High Pesticide Exposure Events Among Farmers and Spouses Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study
We completed a nested case-control analysis of factors associated with reporting a high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) by pesticide applicators and spouses during the five years since enrollment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Cases and controls were identified from the 16,415 private pesticide applicators and 14,045 spouses with completed five-year follow-up interviews as of October 2000. Among the applicators, 306 cases with at least one HPEE in the five years since enrollment and 612 controls, randomly selected from those without a reported HPEE, were identified for analysis. Among the spouses, 63 cases were identified and 126 controls were selected. Risk for a new HPEE was increased among applicators reporting at enrollment ever having an HPEE with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI: 2.7, 5.3). Compared to applicators who applied pesticides fewer than 5 days per year, the ORs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.2) for 6 to 10 days per year to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.6) for more than 20 application days per year. The incidence of HPEE among Iowa applicators was much greater (8.8/1000 applicators) than among North Carolina applicators (2.0/1000). Spouses reported fewer HPEEs compared to applicators (2/1000 spouses). Overall, the observed risk factors for new HPEEs among applicators are similar to risk factors observed in previous cross-sectional analyses of HPEE history. Further, only 13% of applicators and 22% of spouses with symptoms resulting from HPEE sought medical care, suggesting that pesticide poisoning surveillance data may seriously underreport the frequency of such events.
Available from: Safa Hojeij
- "ely on this approach , estimating regional pesticide use by the types of crops grown in an area and its hectarage [ Mills et al . , 2005 ; Dodge et al . , 2007 ; Moisan et al . , 2011 ] . A number of studies ( n ¼ 11 , 24% ) attempted to quantify incident rates based on exposure - time estimates , 3 of which studied pesticide - related illnesses [ Bell et al . , 2006 ; Calvert et al . , 2008 ; Kasner et al . , 2012 ] and another 3 that studied injuries among farmworkers [ McCurdy et al . , 2003 ; Stallones and Beseler , 2003 ; Marcum et al . , 2011 ] ."
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Farmwork is one of the most hazardous occupations for men and women. Research suggests sex/gender shapes hazardous workplace exposures and outcomes for farmworkers. This paper reviews the occupational health literature on farmworkers, assessing how gender is treated and interpreted in exposure-outcome studies.Methods
The paper evaluates peer-reviewed articles on men and women farmworkers' health published between 2000 and 2012 in PubMed or SCOPUS. Articles were identified and analyzed for approaches toward sampling, data analysis, and use of exposure indicators in relation to sex/gender.Results18% of articles reported on and interpreted sex/gender differences in health outcomes and exposures. Sex/gender dynamics often shaped health outcomes, yet adequate data was not collected on established sex/gender risk factors relating to study outcomes.Conclusion
Research can better incorporate sex/gender analysis into design, analytical and interpretive approaches to better explore its mediation of health outcomes in light of emerging calls to mainstream gender research. Am. J. Ind. Med. 9999:1–24, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Available from: Pierre Lebailly
- "The main predicted factors were previous experience of such events , state , younger age ( , 45 years old ) , bigger farm size ( . 320 ha ) and . 20 application days per year and some hygienic behavior . Interestingly , PPE was not significantly associated with a lower fre - quency of these events ( Bell et al . , 2006 ) . Work is cur - rently in progress in different epidemiological studies like those conducted by the National Cancer Institute ( AHS ) in order to validate a way to measure the level of pesticide exposure through questionnaires . How - ever , at present , no consensus exists about the most ap - propriate variables and how to use them t"
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ABSTRACT: Identification of parameters associated with measured pesticide exposure of farmers in open-field farming in France.
Open-field volunteer farmers were monitored during 1 day use of the herbicide isoproturon on wheat and/or barley during the winters 2001 (n = 9) or 2002 (n = 38) under usual conditions of work. The whole-body method was used to assess potential dermal exposure using coveralls and cotton gloves. Mixing-loading and application tasks were assessed separately with 12 different body areas (hands, arms, forearms, legs, chest, back and thighs) measured for each task (mixing-loading and application separately).
Daily potential dermal exposure to isoproturon ranged from 2.0 to 567.8 mg (median = 57.8 mg) in 47 farmers. Exposure during mixing-loading tasks accounted for 13.9-98.1% of the total exposure (median = 74.8%). For mixing-loading, hands and forearms were the most contaminated body areas accounting for an average of 64 and 14%, respectively. For application, hands were also the most contaminated part of the body, accounting for an average of 57%, and thighs, forearms and chest or back were in the same range as one another, 3-10%. No correlations were observed between potential dermal exposure and area sprayed, duration of spraying or size of the farm. However, a significant relationship was observed between exposure and the type of spraying equipment, with a rear-mounted sprayer leading to a higher exposure level than trailer sprayers. Technical problems, particularly the unplugging of nozzles, and the numbers mixing-loading or application tasks performed were also significantly related with higher levels of exposure.
The main results obtained in this study on a large number of observation days are as follows: (i) the mixing-loading step was the most contaminated task in open field accounting for two-thirds of the total daily exposure, (ii) no positive correlation was noted with classically used pesticide-related parameters: farm area, area sprayed and duration of application and (iii) relevant parameters were the type of spraying equipment, the type and number of tasks and technical problems or cases of overflowing.
Available from: Rebbecca Lilley
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