Berardi P, Meyyappan M, Riabowol KTA novel transcriptional inhibitory element differentially regulates the cyclin D1 gene in senescent cells. J Biol Chem 278: 7510-7519
Senescent human diploid fibroblasts are unable to initiate DNA synthesis following mitogenic stimulation and adopt a unique gene expression profile distinct from young or quiescent cells. In this study, a novel transcriptional regulatory element was identified in the 5'-untranslated region of the cyclin D1 gene. We show that this element differentially suppresses cyclin D1 expression in young versus senescent fibroblasts. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed abundant complexes forming with young cell nuclear extracts compared with senescent cell nuclear extracts. Binding was maintained in young quiescent cells, showing that loss of this activity was specific to senescent cells and not an effect of cell cycle arrest. Site-directed mutagenesis within this cyclin D1 inhibitory element (DIE) abolished binding activity and selectively increased cyclin D1 promoter activity in young but not in senescent cells. Sequences with homology to the DIE were found in the 5'-untranslated regions of other genes known to be up-regulated during cellular aging, suggesting that protein(s) that bind the DIE might be responsible for the coordinate increase in transcription of many genes during cellular aging. This study provides evidence that loss of transcriptional repressor activity contributes to the up-regulation of cyclin D1, and possibly additional age-regulated genes, during cellular senescence.