Tracheotomy in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates: Indications and Outcomes
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0241, USA. The Laryngoscope
(Impact Factor: 2.14).
06/2006; 116(6):928-33. DOI: 10.1097/01.MLG.0000214897.08822.14
To review incidence of, indications for, and outcomes of tracheotomy in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.
Retrospective review in tertiary care hospital.
Eighteen VLBW (<1,500 g) infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia undergoing tracheotomy in the neonatal intensive care unit between October 1997 and June 2002 were studied. Controls consisted of 36 VLBW infants undergoing intubation without tracheotomy, two per study infant, matched by gestational age and weight. Outcome measures included duration and number of intubation events, time to decannulation, complications, comorbidities, length of stay, and speech, language, and swallowing measures.
Infants undergoing tracheotomy had an average duration of intubation of 128.8 days with a median number of 11.5 intubation events, both significantly greater than those of controls. Percentage of those with laryngotracheal stenosis was 44% of study infants had laryngotracheal stenosis compared to 1.6% in all intubated VLBW infants. The tracheotomy group had a significantly higher incidence of gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary hypertension, and gastrostomy tube placement. The overall tracheotomy-related complication rate was 38.9%. Three were lost to follow-up, and five deaths occurred, two possibly tracheotomy-related. Six of ten were decannulated by an average time of 3.8 years, two of six after laryngotracheal reconstruction. Four of ten remained cannulated for a variety of reasons. Disorders of speech, language, and swallowing were common.
When considering tracheotomy in VLBW infants, the total number of intubation events should be monitored as well as the total duration of intubation. The relatively high incidence of laryngotracheal stenosis argues for earlier endoscopy and possibly earlier tracheotomy in infants with developing stenoses.
Available from: Steffen Dommerich
- "Caudal and latero-caudal to the planned tracheostoma vessels such as the brachiocephalic trunk or the common carotid artery may be injured more easily than in adults during preparation , . Nonetheless, tracheotomy is a secure procedure with an acceptable complication rate even in very small and immature children , , . Among others, the following possible complications were described: wound healing disturbances , vascular arrosions , skin and mediastinal emphysema, pneumothorax, deshiscence of the mucocutaneous anastomosis, stoma infection, tracheitis, stoma shrinking, granulations, tracheal stenosis, and tracheomalacia , . "
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ABSTRACT: Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.
Available from: Robert J Graham
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ABSTRACT: The objectives are to describe health outcomes and hospital resource use of children after tracheotomy and identify patient characteristics that correlate with outcomes and hospital resource use.
A retrospective analysis of 917 children aged 0 to 18 years undergoing tracheotomy from 36 children's hospitals in 2002 with follow-up through 2007. Children were identified from ICD-9-CM tracheotomy procedure codes. Comorbid conditions (neurologic impairment [NI], chronic lung disease, upper airway anomaly, prematurity, and trauma) were identified with ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. Patient characteristics were compared with in-hospital mortality, decannulation, and hospital resource use by using generalized estimating equations.
Forty-eight percent of children were <or=6 months old at tracheotomy placement. Chronic lung disease (56%), NI (48%), and upper airway anomaly (47%) were the most common underlying comorbid conditions. During hospitalization for tracheotomy placement, children with an upper airway anomaly experienced less mortality (3.3% vs 11.7%; P < .001) than children without an upper airway anomaly. Five years after tracheotomy, children with NI experienced greater mortality (8.8% vs 3.5%; P <or= .01), less decannulation (5.0% vs 11.0%; P <or= .01), and more total number of days in the hospital (mean [SE]: 39.5 [4.0] vs 25.6 [2.6] days; P <or= .01) than children without NI. These findings remained significant (P < .01) in multivariate analysis after controlling for other significant cofactors.
Children with upper airway anomaly experienced less mortality, and children with NI experienced higher mortality rates and greater hospital resource use after tracheotomy. Additional research is needed to explore additional factors that may influence health outcomes in children with tracheotomy.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing admissions to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) demand early discharge from the units. Our hospital aims to early discharge patients who meet the following requirements: they are able to regulate body temperature; neither apnea nor bradycardia is observed; and bodyweight increases with lactation. We studied the real state of this strategy.
We looked at postmenstrual age, bodyweight, complication at the time of discharge and the readmission rate in 609 patients with gestational age of less than 34 weeks, who were discharged from our NICU between January 2000 and March 2008.
The postmenstrual age and bodyweight at discharge decreased with the increase of gestational age. This tendency was stronger in cases with gestational age of less than 26 weeks. A comparison was made between two patient groups with a gestational age of less than 26 weeks and with the age of 26 weeks or longer. Many patients with a gestational age of less than 26 weeks suffered frequently from complications and were on home oxygen therapy. The readmission rates within 3 months and 1 year of NICU discharge were 10.4% and 26.9% in patients with gestational age between 22 and 25 weeks, respectively, while those rates were 2.8% and 7.4% in patients with gestational weeks of 26 to 34, respectively.
The postmenstrual age and bodyweight at NICU discharge decreased in inverse proportion to gestational age, especially less than 26 weeks. Our requirements for early discharge were verified by the readmission rate in this investigation.
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