Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer

Department of Public Health, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.84). 07/2006; 94(11):1738-44. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603173
Source: PubMed


There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years between 1985 and 2001 and born in New York State excluding New York City between 1978 and 2001. Controls (n=9686) were selected from the birth cohorts for the same years. Moderate increased risk of both ALL and AML was associated with birth weight 3500 g or more. For ALL, however, there was evidence of effect modification with birth weight and maternal prepregnancy weight. High birth weight was associated with ALL only when the mother was not overweight while heavier maternal weight was associated with ALL only when the infant was not high birth weight. Increased pregnancy-related weight gain was associated with ALL. For AML, birth weight under 3000 g and higher prepregnancy weight were both associated with increased risk. These findings suggest childhood leukaemia may be related to factors influencing abnormal fetal growth patterns.

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    • "This marginal increase in cancer risk was re-affirmed in a recent long-term review of the same population (Finnströ m et al., 2011). While both studies suggest an increased risk of cancer in ART children, the authors cautioned that the risk observed is probably not attributable to the ART procedure itself, but rather a result of many other factors such as the recognized increased risk of cancer among children with a history of prematurity (McLaughlin et al., 2006) or asphyxia (Spector et al., 2005). Further studies on the growing ART population are necessary to determine any associated cancer risks. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a large population of children conceived via assisted reproductive technology (ART), which continues to increase worldwide, without a clear understanding of associated long-term outcomes. ART children are more likely to be the result of multiple pregnancies, and thus to be born prematurely or low birthweight. There is growing evidence that ART children are phenotypically and biochemically different from naturally conceived children, but the mechanism(s) leading to these changes have not been elucidated. There is a possible increased risk of rare imprinted gene disorders in these children. However, it remains unclear whether more subtle changes in DNA methylation occur commonly, leading to differences in gene expression and phenotype in ART children. Although an increased risk of cancer among ART children has been reported, the role of ART in the development of cancer has not been demonstrated. Further research and ongoing surveillance of ART children is essential to better understand the possible effects of ART on the long-term health of this population.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Human Reproduction
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    • "In a population-based cohort, a positive linear relation was reported between birth weight, and childhood ALL and AML (Paltiel et al, 2004; Mclaughlin et al, 2006), more marked in AML among infants (hazard ratio ¼ 8.14, 95% CI: 1.8 – 38.9 at age 0 – 1 years), being particularly strong among female infants (P ¼ 0.001) (Paltiel et al, 2004). Among the variables included in this study, including maternal origin, socioeconomic status, birth weight of sibling higher than 3500 g and family size, only birth weight retained borderline significance (Paltiel et al, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we compared the birth weight distribution among 201 infant leukaemia (IL) cases with that of 440 noncancer controls enrolled in Brazil in 1999-2005. Compared with the general population and the stratum 2500-2999 g as reference, IL cases weighing 3000-3999 g presented an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.03-2.76), and those of 4000 g or more, an OR of 2.28 (95% CI: 1.08-4.75), P trend<0.01. Using hospital-based controls, the OR for 4000 g or more, compared to 2500-2999 g, was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.02-1.43) after adjusting for confounders (gender, income, maternal age, pesticide and hormonal exposure during pregnancy). The results suggest that high birth weight is associated with increased risk of IL.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · British Journal of Cancer
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    • "The relation between advanced maternal age (defined as ≥35 in most studies) and leukemia has been examined in many studies with inconsistent findings. Studies reviewed by Little published prior to 1998 and those since for leukemia overall or ALL also support a slight positive association with a mean risk estimate of around 1.2 for mothers who were ≥35 years at the time of birth compared to younger mothers [4,13,15-25]. Most recent studies also generally support an increased risk for AML with a mean risk estimate of approximately 1.5 for mothers who were at least 35 at the time of birth vs. younger mothers [13,15,18,19,22-24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer. With the exception of Down syndrome, prenatal radiation exposure, and higher birth weight, particularly for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), few risk factors have been firmly established. Translocations present in neonatal blood spots and the young age peak of diagnosis suggest that early-life factors are involved in childhood leukemia etiology. We investigated the association between birth characteristics and childhood leukemia through linkage of the Minnesota birth and cancer registries using a case-cohort study design. Cases included 560 children with ALL and 87 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnoses from 28 days to 14 years. The comparison group was comprised of 8,750 individuals selected through random sampling of the birth cohort from 1976-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression specific for case-cohort studies was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Male sex (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.16-1.70), white race (HR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.13-4.76), and maternal birth interval > or = 3 years (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.70) increased ALL risk, while maternal age increased AML risk (HR = 1.21/5 year age increase, 95% CI 1.0-1.47). Higher birth weights (>3798 grams) (HRALL = 1.46, 1.08-1.98; HRAML = 1.97, 95% CI 1.07-3.65), and one minute Apgar scores < or = 7 (HRALL = 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.61; HRAML = 1.62, 95% CI 1.01-2.60) increased risk for both types of leukemia. Sex was not a significant modifier of the association between ALL and other covariates, with the exception of maternal education. We confirmed known risk factors for ALL: male sex, high birth weight, and white race. We have also provided data that supports an increased risk for AML following higher birth weights, and demonstrated an association with low Apgar scores.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · BMC Pediatrics
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