Retinal Vascular Caliber, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Inflammation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (Impact Factor: 3.4). 07/2006; 47(6):2341-50. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-1539
Source: PubMed


To describe the relationship of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber with cardiovascular risk factors, including inflammatory biomarkers, in a multiethnic population of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese.
A cross-sectional study comprising 5979 persons aged 45 to 84 years residing in six U.S. communities. Retinal vascular caliber was measured and summarized from digital retinal photographs. Standard cardiovascular risk factors, including biomarkers of inflammation (e.g., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin [IL]-6, and plasma fibrinogen) and endothelial dysfunction (e.g., soluble intercellular adhesion molecule [sICAM]-1 [, plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1) were assessed.
Mean retinal arteriolar caliber was 144.1+/-14.4 (SD) microm, and venular caliber 214.0+/-22.2 microm. In models controlling for age, gender, race-ethnicity, and center, smaller retinal arteriolar caliber was related to higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension status, current alcohol consumption, greater body mass index, and higher levels of total homocysteine; larger retinal arteriolar caliber was related to diabetes, current cigarette smoking, and higher levels of plasma fibrinogen; and larger retinal venular caliber was related to diabetes, current cigarette smoking, greater body mass index and waist-hip ratio, higher levels of serum glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma LDL-cholesterol, hsCRP, plasma fibrinogen, IL6, sICAM-1, and PAI-1 and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. In multivariate analyses, blacks and Hispanics had larger retinal arteriolar and venular calibers than did whites and Chinese.
Retinal arteriolar and venular caliber is associated with a range of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, measures of obesity, and dyslipidemia. Venular caliber is also associated with systemic inflammation.

Download full-text


Available from: T-Y Wong, Feb 21, 2015
  • Source
    • "It is able to extract the necessary information, improving the one presented in (Chamoso et al., 2014). Some of those pathologies that can be directly related to this kind of information, as published by different studies (Leibowitz et al., 1979; Wong et al., 2006; Dahlöf et al., 1992; Wong et al., 2002; Wong et al., 2001; Wong et al., 2004), are: diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, retinal detachment, retinitis pigmentosa, blood vessel disorders , arteriosclerotic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, retinal vein obstruction, stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy , metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis or artery coronary. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A back of the eye examination allows performing a noninvasive evaluation of the retinal microcirculation, as well as of the vascular damage induced by multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this work is to study the existing needs to lead to the development and validation (reliability and validity) of a methodology able to extract all the information from the images of the back of the eye to solve the studied needs. Its development will subsequently allow analyzing its utility in various clinical environments. Currently there are different works that evaluate the thickness of the retinal veins and arteries, but they require either full intervention by an observer or no intervention at all, so when facing incorrect analysis (none of them achieves a 100 % accuracy in automatic analysis) erroneous results can be a serious problem when drawing conclusions. The proposed solution refers to the second group (automatic), but providing a supervisor the possibility to interfere with the analysis when any kind of error is produced, which ideally will not happen many times. Thanks to this the possible subjectivity that can be introduced by the supervisor does not affect the final result of the analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
  • Source
    • "CI confidence interval, CRAE central retinal arteriolar equivalent, CRVE central retinal venular equivalent, MTT maximal treadmill test, SMTT submaximal treadmill test, CC control condition. a Available in 16 (94 %) and 15 (100 %) seniors and young adults, respectively response to exhaustive exercise may also affect venular diameters (Wong et al. 2006a; Klein et al. 2006 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alterations of retinal vessel diameters are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate changes in retinal vessel diameters in response to acute dynamic exercise of different intensities and whether these changes are age dependent. Seventeen healthy seniors (median (IQR) age 68 (65, 69) years) and 15 healthy young adults (median (IQR) age 26 (25, 28) years) first performed a maximal treadmill test (MTT) followed by a submaximal treadmill test (SMTT) and a resting control condition in randomised order. Central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and central retinal venular (CRVE) diameter equivalents were measured before as well as 5 (t5) and 40 (t40) minutes after exercise cessation using a static retinal vessel analyser. Both exercise intensities induced a significant dilatation in CRAE and CRVE at t5 compared to the control condition (P < 0.001). At t40, the mean increase in CRAE and CRVE was greater for MTT compared to that for SMTT (CRAE 1.7 μm (95 % confidence interval (CI) −0.1, 3.6; P = 0.061); CRVE 2.2 μm (95 % CI 0.4, 4.1; P = 0.019)). However, the estimated difference at t5 between seniors and young adults in their response to MTT compared to SMTT was 5.3 μm (95 % CI 2.0, 8.5; P = 0.002) for CRAE and 4.1 μm (95 % CI −0.4, 8.6; P = 0.076) for CRVE. Wider arteries and veins after maximal versus submaximal exercise for seniors compared to young adults suggest that myogenic vasoconstriction in response to exhaustive exercise may be reduced in seniors. Age-related loss of vascular reactivity has clinical implications since the arteriolar vasoconstriction protects the retinal capillary bed from intraluminal pressure peaks. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-014-9650-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Age
  • Source
    • "Inflammation is recognised as a key pathogenic process in HIV infection, and also in HIV-related accelerated ageing (Deeks, 2009). Larger retinal venular calibre is associated with systemic inflammatory markers such as CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6 and smoking, independently of age (Ikram et al., 2004; Klein et al., 2006; Wong et al., 2006). This suggests that the heightened inflammatory processes observed in HIV infection are consistent with a biologically aged phenotype as manifest by shorter TL. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of age-related morbidity despite antiretroviral treatment (ART). Several anatomic and functional ophthalmological parameters are associated with increasing chronological age. These may, therefore, potentially serve as biomarkers of ageing. We investigated associations between ocular parameters (lens density, retinal vessel calibre, corneal endothelium and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness) and two 'cellular' biomarkers of ageing (leukocyte telomere length and CDKN2A expression) and with frailty in a cross-sectional study of 216 HIV-infected individuals. All ocular parameters, telomere length and frailty were associated with chronological age, whereas CDKN2A expression was not. Retinal venular calibre and lens density were associated with shorter telomere length (p-trend=0.04, and 0.08, respectively), whereas CDKN2A expression and frailty status were not associated with ocular parameters. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess the integration of retinal vascular calibre and lens density with systemic markers to develop an overall index of biological ageing in HIV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Mechanisms of ageing and development
Show more