimuli differ between female and male smokers. Both women and men showed similar patterns of brain reactivity across all picture categories; pleasant and unpleasant images prompted larger Late Positive Potentials (LPPs, a robust measure of motivational relevance) than neutral images in both groups, and cigarette-related images prompted lower LPPs than high arousing emotional images in both groups. Unlike previous studies, there were no differences between male and female smokers with regard to LPP responses to cigarette-related images. This suggests that the LPP may not be ideally suited to discriminate neurophysiological gender differences or that there are simply no gender differences in the neurophysiological responses to cigarette-related stimuli. We collected ERPs from 222 non-nicotine-deprived smokers (101 women) while they watched a slideshow that included high and low emotionally arousing pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related, and neutral pictures. We used the mean amplitude of the LPP to assess the affective significance that participants attributed to these pictures.
... Future work is needed to directly evaluate whether early emotion effects reported in the literature might be contingent upon specific experimental conditions (e.g., lexical vs. semantic vs evaluative tasks). Also, emotion did not interact with either font size or contrast, at variance with similar studies using pictorial stimuli 33,35,36 , indirectly suggesting that biologically relevant pictures may be more salient than words during early stages of stimulus identification and discrimination. ...
... Emotional words typically elicit larger EPN compared to neutral words, indicating preferential lexical access due to early attentional selection 26,47,49 . In addition, recent work showed that font size may affect electrophysiological responses to emotional material, as evidenced by more negative EPN amplitude for large pictures and words 36,50 . Our results contribute to this debate in several ways. ...
... We found larger EPN for emotional vs. neutral words also when font size was small and contrast was high. However, in contrast to previous studies using pictures or words 36,50 , no increased EPN amplitude for negative words was observed in response to large, high contrast stimuli. Thus, processing emotional valence while manipulating more than one low-level visual feature gives rise to more complex modulatory effects than previously reported (when only one single low-level feature was changed across conditions). ...
Article
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Processing affectively charged visual stimuli typically results in increased amplitude of specific event-related potential (ERP) components. Low-level features similarly modulate electrophysiological responses, with amplitude changes proportional to variations in stimulus size and contrast. However, it remains unclear whether emotion-related amplifications during visual word processing are necessarily intertwined with changes in specific low-level features or, instead, may act independently. In this pre-registered electrophysiological study, we varied font size and contrast of neutral and negative words while participants were monitoring their semantic content. We examined ERP responses associated with early sensory and attentional processes as well as later stages of stimulus processing. Results showed amplitude modulations by low-level visual features early on following stimulus onset - i.e., P1 and N1 components -, while the LPP was independently modulated by these visual features. Independent effects of size and emotion were observed only at the level of the EPN. Here, larger EPN amplitudes for negative were observed only for small high contrast and large low contrast words. These results suggest that early increase in sensory processing at the EPN level for negative words is not automatic, but bound to specific combinations of low-level features, occurring presumably via attentional control processes.
... The BR paradigm allows also for the study of behavioral biases often observed in the processing of emotion. When analyzing NR vision, it has been shown that endogenous attention can be modulated by the valence and arousal of the stimuli, as manifested in differences in reaction times and error rates between negative and positive stimuli (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Hajcak, Moser, & Simons, 2006). In the case of continuous BR, this emotional modulation has been observed as a cumulative bias (the emotional stimulus is dominant for longer periods of time in conscious perception throughout reversals) and sometimes as initial percept bias (the emotional stimulus tends to be the first percept) (Alpers, Ruhleder, Walz, Mü hlberger, & Pauli, 2005;Alpers & Gerdes, 2007;Bannerman, Milders, De Gelder, & Sahraie, 2008;Yoon, Hong, Joormann, & Kang, 2009). ...
... In the case of NR stimulation, it has been shown that endogenous attention to visual stimuli is modulated by their valence. Indeed, several previous studies have reported faster RTs and/or lower ERs for positive compared to negative and/or neutral stimuli when the emotional content of the stimuli was not task-relevant (e.g., De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Hajcak et al., 2006), as in our study. Moreover, the worsened performance in the NR condition (slower RTs and higher ERs) observed with the negative pictures confirms previous data of NR endogenous attention tasks when the emotion was task-irrelevant. ...
... In general terms, our behavioral findings are consistent with the literature that describe an advantage for positive stimuli in a low arousing context, and differ with those found in previous studies of BR with emotional stimuli that report that negative stimuli are favored over other emotional conditions, or that positive and negative stimuli cause similar bias. In this case, results in the NR and BR blocks may manifest the same bias towards positive stimuli that has already been described with task-irrelevant emotional stimuli under NR stimulation (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Hajcak et al., 2006). ...
Article
Studies of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) combining MEG/EEG with behavioral data have described two main time ranges relating to conscious perception: 130-320 (the visual awareness negativity; VAN) and 300-500 (P3a) ms after stimulus onset. At the same time, two event-related potential (ERP) peaks have shown an emotional modulation of endogenous attention: the early posterior negativity (EPN; peaking around 250 msec) and the late positive potential (LPP, peaking around 600 msec). Furthermore, an emotional bias on conscious perception has been reported in Binocular Rivalry (BR) studies. Here, we combined an intermittent BR paradigm with neutral and emotional stimuli while recording the behavioral subjective perception and ERPs with two aims: i) to explore the NCCs of emotional content in the time ranges previously described, and ii) to study the emotional bias in conscious perception as first percept when neutral and emotional images rival against each other. First, results revealed a specific ERP emotional modulation (emotional content awareness modulation; ECAM) at the VAN time range. This was the first time window sensitive to the emotional information and showing the strongest modulation in conscious emotional content. Second, results revealed an emotional bias in conscious perception towards the positive valence. This work shows how conscious perception pertaining to emotional content relates to perceptual areas at the VAN latency, which supports the claim of the 130-320 msec time window as the earliest NCC and extends the claim to apply to more than visual perceptual features. Additionally, our findings show that positive and negative content modulates the conscious perception differently.
... Thus, in the case of scene perception, re-entrant modulation of visual cortical structures reflects the emotional intensity of scenes, whether pleasant or unpleasant (Lang & Bradley, 2013;Sabatinelli et al., 2017). However, in some studies, the arousalsensitive early posterior negativity ERP component (EPN) has been shown to be more strongly modulated by pleasant relative to unpleasant scenes (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Flaisch, Stockburger, & Schupp, 2008;Schupp et al., 2007), while both arousing contents prompted more modulation than neutral scenes. This may be a result of a greater proportion of highly arousing pleasant, relative to unpleasant scenes, as these studies used paradigms including many hundreds of stimuli, which made self-reported ratings of emotional impact impractical. ...
... While pleasant and unpleasant scenes were associated with enhanced voltage negativity relative to neutral scenes, pleasant scenes were associated with greater negativity relative to unpleasant scenes. A pleasure bias in the EPN has been reported but not explicitly discussed in at least six previous studies, all of which included erotica among pleasant scene stimuli (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Flaisch et al., 2008;Schupp et al., 2004;Weinberg & Hajcak, 2010) or used erotica exclusively (Schupp et al., , 2007. However, perhaps due to the large number of scene presentations often employed in these paradigms (hundreds to thousands), self-reported ratings of emotional intensity of scene stimuli were not always reported. ...
Article
Emotional scene perception is characterized by enhanced neural activity across broad regions of visual cortex, the frontoparietal network, and anterior corticolimbic structures. In human fMRI and electrocortical experiments, activation enhancement is strongly related to self‐reported emotional arousal evoked by scene stimuli. However, an additional bias in reaction to pleasant scenes has been reported in a subset of emotion‐enhanced brain regions. Human fMRI and primate electrophysiological studies show biased frontoparietal network activity in response to rewarding cues. In addition, activation in lateral occipital regions may show a bias in pleasant scene perception, as shown in fMRI and in the early posterior negativity (EPN) ERP component. To define this potential pleasure bias, we presented a balanced set of naturalistic scenes to participants during separate fMRI and ERP recording sessions. Consistent with past work, the amplitude of the slow‐wave late positive potential (LPP), as well as hemodynamic activity in fusiform gyrus and amygdala, showed equivalent enhancement across highly arousing pleasant and unpleasant, relative to neutral scenes. In addition to this emotional enhancement, the EPN component, as well as hemodynamic activity in lateral occipital cortex and frontoparietal network, showed greater reactivity during highly arousing pleasant relative to unpleasant scenes, consistent with a pleasure bias. The interpretation of this pattern of reactivity is discussed with respect to selective and evolved attention mechanisms.
... Furthermore, the amplitude of the visual gamma-band response is diminished for small and peripheral stimuli 35 . In particular, although significant emotional modulation of event-related potentials is observed across stimulus sizes at both earlier and later stages of processing, the modulation of earlier processes is reduced in smaller compared to larger stimulus sizes 36 . Consistent with this result, when viewers respond to video images from television and film that display different emotions, the largest stimulus produces greater heart rate deceleration as well as greater skin conductance than the medium and small stimuli, suggesting a more pronounced emotional response for larger stimuli 37 . ...
... Consistent with the lower threshold to report fear with larger faces in the present study, it has been shown that perspective distortion from interpersonal distance is an implicit visual cue for social judgments of faces: photographs of faces taken from within personal space elicit lower investments in economic trust game and lower ratings of social traits (such as trustworthiness, competence, and attractiveness), compared to photographs taken from a greater distance 38 . On the other hand, the lower threshold to report fear with larger faces might indicate that for a given level of fear-happy morph, subjects perceived more fearful emotion with large faces, consistent with larger emotional responses elicited by larger (thus indicated nearer) stimuli 36 . Relatedly, snake-phobic people show a linear increase of autonomic responses and self-reported fear as a function of distance to snakes 39 . ...
Article
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Faces are the most commonly used stimuli to study emotions. Researchers often manipulate the emotion contents and facial features to study emotion judgment, but rarely manipulate low-level stimulus features such as face sizes. Here, I investigated whether a mere difference in face size would cause differences in emotion judgment. Subjects discriminated emotions in fear-happy morphed faces. When subjects viewed larger faces, they had an increased judgment of fear and showed a higher specificity in emotion judgment, compared to when they viewed smaller faces. Concurrent high-resolution eye tracking further provided mechanistic insights: subjects had more fixations onto the eyes when they viewed larger faces whereas they had a wider dispersion of fixations when they viewed smaller faces. The difference in eye movement was present across fixations in serial order but independent of morph level, ambiguity level, or behavioral judgment. Together, this study not only suggested a link between emotion judgment and eye movement, but also showed importance of equalizing stimulus sizes when comparing emotion judgments.
... Thus, in young children, it is topologically more extensive and has a much earlier onset (i.e., shorter latency) compared with older children and adults 29 . Nevertheless, the amplitude of this component appears to interact with the size and composition of stimuli 25,30 . Studies of LPP have reported that emotional processing during childhood generates greater activation in the posterior region of the brain, and this activity extends to central and anterior regions during the maturation process 31,32 . ...
Article
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Bullying is a subtype of violence that leads to maladaptive behaviors and emotional responses, with implications for social competence, emotions, and empathy. The present study compared the time course of emotional processing in children who were involved in the dynamics of bullying (i.e., as victims, bullies, and observers) by evaluating event-related potentials [early posterior negativity and late positive potential (LPP)] in different brain regions during a passive visualization task that involved positive, neutral, and negative social pictures. High-density electroencephalograms were recorded in 45 children, 8–12 years old ( M = 9.5 years, SD = 1.3), while they observed emotional and neutral social pictures that we selected from the International Affective Picture System. Late positive potential had higher amplitudes in the victim group, especially in posterior and anterior regions. In the central region, LPP was greater toward neutral social pictures in bullying victims. The greater amplitude of LPP in victims was observed during and after the stimulus. The results showed a consistent response with a higher intensity in response to emotional stimuli in the victim group, suggesting a tendency toward hypervigilance that could interfere with emotional regulation.
... However, it is rather unlikely that this could have significantly influenced the VS activity. As suggested in the literature, reducing the size of emotional pictures does not affect the magnitude of the late positive potential (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006), an electrophysiological index of emotional perception in humans (Liu, Huang, McGinnis-Deweese, Keil, & Ding, 2012), which in turn is correlated with fMRIbased activation measures in motivational regions, such as the ventral striatum (Ihssen, Sokunbi, Lawrence, Lawrence, & Linden, 2017;Sabatinelli, Keil, Frank, & Lang, 2013). Therefore, this is probably not a subtle change in terms of size perception that could have had significantly attenuated the VS activity in 1PP trial. ...
Article
Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating. Last, it remains to be investigated if visual perspective could be used to promote healthy foods. The present work manipulated camera angles and tested whether visual perspective modulates activity in brain regions associated with taste and reward processing while participants watch videos featuring a hand grasping (unhealthy or healthy) foods from a plate during functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI). The plate was filmed from the perspective of the participant (first-person perspective; 1PP), or from a frontal view as if watching someone else eating (third-person perspective; 3PP). Our findings reveal that merely viewing unhealthy food cues from a 1PP (vs. 3PP) increases activity in brain regions that underlie representations of rewarding (appetitive) experiences (amygdala) and food intake (superior parietal gyrus). Additionally, our results show that ventral striatal activity is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during exposure to unhealthy foods from a 1PP (vs. 3PP). These findings suggest that unhealthy foods should be promoted through third-person (video) images to weaken the reward associated with their simulated consumption, especially amongst overweight people. It appears however that, as such, manipulating visual perspective fails to enhance the perception of healthy foods. Their promotion thus requires complementary solutions.
... Since preferential emotion processing as indexed by the EPN and LPP is subject to considerable interference by active task requirements and physical stimulus manipulations (Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006;Schupp et al., 2007aSchupp et al., , 2007bSchupp et al., , 2008Schupp et al., , 2014), a precise assessment necessitates identifying both components undeterred by these factors. Specifically, since we were interested in the incidental processing of task-irrelevant background pictures, we strived to characterize the ensuing ERP signature independent from additional processes entailed by the Stroop task. ...
Article
Emotional pictures are inherently prioritized during stimulus perception. While this preferential emotion processing promotes self-preservation and survival, it can be detrimental when it conflicts with current goals and intentions. Recent brain imaging research suggests that the brain resolves such conflicts by suppressing the processing of emotional distractors at the perceptual level. Beyond brain imaging, event-related scalp potential studies in humans have traced preferential emotion processing at distinct temporal stages. Comparing emotional to neutral pictures, an early stage is indexed by the early posterior negativity (EPN) component featuring a relative negativity over posterior sites, while a later stage is associated with the late positive potential (LPP), manifesting as relative positivity over centro-parietal sensors. However, little is known whether emotional response conflict is resolved at each of those processing stages, or whether conflict resolution operates selectively at early or late stages, respectively. The present study assessed EPN and LPP to emotional distractors in an emotional Stroop task as a function of response conflict in the previous trial. Conflict-related processing during the Stroop task was confirmed by a behavioral conflict adaptation effect and modulation of the congruency-sensitive N450 component. Preferential processing of emotional distractors was observed for the EPN as well as the LPP. While the EPN was completely unaffected by conflict in the previous trial, the LPP was selectively reduced subsequent to trials featuring high response conflict. This observation provides support for a conflict-based control of emotion processing and demonstrates that cognitive control acts selectively at specific stages of emotion perception.
... Both pleasant and unpleasant contents increase the amplitude of the LPP over central and parietal sites as a function of their emotional arousal (e.g., LPP to erotica and mutilations > LPP to romantic and sad > LPP to neutral images; Minnix et al., 2013;Schupp et al., 2004;Weinberg & Hajcak, 2010). The affective modulation of the LPP is present for both unconditioned and conditioned stimuli (Bacigalupo & Luck, 2018), it has high temporal stability (Codispoti, Ferrari, & Bradley, 2007), and it is resistant to manipulations affecting stimuli's perceptual composition (Bradley, Hamby, Löw, & Lang, 2007;De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006), exposure time (Codispoti, Mazzetti, & Bradley, 2009), and repetition (Deweese, Codispoti, Robinson, Cinciripini, & Versace, 2018;Ferrari, Codispoti, & Bradley, 2017). These characteristics make the LPP a good measure to estimate the level of incentive salience that individuals attribute to cues predicting food rewards. ...
Article
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While some individuals can defy the lure of temptation, many others find appetizing food irresistible. The goal of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms that increase individuals’ vulnerability to cue‐induced eating. Using ERPs, a direct measure of brain activity, we showed that individuals with larger late positive potentials in response to food‐related cues than to erotic images are more susceptible to cue‐induced eating and, in the presence of a palatable food option, eat more than twice as much as individuals with the opposite brain reactivity profile. By highlighting the presence of individual brain reactivity profiles associated with susceptibility to cue‐induced eating, these findings contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of vulnerability to obesity. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the biological bases underlying individual differences in vulnerability to cue‐induced eating, and they represent a step toward identifying new targets for personalized weight control interventions.
... A large body of studies has found that the LPP magnitude is reliably enhanced for emotional visual stimuli compared with neutral stimuli (Keil et al., 2002;Hajcak & Olvet, 2008;Schupp et al., 2004). Desirably, it seems that the LPP is not sensitive to low-level perceptual features, such as image size (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006) and picture complexity (Bradley et al., 2007) or repetitive habituation , making it a robust neural index of emotional processing (Hajcak et al., 2010). ...
Article
Sleep deprivation is suggested to impact emotion regulation, but few studies have directly examined it. This study investigated the influence of sleep deprivation on three commonly used emotion regulation strategies (distraction, reappraisal, suppression) in Gross’s (1998) process model of emotion regulation. Young healthy adults were randomly assigned to a sleep deprivation group (SD; n = 26, 13 males, age = 20.0 ± 1.7) or a sleep control group (SC; n = 25, 13 males, age = 20.2 ± 1.7). Following 24-h sleep deprivation or normal nighttime sleep, participants completed an emotion regulation task, in which they naturally viewed or applied a given emotion regulation strategy towards negative pictures, with electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A reduction in the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes towards negative pictures from the naturally viewing condition to a regulated condition was calculated as an index of regulatory effects. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that sleep deprivation significantly impaired the regulatory effects of distraction and reappraisal on LPP amplitudes. Suppression did not reduce LPP amplitudes in either group. In addition, habitual sleep quality moderated the effect of sleep deprivation on subjective perception of emotional stimuli, such that sleep deprivation only made good sleepers perceive negative pictures as more unpleasant and more arousing, but it had no significant effect on poor sleepers’ perception of negative pictures. Altogether, this study provides the first evidence that sleep deprivation may impair the effectiveness of applying adaptive emotion regulation strategies (distraction and reappraisal), creating potentially undesirable consequences to emotional well-being.
... to pictures (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006). Each trial consisted of 4 s of preparation for the appearance of the next picture, 6 s of picture viewing, and 20 s of picture evaluation, during which adolescents had to rate how they felt while watching the picture using all SAM scales. ...
Article
This study examined whether poor health habits – those associated with a higher risk of developing eating disorders or obesity – modified adolescents’ emotions toward sweet food cues. We aimed to answer the following questions: Is adolescent obesity accompanied by excessive enjoyment of sweets? Or is any risk habit, regardless its stronger association with obesity or disordered eating, associated with less food enjoyment? 552 Spanish adolescents (279 females) viewed pictures of sweets interspersed with emotional images as controls. Participants recorded their feelings of pleasure, activation, control, and food craving while looking at each picture; then answered questions on their general health, food intake, and physical activity; finally, their body mass index was estimated. We performed MANCOVAs on feelings during sweets, including individual risk habits as factors, and sex, age, and hunger as covariates. We performed the same analysis on emotional and neutral images. Results revealed that among risk habits, obesity and unhealthy dieting practices were accompanied by less enjoyment of sweets (mostly less pleasure and less food craving). On the contrary, risk habits had no effect on adolescents’ feelings during emotional stimuli, unrelated to food. Thus, the presence of habits linked to obesity and disordered eating was associated with reduced reward value of sweet food cues, supporting the need to approach both disorders from an integrative perspective. Consistent with recent prevention strategies, the results suggest the potential role of food enjoyment as a protective factor.
... Second, this study did not find a clear EPN response. The literature suggests that this component is not always present in young children, is highly dependent on stimulus selection, and is affected by the use of a 64-channel montage (Bradley, Hamby, Low, & Lang, 2007;De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;. Expanding the ages of children studied and/or applying a different channel configuration may shed light on whether the EPN is relevant for reward-based work that does not utilize face stimuli. ...
Article
Affective images engage motivational systems that shape emotional experience and cognitive processes. However, relatively little work has examined motivated attention toward distinct categories of approach motivation, particularly social motivation, in children. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected while children (n = 43; 22 females; Mage = 8.49 years) completed a picture-viewing task using a novel stimulus set of child relevant images representing social and non-social categories of reward-related images. Results showed that the frontal N400 (fN400) was more prominent for intrapersonal images that showed individuals playing alone or achieving rewards (e.g. medals). For the LPP, males showed the greatest reactivity to non-social object-based reward images. In contrast, females showed a larger LPP response for interpersonal images that showed scenes of social interaction between individuals. Overall, LPP reactivity to intrapersonal images was correlated with greater behavior regulation problems. Collectively, these results highlight unique patterns of neural prioritization to distinct categories of social and non-social reward-related stimuli that may serve as important markers in tracking connections between approach motivation and the development of self-regulation in children.
... Although we did not find evidence of a correlation between EPN amplitude and self-reported valence ratings of cigarette-related cues, these results were also not surprising. The EPN is largely associated with amplitude modulation of primarily pleasant stimuli (De Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006;Schupp et al., 2004a;Keil et al., 2002). Because smokers' valence ratings of cigarette-related cues did not differ from neutral, and never-smokers rated cigarette-related cues as more un- pleasant than neutral, we would not anticipate a correlation among these measures. ...
Article
Background: While the notion that smokers reliably show higher reactivity to cigarette-related versus neutral cues is both theoretically and empirically supported, it is unclear why never-smokers also show enhanced brain responses to cigarette-related cues. Methods: Using a repetitive picture viewing paradigm, in which responses evoked by affective cues are more resistant to habituation, we assessed the effects of stimulus repetition on event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by pleasant, unpleasant, cigarette-related, and neutral images in 34 smokers (SMO) and 34 never-smokers (NEV). We examined the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP), two ERP components which are sensitive to a picture's motivational qualities. Results: Before stimulus repetition, pleasant, unpleasant, and cigarette-related cues produced greater EPN and LPP amplitudes than neutral cues in all subjects. During stimulus repetition, both components were similarly modulated by emotional arousal, such that pleasant, unpleasant, and cigarette-related cues evoked greater EPN and LPP amplitude, relative to neutral. Smoking status did not modulate these effects. While there were no group differences in self-reported stimulus ratings of valence for pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral stimuli, NEV rated cigarette-related cues as unpleasant. We observed a moderate, negative correlation between LPP amplitude and self-reported valence ratings of cigarette-related cues among NEV. Conclusions: These data suggest that cigarette-related cues capture attentional resources of both SMO and NEV, but for different reasons. For SMO, cigarette-related cues have acquired motivational significance through repeated associations with nicotine delivery, whereas for NEV, cigarette-related cues are perceived as unpleasant.
... P3a amplitude becomes larger over frontal central sites for unpleasant and pleasant stimuli compared to neutral stimuli, while P3b seems to be sensitive to both valence and arousal variations (Delplanque, Silvert, Hot & Sequeira, 2005). So far, ERP results did not report valence dependent effects on these components (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006, Cuthbert, Schupp, Bradley, Birbaumer, & Lang, 2000. In general, ERP valence effects are not consistent and are without a strong conclusion about the nature of the effects of emotional valence ERPs (Olofsson et al., 2008). ...
Article
Differences in electrophysiological response between pleasant and unpleasant emotional stimuli were examined in this study. Recording of event related potentials (ERP) was organized in such a way that the participants, 24 female students from the University of Zagreb, were first exposed to a priming stimulus (emotional pictures) followed by a target stimulus (emotional pictures). Adjusted pictures from the IAPS database (The International Affective Picture System) were used both for primes and target stimuli. Intensity and dominance of the pictures were controlled by using only pictures with medium values, while emotional valence was manipulated through three categories of pictures, unpleasant, neutral and pleasant. In order to detect differences in processing different emotional valence stimuli, measurement of the ERP signal was carried out with 180 emotional pictures (60 of each emotional valence) combined with three sets of priming stimuli, which made a total of 540 pairs of presented stimuli. The signal was recorded over frontal electrodes, and the results were analysed in the time window of 300-400 ms. The goal of the study was to test hemispheric asymmetry in processing emotional versus neutral stimuli by controlling gaze to emotional content of the picture, intensity and dominance of the emotional pictures as well by enhancing possible differences in processing emotional stimuli by introducing preceding priming emotional stimuli. The priming effect was not found to be a significant contributor to the processing of emotional target stimuli. A difference was found on the left hemisphere between processing pleasant and unpleasant target stimuli, as well as a differen- ce between processing unpleasant and neutral target stimuli. Regardless of priming, a difference was found on the left and the right hemisphere between processing pleasant and unpleasant target stimuli, whereas a difference between processing unpleasant and neutral stimuli was found on the left hemisphere as well as difference between processing pleasant and neutral target stimuli on the right hemisphere.
... The effects of dissociation and distancing were reported by Ayduk and Kross (2010; see also Kross & Ayduk, 2011). Codispoti and De Cesarei, 2007;De Cesarei & Codispoti (2006, 2010 have reported on the subjective modification of the size and perceived distance of remembered images. ...
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Design: A randomized waitlist-controlled design (n = 74) examined the efficacy of Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories (RTM) among male veterans with current-month flashbacks and nightmares. Volunteers were randomly assigned to immediate treatment (three 120-minute sessions of RTM), or to a 3-week waiting condition before receiving the RTM treatment. Blinded psychometricians evaluated the symptoms at intake, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks post. Wait-listed participants were re-evaluated and then treated. Sixty-five volunteers completed the treatment. Results: Of those treated, 46 (71%) lost DSM diagnosis for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by one of the following definitions: 42 persons (65%) were in complete remission (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I) ≤ 20 and DSM criteria not met). Four others (6%) lost the DSM diagnosis or were otherwise sub-clinical by dichotomous criteria (PSS-I < 20 and absence of flashbacks and nightmares) but non-ambiguous on the PTSD Checklist Military Version measures. Within-group RTM effect sizes (Hedges’ g) for PSS-I score changes ranged from 1.5 to 2.2. The between-group comparison between the treatment group and the untreated controls was significant (p < .001) with an effect size equivalent to two standard deviations (g = −2.121; 95% CI [−4.693–0.453]). Patient satisfaction with the intervention was high. Conclusions: RTM shows promise as a brief, cost-effective intervention for PTSD characterized primarily by intrusive symptoms. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The article provides evidence to support a fast (5 hours or fewer) robust intervention for PTSD characterized by intrusive symptoms including current-month flashbacks, nightmares, and accompanied by sympathetic arousal in response to trauma narratives. The intervention is well tolerated and has demonstrated efficacy up to one year.
... Previous research about the effect of image size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement (De Cesarei and Codispoti, 2010) the study was conducted by collecting total of 100 pictures from various sources other than the IAPS representing contents which different or varied from highly arousing pleasant to neutral and highly arousing unpleasant. In addition, a previous research was conducted by using five categories of different types of pictures such as erotic couples, romantic couples, neutral people, threat, and mutilated bodies (Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006). Additionally, there are ten additional neutral images or pictures selected for trial or practice block. ...
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Affective pictures are being used in different neuropsychology and neurophysiology studies for the assessment of cognitive function including attention and emotion. This research aims to determine the arousal domain of normative affective pictures from International Affective Picture System (IAPS) with Malaysian population using Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) then to develop and customize an additional set of affective picture database with Malaysian population using SAM. There were 72 completed data from Malaysian participants were selected to rate a total of 166 pictures in the arousal (low to high) domain of affective dimension using SAM. Rating of the arousal domain of normative affective pictures from IAPS with Malaysian population revealed Malaysian population showed higher score significantly (p<0.001), 4.67± 0.62 than North American (NA) population, 2.78 ± 0.41 with significant correlation (r = 0.254, p = 0.021) between two sample means. The rating of arousal (low to high) domain of affective picture database with Malaysian population showed the overall mean differences among all low arousal pictures, 4.67± 0.62 and all high arousal pictures, 5.06 ± 0.54 with highly significant (p<0.001). The study of affective picture rating revealed the rating of arousal value through SAM with the Malaysian population is probable and reliable, but the higher arousal value of affective pictures in Malaysian population compare to NA population which could be from large sample size in NA or could be from cross cultural variations suggesting special attention needed in using this IAPS affective pictures for research in Malaysian population.
... First, results found for the neutral mood state indicate that participants processed negative distractors more deeply than neutral ones; this is similar to the scarce previous evidence reported when employing a similar task but without modulating the affective state (i.e., when the mood state was assumed to be neutral as well; 7). Importantly, although endogenous attention to the distractor cannot be discarded at LPP latencies 5,75 , the cited and the present results differ from those obtained when emotional stimuli were presented as endogenously attended targets (e.g., refs [35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] or as task-irrelevant stimuli at fixation 26, 30-34 , where an advantage of both negative and positive stimuli, compared to neutral ones, was generally prominent. Moreover, this neural LPP result is consistent with the behavioral result, which points to exactly the same bias. ...
Article
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The interplay between exogenous attention to emotional distractors and the baseline affective state has not been well established yet. The present study aimed to explore this issue through behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants (N = 30) completed a digit categorization task depicted over negative, positive or neutral distractor background pictures, while they experienced negative, positive and neutral affective states elicited by movie scenes. Behavioral results showed higher error rates and longer reaction times for negative distractors than for neutral and positive ones, irrespective of the current emotional state. Neural indices showed that the participants’ affective state modulated N1 amplitudes, irrespective of distractor type, while the emotional charge of distractors modulated N2, irrespective of the emotional state. Importantly, an interaction of state and distractor type was observed in LPP. These results demonstrate that exogenous attention to emotional distractors is independent from modulating effects of the emotional baseline state at early, automatic stages of processing. However, attention to emotional distractors and affective state interact at later latencies.
... And such fact necessitates the premeditation of controlling and maybe evaluating stimulus physical properties and environmental variables. In addition, a certain number of researches probed into whether the physical properties of stimulus would affect the effects of emotional dimensions on ERP components, and found featural size, color, spatial frequency, and complexity as confounding factors in explaining the emotional effects on ERPs [82][83][84][85]. Thus, ERP studies of emotion processing have to strictly control the physical variables or to assess the overall complexity towards subjects as Carretié et al. performed in their study [86]. ...
Article
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Emotions important for survival and social interaction have received wide and deep investigations. The application of the fMRI technique into emotion processing has obtained overwhelming achievements with respect to the localization of emotion processes. The ERP method, which possesses highly temporal resolution compared to fMRI, can be employed to investigate the time course of emotion processing. The emotional modulation of the ERP component has been verified across numerous researches. Emotions, described as dynamically developing along with the growing age, have the possibility to be enhanced through learning (or training) or to be damaged due to disturbances in growth, which is underlain by the neural plasticity of emotion-relevant nervous systems. And mood disorders with typical symptoms of emotion discordance probably have been caused by the dysfunctional neural plasticity.
... Therefore, competition for attentional resources as suggested by the biased competition model (Desimone & Duncan, 1995) in line with the presentation of a mask might have prevented the deployment of an LPP in our study. On the other hand, the present LPP findings with regard to color versus grayscale images are consistent with previous research indicating that the LPP, unlike early ERP components (Bradley et al., 2007), is not susceptible to bottom-up perceptual features such as color , picture size (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006), complexity (Bradley et al., 2007), or spatial frequencies . ...
Article
Is color a critical feature in emotional content extraction and involuntary attentional orienting toward affective stimuli? Here we used briefly presented emotional distractors to investigate the extent to which color information can influence the time course of attentional bias in early visual cortex. While participants performed a demanding visual foreground task, complex unpleasant and neutral background images were displayed in color or grayscale format for a short period of 133 ms and were immediately masked. Such a short presentation poses a challenge for visual processing. In the visual detection task, participants attended to flickering squares that elicited the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), allowing us to analyze the temporal dynamics of the competition for processing resources in early visual cortex. Concurrently we measured the visual event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by the unpleasant and neutral background scenes. The results showed (a) that the distraction effect was greater with color than with grayscale images and (b) that it lasted longer with colored unpleasant distractor images. Furthermore, classical and mass-univariate ERP analyses indicated that, when presented in color, emotional scenes elicited more pronounced early negativities (N1–EPN) relative to neutral scenes, than when the scenes were presented in grayscale. Consistent with neural data, unpleasant scenes were rated as being more emotionally negative and received slightly higher arousal values when they were shown in color than when they were presented in grayscale. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the modulatory role of picture color on a cascade of coordinated perceptual processes: by facilitating the higher-level extraction of emotional content, color influences the duration of the attentional bias to briefly presented affective scenes in lower-tier visual areas.
... Previous research has shown that a short exposure time of 250 ms is sufficient to categorize the valence of IAPS images [46]. Furthermore, participants are able to categorize whether an image contains a human or an animal when images are presented in very small format (similar to the size used in the present study) for 100 ms [47]. Based on these findings, it is assumed that presenting two small images on a computer screen for 2000 ms is sufficient for participants to process the valence of the images (but not long enough to take in all the details of the image). ...
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This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images displayed social scenes that involved death, violence or harm (e.g., war scene), or decontextualized, close-ups of physical harm (e.g., mutilated face) or natural threat (e.g., attacking shark). The results demonstrated that social negative images were chosen significantly more often than other negative categories. Furthermore, participants preferred social negative images over neutral images. Physical harm images and natural threat images were not preferred over neutral images, but were chosen in about thirty-five percent of the trials. These results were replicated across three different studies, including a study that presented verbal descriptions of images as pre-choice cues. Together, these results show that people deliberately subject themselves to negative images. With this, the present paper demonstrates a dynamic relationship between negative information and behavior and advances new insights into the phenomenon of morbid curiosity.
... The inconsistent findings across studies hint at contextual moderators. For instance, stimulus size and picture repetitions have been found to modulate the influence of affective content on early ERP magnitudes (Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Codispoti, Ferrari, Bradley, 2007). The current study held stimulus features constant across experimental conditions (i.e., all participants viewed the same images) to test again the emotion modulation of early ERPs and the effects of another possible contextual moderator—expenditure of mental effort—on ERP indices of attention. ...
Article
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The current study examined the aftereffects of mental effort on the processing of picture stimuli using neural measures. Ninety-seven healthy young adults were randomly assigned to exercise more versus less mental effort on a writing task. Then participants viewed positive, negative, and neutral affective images while P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential (LPP) magnitudes to the images were assessed. We found that performing the more (versus less) effortful writing task caused more negative N2 amplitudes to all images. In addition, and consistent with past research, emotional (versus neutral) images elicited more positive amplitudes on the N2, P3, and LPP components. Thus, prior mental effort appeared to reduce early attentional engagement with visual stimuli but did not diminish later attention modulation by emotional content. These findings suggest novel implications for understanding the behavioral aftereffects of mental effort and self-control.
... Interactions of different forms of stimulus relevance, like emotional and personal relevance in the present study, are in agreement with the assumption that the amygdala might act as a generalized detection mechanism for stimulus relevance. Consistently, previous studies reported interactions between emotional content and bottom-up attention (stimulus size) at the stage of the EPN for both pictures and written words (De Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006;Bayer et al., 2012b). ...
Article
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Emotional stimuli attract attention and lead to increased activity in the visual cortex. The present study investigated the impact of personal relevance on emotion processing by presenting emotional words within sentences that referred to participants' significant others or to unknown agents. In event-related potentials, personal relevance increased visual cortex activity within 100 ms after stimulus onset and the amplitudes of the Late Positive Complex (LPC). Moreover, personally relevant contexts gave rise to augmented pupillary responses and higher arousal ratings, suggesting a general boost of attention and arousal. Finally, personal relevance increased emotion-related ERP effects starting around 200 ms after word onset, effects for negative words compared to neutral words were prolonged in duration. Source localizations of these interactions revealed activations in prefrontal regions, in the visual cortex and in the fusiform gyrus. Taken together, these results demonstrate the high impact of personal relevance on reading in general and on emotion processing in particular.
... The EPN is larger for emotional compared to neutral stimuli and appears to covary with stimulus arousal level. Some evidence suggests that the EPN is especially sensitive to positive stimuli (De Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006;Flaisch et al., 2008;Frank and Sabatinelli, 2019), and potentially to discrimination of certain features often depicted in positive stimulus sets (e.g., unclothed body parts; Farkas et al., 2020). Fig. 2 depicts grandaveraged waveforms and scalp distributions of the voltage difference for the EPN elicited by positive compared to neutral pictures. ...
Article
Event-related potentials (ERPs) bring many strengths to the study of emotion regulation, including: direct measurement of neural activity, high temporal resolution, affordability and suitability to a wide range of participants. Research using ERPs to study emotion regulation began approximately two decades ago, but has grown exponentially over the last 10 years. Here, we highlight progress in this body of work throughout the past decade, as well as emerging themes, novel approaches and paradigms that will likely shape the field in the coming years. While standardized picture sets are still the most commonly used stimuli in these studies, new types of stimuli (e.g., mental imagery, autobiographical memories) have become increasingly common throughout the past decade, with the potential for improved ecological validity. Cognitive reappraisal is still seen by many as the gold standard of emotion regulation, yet mixed findings suggest that its utility might be better understood by taking into account the type of stimuli and context to which it is applied. Moreover, other emotion regulation techniques, particularly for the upregulation of positive emotion (e.g., savoring), have been relatively unexamined in the ERP literature to-date, as have associations between controlled, lab-based measures of emotion generation and regulation in everyday life (e.g., as assessed using ambulatory techniques). In sum, the past decade has seen progress in a more granular understanding of emotion regulation, with ongoing and future work aimed at increasing understanding of the boundary conditions of emotion regulation; novel techniques and emotion regulation's application to everyday life.
... those rated as being more arousing) and, specifically, with higher pleasant and unpleasant arousal stimuli, such as erotic and threatening scenes, respectively , Rozenkrants and Polich 2008, Schupp et al 2004. Additionally, the effect provoked by emotional stimuli in the LPP remains, even when using a relatively small stimulus size (5 × 4 cm at a 100 cm distance from the screen, i.e. 2.68° × 2.05° of visual angle) (De Cesarei and Codispoti 2006) and in a rapid serial visual presentation (Schupp et al 2004), so this effect might be maintained using a standard row-column presentation in a BCI speller matrix. ...
Article
Objective: Previous works have reported that complex emotional and visual stimuli can increase the amplitude of the P300 brain potential. Thus, the aim of the present work is to assess these kinds of images in a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) speller as flashing stimuli. Approach: Twenty-three volunteers controlled four spellers with different sets of flashing stimuli: flashing letters (FL), neutral pictures (NP), emotional pleasant pictures (EPP) and emotional unpleasant pictures (EUP). Main results: The sets of pictures showed a higher performance than the letters in accuracy and information transfer rate. These results were supported by the analysis of the P300 signal, where the picture sets offered the greatest amplitudes. The NP and EPP sets were the best evaluated in the subjective questionnaire. Significance: In short, despite the fact that the effect of emotional stimuli could not be observed in the performance metrics, picture sets have offered a high performance and should be considered in future proposals for visual P300-based BCI applications.
... Functionally, EPN is interpreted as a neural correlate of stimuli motivational significance and is related to hedonic valence (i.e., positive/negative emotions) connotations (Foti, Hajcak, & Dien, 2009;Schupp, Schmälzle, Flaisch, Weike, & Hamm, 2012). It presents a greater amplitude for positive stimuli than negative or neutral stimuli (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Schupp et al., 2012;Weinberg & Hajcak, 2010). ...
... The association between the leftward shifted PSE values and greater negativity suggests that EPN is related to arousal-based time dilation. Our finding is in line with literature showing EPN amplitude to be sensitive to differences in stimulus complexity, picture content, valence, and stimulus size (Löw et al. 2005;De Cesarei and Codispoti 2006). ...
Article
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We investigated whether Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) indicated the subjective dilation of time when judging the duration of arousing stimuli. Participants performed a visual temporal bisection task along with high-level and low-level arousing auditory stimuli, while we simultaneously recorded EEG. In accordance with previous studies, arousing stimuli were temporally overestimated and led to higher EPN amplitude. Yet, we observed that time dilation and EPN amplitude were significantly correlated and this effect cannot be explained by confounds from stimulus valence. We interpret our findings in terms of the pacemaker–accumulator model of human timing, and suggest that EPN indicates an arousal-based increasing of the speed of our mental clock.
... One psychophysiological measure of attention to facial expressions is the late positive potential. The LPP (Bradley et al. 2007), maximal between 400 and 1000ms, is a relatively novel picture-elicited component and is potentiated over midline centroparietal sites during extended passive viewing of unpleasant or pleasant relative to neutral pictures , de cesarei and codispoti 2006, Keil et al. 2002, Keil et al. 2001. lpp amplitude has been found to be most potentiated in response to highly arousing, unpleasantly or pleasantly valenced pictures, such as pictures of mutilations, animal threat, opposite sex nudes or erotic couples (schupp et al. 2000, schupp et al. 2004a). ...
Article
Objective: Facial expressions communicate emotional states and regulate social bonds. An approach or avoidance-based valence might interact with direct or averted gaze to elicit different attentional allocation. These processes might be aberrant in major depression or first-episode psychosis and this requires empirical investigation. Method: This study examined higher order, controlled attentional processing of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral, angry and fearful), with direct or averted gaze, using electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of the face-elicited Late Positive Potential (LPP), in young people diagnosed with major depression or first-episode psychosis, compared with a healthy control group. Results: In the control group, there was no evidence of increased attentional allocation to emotional facial expressions, or to facial expressions with a matching emotional expression and gaze direction. There was no evidence, in the depression or first-episode psychosis groups, for a threat-based, attentional hypersensitivity to fearful or angry facial expressions, nor for this effect to be potentiated in response to angry direct or fearful averted gaze faces. However, the absence of such effects could not be concluded due to sample size and the absence of stimulus arousal and valence ratings. Importantly, there was significantly increased attentional allocation in the first-episode psychosis group to facial expressions regardless of emotional expression or gaze direction, compared to both the depression and control group. Conclusions: There might be an attentional hypersensitivity to facial expressions regardless of emotional expression or gaze direction in first-episode psychosis.
... Several lines of psychophysical research show magnitude effects. First, changes in stimulus size influence modulation degrees of affective judgments (De Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006) and autonomic responses (Reeves, Lang, Kim and Tatar, 1999). Second, the number of stimulus categories affects judgmental accuracy of loudness (Garner, 1953;cf., Garner, 1954). ...
Article
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The finding that individual preferences are systematically inconsistent under different but formally equivalent modes of information processing is called the preference reversal (PR). The present research extended previously limited studies on magnitude effects of gains on PR by examining this effect with both gains and losses. Experiment 1 progressively manipulated the payoff variations in bet pairs to measure the effect of ratio scales on risk preferences and PR. Undergraduates (N = 137) were asked to choose a bet they prefer from a list of bet pairs, and then to evaluate the bets indicating how much they were willing to pay for a chance to participate in each of the bets. We observed a robust dichotomous pattern of choice behavior: The majority of choices are consistent with risk aversion or risk-seeking behavior when loss ratios between bet pairs are low and high, respectively. Moreover, different patterns of PR can be elicited with these loss stakes. Experiment 2 examined the predictions of three decision-making heuristics, namely a novel simplified approach called the loss-averse rule, the majority rule, and the equate-to-differentiate rule, as well as cumulative prospect theory that individuals may use in binary choice. Participants (N = 113) were asked to choose a bet from a list of bet pairs. We found that when the loss ratio is high, proportions of choices were in the direction predicted by cumulative prospect theory and the loss-averse rule of decision rather than by the other two rules, at both the conditional and aggregate levels. These results may suggest that when loss risk reaches a level of threshold, risk behavior for binary choices on lotteries is ubiquitously influenced by loss aversion. The overall results indicate the fragile, context-dependent nature of PR phenomenon.
... The sustained LPP is larger following both appetitive and aversive compared to neutral stimuli (Cuthbert et al., 2000;Keil et al., 2002), and appears to be generated by an extensive cortical-subcortical network involved in emotional processing and visual attention (Liu et al., 2012). Unlike earlier ERP components, which are highly sensitive to the perceptual properties of stimuli (Wiens et al., 2011), the magnitude of the LPP seems to be unaffected by these properties, appearing to track stimulus content rather than complexity or size (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Wiens et al., 2011). Moreover, the emotion-elicited LPP is useful as an online index of sustained and flexible attentional engagement with motivationally salient stimuli (Foti & Hajcak, 2008;Hajcak et al., 2009;MacNamara et al., 2009a;Weinberg & Hajcak, 2010;Weinberg et al., 2012), and has been associated with individual differences in affective tendencies (e.g., depression, anxiety; Blackburn et al., 1990;Cavanagh & Geisler, 2006;MacNamara et al., 2011MacNamara et al., , 2016Weinberg et al., 2016;Weinberg & Sandre, 2018). ...
Article
Many studies have examined associations between neural and behavioral markers of attention to emotion and individual differences in affective functioning. However, the majority of these studies are cross-sectional, and examine associations between brain, behavior, and individual differences at one or two time-points, limiting our understanding of the extent to which these neural responses reflect trait-like patterns of attention. The present study used the Emotional Interrupt paradigm, and examined the stability and trajectory of behavioral (i.e., reaction time to targets following task-irrelevant appetitive, neutral, and aversive images), and neural responses to images (i.e., the late positive potential or LPP), across five sessions separated by one week in 86 individuals. Additionally, we examined the extent to which the LPP and behavioral measures were sensitive to naturally occurring daily fluctuations in positive and negative affect. Results indicate that, though the magnitude of the conditional LPP waveforms decreased over time, the degree of emotional modulation (i.e., differentiation of emotional from neutral) did not; in fact, differentiation of appetitive from neutral increased over time. Behavioral responses were similarly stable across sessions. Additionally, we largely did not observe significant effects of state positive and negative affect on the LPP or behavior over time. Finally, the LPP elicited by appetitive images significantly predicted reaction time to targets following these images. These data suggest that neural and behavioral markers of attention to motivationally salient cues may be trait-like in nature, and may be helpful in future studies seeking to identify markers of vulnerability for diverse forms of psychopathology.
... This makes nonspecific items more susceptible to confounding variables. Perceptual variables that can influence stimulus evaluation include attractiveness (Ho & MacDorman, 2010Principe & Langlois, 2011), atypical (Kätsyri et al., 2015;Strait et al., 2017), disgusting (Curtis, de Barra, & Aunger, 2011), or misaligned features , background (Łupkowski et al., 2019), color (Kennedy, 2014;Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994), morphing artifacts ), realism (McDonnell et al., 2012, and size (Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006). These variables tend to be automatic and stimulus-driven. ...
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The uncanny valley (UV) effect is a negative affective reaction to human-looking artificial entities. It hinders comfortable, trust-based interactions with android robots and virtual characters. Despite extensive research, a consensus has not formed on its theoretical basis or methodologies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess operationalizations of human likeness (independent variable) and the UV effect (dependent variable). Of 468 studies, 72 met the inclusion criteria. The studies employed 10 different stimulus creation techniques, 39 affect measures, and 14 indirect measures. Based on 247 effect sizes, a three-level meta-analysis model revealed the UV effect had a large effect size, Hedges' g = 1.01 [0.80, 1.22]. A mixed-effects meta-regression model with creation technique as the moderator variable revealed face distortion produced the largest effect size, g = 1.46 [0.69, 2.24], followed by distinct entities, g = 1.20 [1.02, 1.38], realism render, g = 0.99 [0.62, 1.36], and morphing, g = 0.94 [0.64, 1.24]. Affective indices producing the largest effects were threatening, likable, aesthetics, familiarity, and eeriness, and indirect measures were dislike frequency, categorization reaction time, like frequency, avoidance, and viewing duration. This meta-analysis-the first on the UV effect-provides a methodological foundation and design principles for future research.
... A subset of studies also suggest that the EPN may be modulated by pleasant relative to unpleasant scenes. Five studies have reported such a bias in EPN modulation (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Flaisch, Stockburger, & Schupp, 2008;Frank & Sabatinelli, 2019;Weinberg & Hajcak, 2010), though the experimental designs did not always allow for a comparison of EPN modulation evoked by equivalently arousing pleasant and unpleasant scenes or for the explicit control of perceptual complexity. Of potential relevance, all of these studies featured erotic content in their pleasantness categories. ...
Article
The early posterior negativity (EPN) has been shown to be enhanced by emotional relative to neutral scene perception. A subset of studies has also reported a bias in the EPN toward pleasant relative to unpleasant scenes. Functional MRI research has also identified a region in lateral occipital cortex that shows a sensitivity to the visual perception of body parts, which may contribute to the EPN. Here, we assess the roles of rated scene pleasantness and the depiction of body parts on modulation of the EPN in two studies, using scenes that are chosen to be of equivalent perceptual complex-ity. In Study 1, we presented two distinct highly pleasant and arousing scene contents (erotic couples and moments of jubilant victory) as well as neutral people, threat, and mutilation scenes. As in prior research, the EPN was enhanced by emotionally arousing scenes, with the greatest modulation evoked by erotic scenes, although vic-tory scenes elicited stronger ratings of pleasantness and equivalent ratings of arousal. This result suggests that the EPN may be sensitive to distinct features found in erotic scenes. To determine the extent to which body part perception modulates the EPN, Study 2 compared EPN modulation evoked by erotic scenes with nonerotic nudist scenes. Ratings of pleasantness and arousal were reduced, yet nudist scenes led to stronger modulation of the EPN compared to erotic scenes. These data indicate that, in addition to the emotional intensity of scenes, modulation of the EPN may in part reflect the discrimination of unclothed body parts.
... In previous studies, size has been shown to influence various perception processes, including emotion discrimination and modulation. Size reduction of an affective picture lowers the modulation effect of its emotion valence on event-related potentials in the early stages (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006). Larger stimuli also evoke higher arousal embodied in higher skin conductance (Reeves, Lang, Kim, & Tatar, 1999). ...
Article
Social interaction, the process through which individuals act and react toward each other, is arguably the building block of society. As the very first step for successful social interaction, we need to derive the orientation and immediate social relevance of other people: a person facing toward us is much more likely to initiate communications than a person who is back to us. Reversely, however, it remains elusive whether the relevance to social interaction modulates how we perceive the other's orientation. Here, we adopted the bistable point-light walker (PLW) which is ambiguous in its in-depth orientation. Participants were asked to report the orientation (facing the viewer or facing away from the viewer) of the PLWs. Three factors that are task-irrelevant but critically pertinent to social interaction, the distance, the speed, and the size of the PLW, were systematically manipulated. The nearer a person is, the more likely it initiates interactions with us. The larger a person is, the larger influence it may exert. The faster a person is, the shorter time is left for us to respond. Results revealed that participants tended to perceive the PLW as facing them more frequently than facing away when the PLW was nearer, faster, or larger. These same factors produced different patterns of effects on a non-biological rotating cylinder. These findings demonstrate that the relevance to social interaction modulates the visual perception of biological motion and highlight that bistable biological motion perception not only reflects competitions of low-level features but is also strongly linked to high-level social cognition.
... It is an EEG-based event-related potential (ERP) that begins approximately 400ms after stimulus onset and is maximal at parietal areas of the scalp (see Hajcak et al., 2010 for a review). The LPP is reliably enhanced by affective arousal (Cuthbert et al., 2000;Thiruchselvam et al., 2011;, but is insensitive to basic perceptual features such as image size (De Cesarei and Codispoti, 2006) or figure-ground complexity . Researchers have argued that the arousalenhancement of the LPP reflects modulation of extrastriate visual cortices arising from a subcortical (e.g., amygdala) response to affective stimuli (Sabatinelli et al., 2007;de Rover et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Even in predominantly religious societies, there are substantial individual differences in religious commitment. Why is this? One possibility is that differences in social conformity (i.e., the tendency to think and behave as others do) underlie inclination towards religiosity. However, the link between religiosity and conformity has not yet been directly examined. In this study, we tested the notion that non-religious individuals show dampened social conformity, using both self-reported and neural (EEG-based ERPs) measures of sensitivity to others' influence. Non-religious versus religious undergraduate subjects completed an experimental task that assessed levels of conformity in a domain unrelated to religion (i.e., in judgments of facial attractiveness). Findings showed that, although both groups yielded to conformity pressures at the self-report level, non-religious individuals did not yield to such pressures in their neural responses. These findings highlight a novel link between religiosity and social conformity, and hold implications for prominent theories about the psychological functions of religion.
... Over occipital regions, feedback stimuli generated an N1 component around 170 ms that increased in amplitude and decreased in latency as a function of inflation step. Previous studies have established that the visual N1 is sensitive to both exogenous factors, i.e., physical properties such as stimulus size and luminance (De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006;Gannon, Knapp, Adams, Long, & Parks, 2016;Pfabigan et al., 2015;Wijers, Lange, Mulder, & Mulder, 1997) as well as endogenous factors such as selective attention in tasks requiring stimulus discrimination (Bradley, 2009;Hillyard, Vogel, & Luck, 1998). Accordingly, the effects of inflation step on the N1 could either reflect the size of feedback stimuli, which increased with inflation step, or increments in visual attention with the increasing size of gambles per inflation step (or a combination of the two). ...
Article
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Research has demonstrated the importance of economic forecasts for financial decisions at the aggregate economic level. However, little is known about the psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms that economic forecasts activate at the level of individual decision-making. In the present study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that economic forecasts influence individuals’ internal model of the economy and their subsequent decision behavior. Using a simple economic decision-making game, the Balloon Analogue of Risk Task (BART) and predictive messages about possible economic changes in the game before each block, we test the idea that brain potentials time-locked to decision outcomes can vary as a function of exposure to economic forecasts. Behavioural results indicate that economic forecasts influenced the amount of risk that participants were willing to take. Analyses of brain potentials indicated parametric increases of the N1, P2, P3a, and P3b amplitudes as a function of the level of risk in subsequent inflation steps in the BART. Mismatches between economic forecasts and decision outcomes in the BART (i.e., reward prediction errors) were reflected in the amplitude of the P2, P3a, and P3b, suggesting increased attentional processing of unexpected outcomes. These electrophysiological results corroborate the idea that economic messages may indeed influence people’s beliefs about the economy and bias their subsequent financial decision-making. Our findings present a first important step in the development of a low-level neurophysiological model that may help to explain the self-fulfilling prophecy effect of economic news in the larger economy.
... The affective modulation of the LPP is not influenced by the images' perceptual composition (M. M. Bradley, Löw, & Lang, 2007;Codispoti, De Cesarei, & Ferrari, 2012;De Cesarei & Codispoti, 2006), exposure time (Codispoti et al., 2009), or repetition (Ferrari, Codispoti, & Bradley, 2017). These characteristics lead researchers to consider the LPP a robust index of motivational relevance (Peter J. Lang & Bradley, 2010) and a useful tool for investigating affective processes in clinical populations, such as individuals affected by neurological disorders (Xie et al., 2018), PTSD and other anxiety disorders MacNamara, Jackson, Fitzgerald, Hajcak, & Phan, 2018;B.-W. ...
Article
The late positive potential (LPP) is a common measurement used to study emotional processes of subjects in ERP paradigms. Despite its extensive use in affective neuroscience, there is presently no gold standard for how to appropriately power ERP studies using the LPP. The present study investigates how the number of trials, number of subjects, and magnitude of the effect size affect statistical power in analyses of the LPP. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ERP experiments with varying numbers of trials, subjects, and synthetic effects of known magnitude, we measured the probability of obtaining a statistically significant effect in 1,489 experiments repeated 1,000 times each. Predictably, our results showed that statistical power increases with increasing numbers of trials and subjects and at larger effect sizes. We also found that higher levels of statistical power can be achieved with lower numbers of subjects and trials and at lower effect sizes in within-subject than in between-subjects designs. Furthermore, we found that, as subjects are added to an experiment, the slope of the relationship between effect size and statistical power increased and shifted to the left until the power asymptoted to nearly 100% at higher effect sizes. This suggests that adding more subjects greatly increases statistical power at lower effect sizes (<1 µV) compared with more robust (>1.5 µV) effect sizes. We confirmed the results from the simulations based on the synthetic effects by running a new series of simulated experiments based on real data collected while participants looked at emotional images.
... Consumers are increasingly confronted with dynamically moving stimuli in commercials, video games and virtual reality. Although the effect of physical (near vs. far) and psychological (concrete vs. abstract) distance of stimuli has been broadly investigated (Codispoti and De Cesarei 2007;De Cesarei and Codispoti 2006; Loftus and Harley 2005), much less is known about the effect of movement (approaching vs. receding) on advertising appeals and consumer decisions. Designing effective dynamic marketing campaigns requires ...
Conference Paper
We investigate how consumers react to approaching and receding stimuli, both for neutral objects, and for advertisements on second-hand products. Building on the approach and loss aversion biases, we demonstrate that consumers show more negative (positive) emotions and attitudes on advertising effectiveness toward approaching (receding) stimuli in dynamically moving advertisements.
... All stimuli were presented at the identical location using identical display settings and had the same resolution (800 × 600 pixel) as well as size (20 × 15 cm). To take inter-individual height differ-ences into account and to maximize reactions to pictures [22], participants were allowed to relocate the display according to their ergonomic needs with respect to the position and angle of the display. The procedure of the cue rating was as follows: first, each participant received an instruction to rate each displayed image with respect to "urge-to-smoke," "valence" and "arousal." ...
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Background: Cue-reactivity paradigms provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of nicotine craving in nicotine-dependent subjects. In order to study cue-driven nicotine craving, robust and validated stimulus datasets are essential. Objectives: The aim of this study was to generate and validate a large set of individually rated smoking-related cues that allow for assessment of different stimulus intensities along the dimensions craving, valence, and arousal. Methods: The image database consisted of 330 visual cues. Two hundred fifty smoking-associated pictures (Creative Commons license) were chosen from online databases and showed a widespread variety of smoking-associated content. Eighty pictures from previously published databases were included for cross-validation. Forty volunteers with tobacco use disorder rated "urge-to-smoke," "valence," and "arousal" for all images on a 100-point visual analogue scale. Pictures were also labelled according to 18 categories such as lit/unlit cigarettes in mouth, cigarette end, and cigarette in ashtray. Results: Ratings (mean ± SD) were as follows: urge to smoke, 44.9 ± 13.2; valence, 51.2 ± 7.6; and arousal, 54.6 ± 7.1. All ratings, particularly "urge to smoke," were widely distributed along the whole scale spectrum. Conclusions: We present a novel image library of well-described smoking-related cues, which were rated on a continuous scale along the dimensions craving, valence, and arousal that accounts for inter-individual differences. The rating software, image database, and their ratings are publicly available at https://smocuda.github.io.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between object categorization in natural scenes and the engagement of cortico-limbic appetitive and defensive systems (emotional engagement) by manipulating both the bottom-up information and the top-down context. Concerning the bottom-up information, we manipulated the computational load by scrambling the phase of the spatial frequency spectrum, and asked participants to classify natural scenes as containing an animal or a person. The role of the top-down context was assessed by comparing an incremental condition, in which pictures were progressively revealed, to a condition in which no probabilistic relationship existed between each stimulus and the following one. In two experiments, the categorization and response to emotional and neutral scenes were similarly modulated by the computational load. The Late Positive Potential (LPP) was affected by the emotional content of the scenes, and by categorization accuracy. When the phase of the spatial frequency spectrum was scrambled by a large amount (>58%), chance categorization resulted, and affective LPP modulation was eliminated. With less degraded scenes, categorization accuracy was higher (.82 in Experiment 1, .86 in Experiment 2) and affective modulation of the LPP was observed at a late window (>800 ms), indicating that it is possible to delay the time of engagement of the motivational systems which are responsible for the LPP affective modulation. The present data strongly support the view that semantic analysis of visual scenes, operationalized here as object categorization, is a necessary condition for emotional engagement at the electrocortical level (LPP).
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Emotion dysregulation (ED) is a transdiagnostic risk factor for several forms of psychopathology. One established, integrative conceptualisation of ED that has informed our understanding of psychopathology (Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation : development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54) was recently extended to account for state-level and specifically physiological aspects of ED. As such, the goal of the current study was to assess the degree to which this conceptualisation could be captured using a physiological, state-level index (i.e. the late positive potential; LPP). Participants (N=41; Mage=27.5 years, SD=11.0) completed a trait-based rating scale measure of the extended conceptualisation of ED and viewed a series of images that ranged in valence (i.e. unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral). Multilevel modelling indicated some points of convergence between rating scale scores and the LPP, and other points of divergence. Findings underscore the utility of a multi-method approach to improve understanding of key transdiagnostic characteristics across levels of analysis. Further, results are novel evidence supporting validity of the extended conceptualisation of ED.
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Accurate decisions about whether to trust someone are critical for adaptive social behavior. Previous research into trustworthiness decisions about face stimuli have focused on individuals. Here, decisions about groups of people are made cumulatively on the basis of sequences of faces. Participants chose to either increase or withdraw an initial investment in mock companies based on how trustworthy the company representatives (face stimuli) appeared. Companies were formed using participant trust ratings from the previous week, to create strong trustworthy, weak trustworthy, weak untrustworthy, and strong untrustworthy companies. Participants made faster, more accurate decisions for companies carrying stronger evidence (e.g., faces rated more extremely). Companies with more extreme ratings yielded faster decisions for untrustworthy than trustworthy companies, consistent with a negativity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed that amplitude of the P1 and P3 ERP components, linked to attentional processes, were largest for strong trustworthy faces. This suggests that evidence counter to bias draws special attention. In addition, the first face representing each company provoked larger amplitude P1, P3, and LPP than subsequent faces. This result suggests that when making social decisions about groups of people, the first person one meets receives the most attention.
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Novel distractors are prioritized for attentional selection. When distractors also convey emotional content, they divert attention from the primary task more than neutral stimuli do. In the present study, while participants were engaged in a central task, we examined the impact of peripheral distractors that varied for emotional content and novelty. Results showed that emotional interference on reaction times completely habituated with repetition and promptly recovered with novelty. The enhanced LPP for emotional pictures was attenuated by repetitions and, interestingly, stimulus novelty only affected emotional, but not neutral distractors, in both the RTs and LPP. Alpha-ERD was similarly reduced for repeated emotional and neutral distractors. Altogether, these findings suggest that the impact of peripheral distractors can be attenuated through a non-strategic learning mechanism mediated by mere stimulus repetition, which is fine-tuned to detect changes in emotional distractors only, supporting the hypothesis that novelty and emotion share the same motivational circuits.
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Los eventos de esports (deportes electrónicos) son considerados como una herramienta de marketing parte de las empresas que prestan patrocinio con el objetivo de atraer a nuevos consumidores. Es por ello que la eficacia publicitaria se torna de vital importancia teniendo como objetivo llegar a todos los potenciales consumidores, pero la creciente saturación de los espacios destinados a la publicidad en los medios audiovisuales hace cada vez más difícil el encontrar un lugar o una manera donde la exhibición de la marca tenga el alcance deseado por un anunciante. Esta situación obliga a los profesionales de la publicidad y el marketing a mantener un continuo esfuerzo para descubrir nuevas formas de alcanzar sus objetivos. El análisis del proceso cognitivo y emocional en los consumidores mediante técnicas de neuromarketing, permite describir la percepción de los impactos publicitarios en el propio contexto de consumo. Objetivo: El estudio pretende analizar y describir la eficacia de la publicidad en eventos de esports transmitidos por streaming, en función de las características de la marca, con la ayuda de herramientas pertenecientes al neuromarketing. Además de generar una base de conocimiento científico acerca del comportamiento no consciente de los espectadores de esports, en relación a la publicidad en esports. Hipótesis: Las variables extrínsecas de marca influyen en la eficacia publicitaria durante los eventos de esports transmitidos por streaming. Muestra: La muestra estuvo compuesta por un total de 48 sujetos, todos de género masculino, con una edad media de 23,4 ± 17 años, quienes observaban streaming una media de 9,42 ± 45 horas semanales y practican algún esports 16,4 ± 37 horas semanales. Criterio de inclusión: 1) tener entre 18 y 35 años y 2) ser consumidores de esports de manera asidua, ya sea jugando o visionando streams Variables independientes: Tamaño, localización, color, complejidad y tiempo de exposición de las marcas publicitarias. Variables dependientes: Comportamiento visual, impacto emocional, valencia y recuerdo. Material e instrumental: Se utilizó un electroencefalograma, un medidor de respuesta galvánica de la piel, un eye tracker y un test de recuerdo de marcas (Top of Mind). Además se utilizó un video de 10 minutos con 32 segundos de la final de la SuperLiga Orange (League of Legends) 2018 en España, en la fase de picks and bans. Conclusión: la hipótesis general no se confirma cien porciento, ya que el color no afecta el comportamiento visual y al recuerdo de los espectadores. Por otro lado, las variables como el tamaño, la complejidad, el color y el tiempo de exposición no afectan a la valencia experimentada por los sujetos de estudio.
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The comparative roles of the human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in emotional processing are under substantial debate, supported prominently by invasive primate studies. Noninvasive studies in humans are restricted by the limitations of electro- and magneto-encephalographic methods, which are hampered by the closed-field architecture and deep location of these structures. Here we employ whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at an effective sampling rate of 300 ms to define the latency of enhanced blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast within structures activated by emotionally evocative relative to neutral scenes, in an effort to assess the hypothesized primacy of amygdala-inferotemporal co-activity in human emotional perception, relative to orbitofrontal cortex. Consistent with much prior work, we identified heightened BOLD signal during pleasant and unpleasant scene presentations in extrastriate occipital, ventral temporal, and posterior parietal visual system, as well as enhanced activation in cortical regions including the dorsal frontoparietal network, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, locus coeruleus, and basal forebrain also showed reliably increased activity during emotional scene perception. The latency at which emotional BOLD signal enhancement varied considerably across structures, ranging from 2 to 6 seconds after scene onset. Though coarse, the spatiotemporal pattern of emotion-enhanced activity identified here is consistent with the idea that the amygdala and inferior temporal fusiform gyrus are the first regions to discriminate scene emotionality, which may then distribute this categorical information to other cortical and subcortical structures.
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It has been proposed that some individuals succumb to maladaptive eating behaviors because, like those with addiction, they attribute high incentive salience to food-associated cues. Here, we tested whether women that attribute high incentive salience to food-associated cues report high food addiction symptomatology. In 76 college women, we assessed self-reported food addiction symptoms using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs, a direct measure of brain activity) to preferred food, erotic, unpleasant, and neutral images. We used the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP, a component of the ERPs) as an index of the incentive salience attributed to the images. Using a multivariate classification algorithm (k-means cluster analysis), we identified two neuroaffective reactivity profiles that have been previously associated with individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues and with differences in vulnerability to addictive behaviors. Results showed that women with elevated LPP responses to preferred food cues relative to erotic images report higher food addiction symptoms than women with low LPP responses to preferred food cues relative to other motivationally relevant stimuli. These results support the hypothesis that individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to food cues play an important role in modulating food addiction symptomatology.
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Close-up shots have been shown to modulate affective, cognitive and theory-of-mind responding to visual narratives. However, the role of close-up’s narrative-sequence position, that is the relative timing of close-up shots in a visual narrative, is largely unknown. Participants watched one of ten versions of the same animated film, after we inserted a close-up shot (neutral or a sad face) at one of five different time points. Story recall responses of 168 participants were analyzed by the Linguistic Inquiry of Word Count, a computerized content analysis software, and coded manually for theory of mind. The narrative-sequence position of the close-up influenced the level of cognitive processing, affective processing, and theory of mind evident in participant responses where a U-shaped relationship was observed for the close-up position. These findings further our understanding of how close-ups affect narrative processing and are of relevance for studies on formal features in visual narratives.
Article
Purpose Here we aimed to automatically classify human emotion earlier than is typically attempted. There is increasing evidence that the human brain differentiates emotional categories within 100- 300 ms after stimulus onset. Therefore, here we evaluate the possibility of automatically classifying human emotions within the first 300 ms after the stimulus and identify the time-interval of the highest classification performance. Methods To address this issue, MEG signals of 17 healthy volunteers were recorded in response to three different picture stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures). Six Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifiers were used based on two binary comparisons (pleasant versus neutral and unpleasant versus neutral) and three different time-intervals (100- 150 ms, 150- 200 ms, and 200- 300 ms post-stimulus). The selection of the feature subsets was performed by Genetic Algorithm and LDA. Results We demonstrated significant classification performances in both comparisons. The best classification performance was achieved with a median AUC of 0.83 (95%- CI [0.71; 0.87]) classifying brain responses evoked by unpleasant and neutral stimuli within 100- 150 ms, which is at least 850 ms earlier than attempted by other studies. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the proposed algorithm, brain emotional responses can be significantly classified at very early stages of cortical processing (within 300 ms). Moreover, our results suggest that emotional processing in the human brain occurs within the first 100- 150 ms.
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Smokers with stronger neuroaffective responses to drug-related cues compared to nondrug-related pleasant images (C > P) are more vulnerable to compulsive smoking than individuals with the opposite brain reactivity profile (P > C). However, it is unknown if these neurobehavioral profiles exist in individuals abusing other drugs. We tested whether individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) show similar neuroaffective profiles to smokers. We also monitored eye movements to assess attentional bias toward cues and we further performed exploratory analyses on demographics, personality, and drug use between profiles. Participants with CUD (n = 43) viewed pleasant, unpleasant, cocaine, and neutral images while we recorded electroencephalogram. For each picture category, we computed the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects motivational relevance. k-means clustering classified participants based on their LPP responses. In line with what has been observed in smokers, clustering participants using LPP responses revealed the presence of two groups: one with larger LPPs to pleasant images compared to cocaine images (P > C) and one group with larger LPPs to cocaine images compared to pleasant images (C > P). Individuals with the C > P reactivity profile also had higher attentional bias toward drug cues. The two groups did not differ on demographic and drug use characteristics, however individuals with the C > P profile reported lower distress tolerance, higher anhedonia, and higher posttraumatic stress symptoms compared to the P > C group. This is the first study to report the presence of these neuroaffective profiles in individuals with CUD, indicating that this pattern may cut across addiction populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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Many reviews on sexual arousal in humans focus on different brain imaging methods and behavioral observations. Although neurotransmission in the brain is mainly performed through electrochemical signals, there are no systematic reviews of the electrophysiological correlates of sexual arousal. We performed a systematic search on this subject and reviewed 255 studies including various electrophysiological methods. Our results show how neuroelectric signals have been used to investigate genital somatotopy as well as basic genital physiology during sexual arousal and how cortical electric signals have been recorded during orgasm. Moreover, experiments on the interactions of cognition and sexual arousal in healthy subjects and in individuals with abnormal sexual preferences were analyzed as well as case studies on sexual disturbances associated with diseases of the nervous system. In addition, 25 studies focusing on brain potentials during the interaction of cognition and sexual arousal were eligible for meta-analysis. The results showed significant effect sizes for specific brain potentials during sexual stimulation (P3: Cohen's d = 1.82, N = 300, LPP: Cohen's d = 2.30, N = 510) with high heterogeneity between the combined studies. Taken together, our review shows how neuroelectric methods can consistently differentiate sexual arousal from other emotional states.
Thesis
Vorherige Studien beschreiben bei der Aufmerksamkeitslenkung präfrontale Aktivierungen im rechten DLPFC und DMPFC. Diese Studie wollte untersuchen, ob die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung durch Richten des Fokus auf nicht -emotionale Bildinhalte innerhalb eines Stimulus zu präfrontalen Effekten führt. Dazu wurde eine kombinierte Messung aus EEG, fNIRS und emotionalem Arousal erhoben. Die Bedingungen beinhalteten entweder das passive Bildbetrachten oder die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung. Das EEG wurde als Kontrollbedingung erhoben, um zu replizieren, dass die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung auf nicht –emotionale Bildinhalte zu einer Reduktion des LPP und des emotionalen Arousals führt. In dieser Studie konnte sowohl ein reduziertes LPP als ein geringeres emotionales Arousal bei der Aufmerksamkeitslenkung beschrieben werden. In der fNIRS zeigten sich jedoch weder ein signifikanter Emotions- noch ein signifikanter Regulationseffekt, sodass keine Aktivierungen präfrontal bei der Aufmerksamkeitslenkung beschrieben werden konnte. Es sind somit weiterführende Studien zur Aufmerksamkeitslenkung notwendig, ob die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung zu präfrontalen Aktivierungen führt, und ob diese mit der fNIRS abgebildet werden können.
Article
Previous research shows that endogenous attention (the controlled selection of certain aspects of our environment) is enhanced toward emotional stimuli due to its biological relevance. Although looming affective stimuli such as threat seem even more critical for survival, little is known about their effect on endogenous attention. Here, we recorded neural (event‐related potentials, ERPs) and behavioral responses (errors and reaction times) to explore the combined effect of emotion and looming motion. 3D‐recreated static and moving animals assessed as emotionally positive, negative, and neutral, were presented to participants (n = 71), who performed an indirect categorization task (vertebrate vs. invertebrate). Behavioral results showed better task performance, as reflected by lower number of errors and reaction times, in response to threatening stimuli. Neural indices revealed significant early (P1p, 150 milliseconds), intermediate (P2p, 240), and late (LPP, 450) effects, the latter being more intensely associated with behavior, as revealed by regression analyses. In general, neural indexes of attention to both static and dynamic stimuli showed a positivity offset in early stages and a negativity bias in subsequent phases. However, and importantly, the progressive inclusion of negative stimuli in the attentional focus is produced earlier in the case of dynamic (at P2p latency) than in static versions (at LPP). These results point to an enhancement of attention, particularly in temporal terms, toward stimuli combining motion and biological significance.
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The number of different screens that people confront is increasing. One potentially important difference in the psychological impact of screen displays is their size; new screens are both larger and smaller than older ones. A between-subjects experiment (n = 38) assessed viewer's attention and arousal in response to three different size screens (56-inch, 13-inch, and 2-inch picture heights). Viewers responded to video images from television and film that displayed different emotions (# video segments = 60). Attention was measured by heart rate deceleration in response to the onset of pictures, and arousal was measured by skin conductance aggregated during viewing. Results showed that the largest screen produced greater heart rate deceleration than the medium and small screens. The large screen also produced greater skin conductance than the medium and small screens. For skin conductance, screen size also interacted with the emotional content of the stimuli such that the most arousing pictures (e.g., pictures of violence and sex) showed the highest levels of arousal on the large screen compared to the medium and small screens.
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This paper applies the behavior systems approach to fear and defensive behavior, examining the neural circuitry controlling fear and defensive behavior from this vantage point. The defensive behavior system is viewed as having three modes that are activated by different levels of fear. Low levels of fear promote pre-encounter defenses, such as meal-pattern reorganization. Moderate levels of fear activate post-encounter defenses. For the rat, freezing is the dominant post-encounter defensive response. Since this mode of defense is activated by learned fear, forebrain structures such as the amygdala play a critical role in its organization. Projections from the amygdala to the ventral periaqueductal gray activate freezing. Extremely high levels of fear, such as those provoked by physical contact, elicit the vigorous active defenses that compose the circa-strike mode. Midbrain structures such as the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and the superior colliculus play a crucial role in organizing this mode of defense. Inhibitory interactions between the structures mediating circa-strike and post-encounter defense allow for the rapid switching between defensive modes as the threatening situation varies.
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How long does it take for the human visual system to process a complex natural image? Subjectively, recognition of familiar objects and scenes appears to be virtually instantaneous, but measuring this processing time experimentally has proved difficult. Behavioural measures such as reaction times can be used, but these include not only visual processing but also the time required for response execution. However, event-related potentials (ERPs) can sometimes reveal signs of neural processing well before the motor output. Here we use a go/no-go categorization task in which subjects have to decide whether a previously unseen photograph, flashed on for just 20 ms, contains an animal. ERP analysis revealed a frontal negativity specific to no-go trials that develops roughly 150 ms after stimulus onset. We conclude that the visual processing needed to perform this highly demanding task can be achieved in under 150 ms.
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Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have shown that attention to visual motion can increase the responsiveness of the motion-selective cortical area V5 and the posterior parietal cortex (PP). Increased or decreased activation in a cortical area is often attributed to attentional modulation of the cortical projections to that area. This leads to the notion that attention is associated with changes in connectivity. We have addressed attentional modulation of effective connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Three subjects were scanned under identical stimulus conditions (visual motion) while varying only the attentional component of the task. Haemodynamic responses defined an occipito-parieto-frontal network, including the, primary visual cortex (V1), V5 and PR A structural equation model of the interactions among these dorsal visual pathway areas revealed increased connectivity between V5 and PP related to attention. On the basis of our analysis and the neuroanatomical pattern of projections from the prefrontal cortex to PP we attributed the source of modulatory influences, on the posterior visual pathway, to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To test this hypothesis we included the PFC in our model as a 'modulator' of the pathway between V5 and PP, using interaction terms in the structural equation model. This analysis revealed a significant modulatory effect of prefrontal regions on V5 afferents to posterior parietal cortex.
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Experiments investigating the mechanisms involved in visual processing often fail to separate low-level encoding mechanisms from higher-level behaviorally relevant ones. Using an alternating dual-task event-related potential (ERP) experimental paradigm (animals or vehicles categorization) where targets of one task are intermixed among distractors of the other, we show that visual categorization of a natural scene involves different mechanisms with different time courses: a perceptual, task-independent mechanism, followed by a task-related, category-independent process. Although average ERP responses reflect the visual category of the stimulus shortly after visual processing has begun (e.g. 75-80 msec), this difference is not correlated with the subject's behavior until 150 msec poststimulus.
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The way that we perceive and interact with objects depends on our previous experience with them. For example, a bird expert is more likely to recognize a bird as a sparrow, a sandpiper or a cockatiel than a non-expert. Neurons in the inferior temporal cortex have been shown to be important in the representation of visual objects; however, it is unknown which object features are represented and how these representations are affected by categorization training. Here we show that feature selectivity in the macaque inferior temporal cortex is shaped by categorization of objects on the basis of their visual features. Specifically, we recorded from single neurons while monkeys performed a categorization task with two sets of parametric stimuli. Each stimulus set consisted of four varying features, but only two of the four were important for the categorization task (diagnostic features). We found enhanced neuronal representation of the diagnostic features relative to the non-diagnostic ones. These findings demonstrate that stimulus features important for categorization are instantiated in the activity of single units (neurons) in the primate inferior temporal cortex.
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Attention gates the processing of stimuli relatively early in visual cortex. Yet, existing data suggest that emotional stimuli activate brain regions automatically, largely immune from attentional control. To resolve this puzzle, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to first measure activation in regions that responded differentially to faces with emotional expressions (fearful and happy) compared with neutral faces. We then measured the modulation of these responses by attention, using a competing task with a high attentional load. Contrary to the prevailing view, all brain regions responding differentially to emotional faces, including the amygdala, did so only when sufficient attentional resources were available to process the faces. Thus, the processing of facial expression appears to be under top-down control.
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The majority of the research related to visual recognition has so far focused on bottom-up analysis, where the input is processed in a cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information. Gradually more studies emphasize the role of top-down facilitation in cortical analysis, but it remains something of a mystery how such processing would be initiated. After all, top-down facilitation implies that high-level information is activated earlier than some relevant lower-level information. Building on previous studies, I propose a specific mechanism for the activation of top-down facilitation during visual object recognition. The gist of this hypothesis is that a partially analyzed version of the input image (i.e., a blurred image) is projected rapidly from early visual areas directly to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This coarse representation activates in the PFC expectations about the most likely interpretations of the input image, which are then back-projected as an "initial guess" to the temporal cortex to be integrated with the bottom-up analysis. The top-down process facilitates recognition by substantially limiting the number of object representations that need to be considered. Furthermore, such a rapid mechanism may provide critical information when a quick response is necessary.
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Emotional reactions are organized by underlying motivational states--defensive and appetitive--that have evolved to promote the survival of individuals and species. Affective responses were measured while participants viewed pictures with varied emotional and neutral content. Consistent with the motivational hypothesis, reports of the strongest emotional arousal, largest skin conductance responses, most pronounced cardiac deceleration, and greatest modulation of the startle reflex occurred when participants viewed pictures depicting threat, violent death, and erotica. Moreover, reflex modulation and conductance change varied with arousal, whereas facial patterns were content specific. The findings suggest that affective responses serve different functions-mobilization for action, attention, and social communication-and reflect the motivational system that is engaged, its intensity of activation, and the specific emotional context.
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Event-related potentials were used to track social perception processes associated with viewing faces of racial ingroup and outgroup members. Activity associated with three distinct processes was detected. First, peaking at approximately 170 ms, faces were distinguished from nonface stimuli. Second, peaking at approximately 250 ms, ingroup members were differentiated from outgroup members, with a larger component suggesting greater attention to ingroup members. This effect may reflect the spontaneous application of a deeper level of processing to ingroup members. Third, peaking at approximately 520 ms, evaluative differentiation of ingroup and outgroup members occurred, with greater ingroup bias displayed by those with higher levels of prejudice on an explicit measure. Together, the results demonstrate the promise of using neural processes to track the presence, timing, and degree of activation of components relevant to social perception, prejudice, and stereotyping.
Chapter
Slow Wave and P3b are members of a group of long latency, positive polarity, and endogenous event-related potential (ERP) components now known as the late positive complex (LPC). In the earliest experiments in which Slow Wave was found, it appeared that Slow Wave related to experimental variables in much the same manner as did P3b. As a result, during the early period there was little focus on Slow Wave. However, in recent years evidence for a behavioral dissociation between Slow Wave and P3b has been accumulating. The purpose of this chapter is, to review and attempt to evaluate the similarities and differences between Slow Wave and P3b. The initial reports of LPC activity described a single prominent component with a peak latency of about 300 msec. It was referred to as the late positive component or P3 or P300. Subsequent experiments established that P300 amplitude is generally largest over parietal scalp. P300 potentials have generally been elicited by events that are made relevant by serving various purposes: (1) to provide a subject with feedback information concerning the outcome of a prior task; (2) to be the object of a discrimination or counting task; (3) to be an imperative signal requiring performance of a motor response.
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In Experiment 1, subjects completed an attitude survey to identify items toward which they held positive and negative attitudes. Subsequently, subjects were instructed to count the number of positive (or negative) stimuli in a series. Each series contained six attitude stimuli from a given semantic category (e.g., fruits), and the structure of the series was varied so that positive and negative stimuli, as indexed by subjects' idiosyncratic attitudes, were evaluatively consistent or inconsistent within the series. In Experiment 2, subjects were exposed to personality traits that were positive or negative in series of six. Again, the structure of the series was varied so that positive and negative traits were evaluatively consistent or inconsistent within the series. Results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that although the event-related brain potential did not differ as a function of stimulus valence per se, evaluatively inconsistent, in contrast to consistent, stimuli evoked a larger amplitude late P300-like positive component that was maximal over the centroparietal region.
Article
Abstract The effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) of within- and across-modality repetition of words and nonwords were investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects detected occasional animal names embedded in a series of words. AU items were equally likely to be presented auditorily or visually. Some words were repetitions, either within- or across-modality, of words presented six items previously. Visual-visual repetition evoked a sustained positive shift, which onset around 250 msec and comprised two topographically and temporally distinct components. Auditory-visual repetition modulated only the later of these two components. For auditory EMS, within- and across-modality repetition evoked effects with similar onset latencies. The within-modality effect was initially the larger, but only at posterior sites. In Experiment 2, critical items were auditory and visual nonwords, and target items were auditory words and visual pseudohomophones. Visual-visual nonword repetition effects onset around 450 msec, and demonstrated a more anterior scalp distribution than those evoked by auditory-visual repetition. Visual-auditory repetition evoked only a small, late-onsetting effect, whereas auditory-auditory repetition evoked an effect that, at parietal sites only, was almost equivalent to that from the analogous condition of Experiment 1. These findings indicate that, as indexed by ERF's, repetition effects both within- and across-modality are influenced by lexical status. Possible parallels with the effects of word and nonword repetition on behavioral variables are discussed.
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This study was conducted as part of the first author's doctoral dissertation. This research was supported by a grant from the Stewart Filmscreen Corporation. The authors would like to thank research assistants Kimberly Traverso, Immanuel Hermreck, and Miguel Drayton.
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consider the functions of the primate amygdala in the light of the responsiveness of single neurons within the structure / the neuronal responsiveness is most informative when activity is recorded while the amygdala is functioning normally, and in situations in which the amygdala is required / the neurophysiology must thus proceed closely with lesion studies which help assess the functions of the amygdala / it is important to analyse the information processing being performed by neurons in the amygdala, and for this reason some evidence on the input and output connections of the amygdala, and on the neuronal activity in these input and output regions, is considered / this helps to provide an understanding of how the amygdala operates at the systems level of brain function, and in particular how it transforms the inputs it receives, and what effects the results of its computations have on output regions / particular attention is paid to research in nonhuman primates (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent studies have shown that the late positive component of the event-related-potential (ERP) is enhanced for emotional pictures, presented in an oddball paradigm, evaluated as distant from an established affective context. In other research, with context-free, random presentation, affectively intense pictures (pleasant and unpleasant) prompted similar enhanced ERP late positivity (compared with the neutral picture response). In an effort to reconcile interpretations of the late positive potential (LPP), ERPs to randomly ordered pictures were assessed, but using the faster presentation rate, brief exposure (1.5 s), and distinct sequences of six pictures, as in studies using an oddball based on evaluative distance. Again, results showed larger LPPs to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, compared with neutral pictures. Furthermore, affective pictures of high arousal elicited larger LPPs than less affectively intense pictures. The data support the view that late positivity to affective pictures is modulated both by their intrinsic motivational significance and the evaluative context of picture presentation.
Article
The present review focuses on the utility of the amplitude of P3 of as a measure of processing capacity and mental workload. The paper starts with a brief outline of the conceptual framework underlying the relationship between P3 amplitude and task demands, and the cognitive task manipulations that determine demands on capacity. P3 amplitude results are then discussed on the basis of an extensive review of the relevant literature. It is concluded that although it has often been assumed that P3 amplitude depends on the capacity for processing task relevant stimuli, the utility of P3 amplitude as a sensitive and diagnostic measure of processing capacity remains limited. The major factor that prompts this conclusion is that the two principal task variables that have been used to manipulate capacity allocation, namely task difficulty and task emphasis, have opposite effects on the amplitude of P3. I suggest that this is because, in many tasks, an increase in difficulty transforms the structure or actual content of the flow of information in the processing systems, thereby interfering with the very processes that underlie P3 generation. Finally, in an attempt to theoretically integrate the results of the reviewed studies, it is proposed that P3 amplitude reflects activation of elements in a event-categorization network that is controlled by the joint operation of attention and working memory.
Article
Phobic subjects made magnitude estimation of the intensity of fear felt when viewing a snake at distances from 2.5 to 15.0 ft. Heart rate, skin conductance, and respiration were also measured throughout each 20 sec viewing period. A control group of nonphobic subjects made magnitude estimates of perceived nearness for the empty Plexiglas snake box at the same test distances. Judged fear was inversely proportional to distance. Thus, the fear-distance relation obeys Stevens' psychophysical power law with an exponent of -1.0. Examination of previous studies reporting such a finding revealed systematic departures from a power relation similar in form to the results of the perceived nearness control group, and to the expected outcome when category judgements of fear are made instead of magnitude estimates. The physiological measures varied in outcome. Measures of respiration showed no reliable effects. But heart rate and skin conductance decreased significantly for phobics as viewing distance increased.
Article
This paper analyzes the effect on performance when several active processes compete for limited processing resources. The principles discussed show that conclusions about the interactions among psychological processes must be made with caution, and some existing assumptions may be unwarranted. When two (or more) processes use the same resources at the same time, they may both interfere with one another, neither may interfere with the other, or one may interfere with a second without any interference from the second process to the first. The important principles are that a process can be limited in its performance either by limits in the amount of available processing resources (such as memory or processing effort) or by limits in the quality of the data available to it. Competition among processes can affect a resource-limited process, but not a data-limited one. If a process continually makes preliminary results available even before it has completed all its operations, then it is possible to compute performance-resource operating characteristics that show how processes interact. A number of experiments from the psychological literature are examined according to these processing principles, resulting in some new interpretations of interactions among competing psychological processes.
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Violation of the validity assumptions of repeated measures analysis of variance continues to be a problem in psychophysiology. Such violation results in positive bias for those tests involving the repeated measures factor(s), Recently it has been shown that the tests of simple interactions and multiple comparisons are even more vulnerable to bias (Boik. 1981; Mitzel & Games, 1981). The present paper offers a discussion of the validity assumptions for both overall and sub-effect tests and describes a multivariate approach which allows exact analysis of such designs. A modification of the univariate approach is also described. Validity concerns for both approaches are much less problematic than those of the traditional approach.
A new off-line procedure for dealing with ocular artifacts in ERP recording is described. The procedure (EMCP) uses EOG and EEG records for individual trials in an experimental session to estimate a propagation factor which describes the relationship between the EOG and EEG traces. The propagation factor is computed after stimulus-linked variability in both traces has been removed. Different propagation factors are computed for blinks and eye movements. Tests are presented which demonstrate the validity and reliability of the procedure. ERPs derived from trials corrected by EMCP are more similar to a 'true' ERP than are ERPs derived from either uncorrected or randomly corrected trials. The procedure also reduces the difference between ERPs which are based on trials with different degrees of EOG variance. Furthermore, variability at each time point, across trials, is reduced following correction. The propagation factor decreases from frontal to parietal electrodes, and is larger for saccades than blinks. It is more consistent within experimental sessions than between sessions. The major advantage of the procedure is that it permits retention of all trials in an ERP experiment, irrespective of ocular artifact. Thus, studies of populations characterized by a high degree of artifact, and those requiring eye movements as part of the experimental task, are made possible. Furthermore, there is no need to require subjects to restrict eye movement activity. In comparison to procedures suggested by others, EMCP also has the advantage that separate correction factors are computed for blinks and movements and that these factors are based on data from the experimental session itself rather than from a separate calibration session.
Article
Event-related potentials were studied while subjects performed physical and semantic discrimination tasks. Two negative components, NA and N2, were observed in both kinds of discriminations. The earlier component, NA, had a constant onset latency, but its peak latency varied as a function of stimulus complexity. N2 latency varied in relation to changes in the peak of NA. RT and P3 followed N2 by similar amounts of time across tasks. The NA and N2 components were interpreted as reflecting partially overlapping sequential stages of processing associated with pattern recognition and stimulus classification, respectively.
Article
Event-related potentials were recorded in response to visual stimuli in two different reaction tasks in which subjects were instructed to react immediately to the stimuli, or to delay their response for a 2 sec period, respectively. There were four types of stimuli: frequent-degraded, frequent-undegraded, infrequent-degraded and infrequent undegraded letters. In all conditions the stimuli evoked complex waveforms which comprised a frontal-negative wave (N400) and a late positive wave that reached a maximum amplitude on the parietal scalp site (P500). In addition, a slow positive wave with a central-parietal scalp distribution was found in the waveforms that were associated with the delayed reaction task. A principal components analysis of the waveforms yielded two major components: an early composite component that peaked around 400 msec, and a late component that became maximally active towards the end of the recording epoch. The scores of the earlier component were more negative (or less positive) and the scores of the late component were more positive when infrequent or degraded stimuli were presented, in comparison with frequent or undegraded stimuli.
Article
Visual selective attention improves our perception and performance by modifying sensory inputs at an early stage of processing. Spatial attention produces the most consistent early modulations of visual processing, which can be observed when attention is voluntarily allocated to locations. These effects of spatial attention are similar when attention is cued in a trial-by-trial, or sustained, fashion and are manifest as changes in the amplitudes, but not the latencies, of evoked neural activity recorded from the intact human scalp. This modulation of sensory processing first occurs within the extrastriate visual cortex and not within the striate or earlier subcortical processing stages. These relatively early spatial filters alter the inputs to higher stages of visual analysis that are responsible for feature extraction and ultimately object perception and recognition, and thus provide physiological evidence for early precategorical selection during visual attention. Moreover, the physiological evidence extends early selection theories by providing neurophysiologically precise information about the stages of visual processing affected by attention.
Article
In this review studies are evaluated that have utilized middle-latency and late components of the event-related potential (ERP) as indices of the activation of processing resources. Processing resources are defined as energetical systems that modulate cognitive processes or data processing systems. An essential element of the resource conceptualization is the idea that processing structures receive not only information input but also input from these energetical systems. It is argued further that the principal role of these systems is to provide the 'gain' for the data processing systems. In reviewing these studies special attention is paid to factors affecting the amplitude of ERP components in single- and dual-task studies, and to the inferences that can be drawn about which particular types of processing resources are reflected in these changes in component amplitudes. Finally, a working model is presented relating middle-latency and late ERP components to specific perceptual, perceptual-central and central processing resources.
Article
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide high-resolution measures of the time course of neuronal activity patterns associated with perceptual and cognitive processes. New techniques for ERP source analysis and comparisons with data from blood-flow neuroimaging studies enable improved localization of cortical activity during visual selective attention. ERP modulations during spatial attention point toward a mechanism of gain control over information flow in extrastriate visual cortical pathways, starting about 80 ms after stimulus onset. Paying attention to nonspatial features such as color, motion, or shape is manifested by qualitatively different ERP patterns in multiple cortical areas that begin with latencies of 100-150 ms. The processing of nonspatial features seems to be contingent upon the prior selection of location, consistent with early selection theories of attention and with the hypothesis that spatial attention is "special."
Article
The present study was designed to test differential hemispheric activation induced by emotional stimuli in the gamma band range (30-90 Hz). Subjects viewed slides with differing emotional content (from the International Affective Picture System). A significant valence by hemisphere interaction emerged in the gamma band from 30-50 Hz. Other bands, including alpha and beta, did not show such an interaction. Previous hypotheses suggested that the left hemisphere is more involved in positive affective processing as compared to the right hemisphere, while the latter dominates during negative emotions. Contrary to this expectation, the 30-50 Hz band showed relatively more power for negative valence over the left temporal region as compared to the right and a laterality shift towards the right hemisphere for positive valence. In addition, emotional processing enhanced gamma band power at right frontal electrodes regardless of the particular valence as compared to processing neutral pictures. The extended distribution of specific activity in the gamma band may be the signature of cell assemblies with members in limbic, temporal and frontal neocortical structures that differ in spatial distribution depending on the particular type of emotional processing.